Ecodesign for power drive systems, motor starters, power electronics & their driven applications - Part 2: Energy efficiency indicators for power drive systems and motor starters

This part of EN 50598 specifies the Energy Efficiency indicators for power drive systems, motor starters, power electronics (e.g. Complete Drive Modules, CDM) used in motor driven applications in the power range of 0,12 kW up to 1000 kW.
This part of EN 50598 specifies the methodology for determination of losses of the complete motor system, the power drive system (PDS) and the CDM. It defines IE and IES-classes, their limit values and provides test procedures for the classification and the overall losses of the motor system.
Furthermore, this part of EN 50598 proposes a methodology for characterization of the best energy efficiency solution to be implemented, depending on the motor driven system architecture, the speed/load profile and the duty profiles of the application.
The structure of EN 50598 contains the following:
•   the losses of a standardized reference PDS (RPDS) and the mathematical model of their calculation are given;
•   requirements for determining the losses of a real PDS are given, and be classified in comparison to the RPDS;
•   requirements for the type testing and the content of user documentation;
•   some illustrations of losses in an overall system as an example are given in Annexes;
•   information about system and drive topologies are given in Annexes.
Specific data on losses and IE/IES-classes are given for low voltage (100 V up and equal to 1 000 V) single axis AC/AC power drive systems with three phase induction motors. Geared motors shall be treated as standard motors.
This part of EN 50598 does not specify the methodology for eco-design for environmental impact. This is defined in Part 3 of EN 50598.

Ökodesign für Antriebssysteme, Motorstarter, Leistungselektronik und deren angetriebene Einrichtungen -- Teil 2: Indikatoren für die Energieeffizienz von Antriebssystemen und Motorstartern

Dieser Teil von EN 50598 legt die Anforderungen an Indikatoren für die Energieeffizienz von Antriebs-systemen, Motorstartern, Leistungselektronik (z. B. vollständige Antriebsmodule, CDM) für Motorantriebs-anwendungen im Leistungsbereich von 0,12 kW bis 1 000 kW fest.
Dieser Teil von EN 50598 legt die Methodik zur Bestimmung der Verluste des vollständigen Motorsystems, des Antriebssystems (PDS) und des CDM fest. Es werden IE- und IES-Klassen definiert sowie Grenzwerte und Prüfverfahren für die Klassifizierung oder die Gesamtverluste des Motorsystems angegeben.
In diesem Teil von EN 50598 wird außerdem eine Methodik zur Charakterisierung der zu realisierenden energieeffizientesten Lösung vorgeschlagen, welche sich nach der Architektur des Motorantriebssystems, dem Drehzahl/Last-Profil und den Belastungsprofilen der Anwendung richtet.
Die Struktur von EN 50598 umfasst:
–   Angabe der Verluste eines genormten Referenz-PDS (RPDS) und des mathematischen Modells für dessen Berechnung;
–   Angabe der Anforderungen an die Bestimmung der Verluste eines realen PDS und die Klassifizierung im Vergleich zum RPDS;
–   Anforderungen an die Typprüfung und den Inhalt der Dokumentation für den Anwender;
–   einige Darstellungen der Verluste in einem Gesamtsystem, die beispielhaft in den Anhängen angegeben werden;
–   Angaben zum System und den Antriebstopologien, die in den Anhängen vorgestellt werden.
Die spezifischen Daten zu Verlusten und IE/IES-Klassen werden für einachsige Wechselstrom/Wechsel¬strom-Antriebssysteme für Niederspannung (100 V bis 1 000 V) mit Drehstrommotoren angegeben. Getriebe-motoren müssen wie Standardmotoren behandelt werden.
In diesem Teil von EN 50598 wird keine Methodik für das Ökodesign für Umwelteinwirkungen festgelegt. Dies wird im Teil 3 dieser Normenreihe festgelegt.

Ecoconception des entraînements électriques de puissance, des démarreurs de moteur, de l'électronique de puissance et de leurs applications entraînées -- Partie 2: Indicateurs d'efficacité énergétique pour les entraînements électriques de puissance et les démarreurs de moteur

Cette partie de la norme qui porte la référence EN 50598-2 pour l'écoconception spécifie les indicateurs d'efficacité énergétique pour les entraînements électriques de puissance, les démarreurs de moteur, l'électronique de puissance (par exemple, Modules d'entraînement complet, CDM) qu'on utilise dans les applications entraînées par moteur dans la plage de puissance de 0,12 kW à 1 000 kW.
Cette partie de la norme spécifie la méthodologie pour déterminer les pertes du système complet de moteur, l'entraînement électrique de puissance (PDS) et le module d'entraînement complet (CDM). Elle définit les classes IE et IES et établit leurs valeurs limites, ainsi que les procédures d'essai pour les classer et les pertes totales du système de moteur.
Cette partie de la norme propose en outre une méthodologie pour caractériser la meilleure solution d'efficacité énergétique à mettre en place, en fonction de l'architecture du système entraîné par moteur, le profil vitesse/charge et les profils de service de l'application.
L'exposé de la norme a la structure suivante:
•   on indique les pertes d'un PDS (RPDS) normalisé de référence et leur méthode de calcul
•   les exigences pour déterminer les pertes d'un vrai PDS sont données et sont classées par rapport au RPDS
•   les exigences sont données pour les essais de type et le contenu de la documentation utilisateur
•   les annexes présentent des exemples de cas de pertes dans un système global
•   les informations sur les topologies de systèmes et d'entraînement sont données dans les annexes
Des données spécifiques sur les pertes et les classes IE/IES sont données pour les entraînements électriques de puissance CA/CA à axe unique et à basse tension (de 100 V à 1 000 V) avec des moteurs à induction triphasés. Les moteurs à train d'engrenages doivent être traités comme des moteurs normaux.
Cette partie de la norme ne spécifie pas la méthodologie pour l'écoconception concernant l'effet sur l'environnement. La partie 3 de cette série de normes la définit.

Okoljsko primerna zasnova motornih pogonskih sistemov, motornih zaganjalnikov, močnostne elektronike in njihove aplikacije, ki jih ti poganjajo - 2. del: Kazalniki energijske učinkovitosti motorno gnanih sistemov in motornih zaganjalnikov

Ta del standarda EN 50598 navaja kazalnike energijske učinkovitosti motorno gnanih sistemov, motornih zaganjalnikov in močnostne elektronike (npr. celoviti pogonski moduli, CMD), ki se uporabljajo za motorni pogon v razponu moči od 0,12 kW do 1000 kW.
Ta del standarda EN 50598 navaja metodologijo za določanje izgub celovitih motornih sistemov, motorno gnanih sistemov (PDS) in CMD. Opredeljuje razrede IE in IES in njihove mejne vrednosti ter navaja preskusne postopke za klasifikacijo in skupne izgube motornih sistemov.
Poleg tega ta del standarda EN 50598 predlaga metodologijo za karakterizacijo najboljše rešitve za energijsko učinkovitost, ki bo vpeljana, odvisno od arhitekture motorno gnanega sistema, hitrostnega/nalagalnega profila in dolžnostnih profilov aplikacije.
Struktura standarda EN 50598 vsebuje naslednje:
• podane so izgube standardiziranega referenčnega PDS-ja (RPDS) in matematični model za njihov izračun;
• podane so zahteve za določanje izgub realnega PDS-ja in za njihovo klasifikacijo v primerjavi z RPDS-jem;
• zahteve za tipsko preskušanje in vsebino uporabniške dokumentacije;
• v Dodatkih so podani primeri izgub v celotnem sistemu;
• v Dodatkih so podane informacije o tipologijah sistemov in motorjev.
Specifični podatki o izgubah in razredih IE/IES so podani za nizkonapetostne (100 V do in vključno z 1000 V) enoosne motorno gnane sisteme na izmenični tok s trifaznimi indukcijskimi motorji. Motorji s prestavami bodo obravnavani kot standardni motorji.
Ta del EN 50598 ne določa metodologije za okoljsko primerno zasnovo za vpliv na okolje. Ta je opredeljena v 3. delu standarda EN 50598.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jan-2014
Publication Date
13-Aug-2015
Withdrawal Date
07-Jan-2020
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
07-Jan-2020
Due Date
30-Jan-2020
Completion Date
08-Jan-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 50598-2:2015
01-september-2015
2NROMVNRSULPHUQD]DVQRYDPRWRUQLKSRJRQVNLKVLVWHPRYPRWRUQLK

]DJDQMDOQLNRYPRþQRVWQHHOHNWURQLNHLQQMLKRYHDSOLNDFLMHNLMLKWLSRJDQMDMR

GHO.D]DOQLNLHQHUJLMVNHXþLQNRYLWRVWLPRWRUQRJQDQLKVLVWHPRYLQPRWRUQLK
]DJDQMDOQLNRY

Ecodesign for power drive systems, motor starters, power electronics & their driven

applications - Part 2: Energy efficiency indicators for power drive systems and motor

starters
Ökodesign für Antriebssysteme, Motorstarter, Leistungselektronik und deren
angetriebene Einrichtungen -- Teil 2: Indikatoren für die Energieeffizienz von
Antriebssystemen und Motorstartern

Ecoconception des entraînements électriques de puissance, des démarreurs de moteur,

de l'électronique de puissance et de leurs applications entraînées -- Partie 2: Indicateurs

d'efficacité énergétique pour les entraînements électriques de puissance et les
démarreurs de moteur
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 50598-2:2014
ICS:
13.020.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi z Other standards related to
varstvom okolja environmental protection
29.160.30 Motorji Motors
31.020 Elektronske komponente na Electronic components in
splošno general
SIST EN 50598-2:2015 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 50598-2:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 50598-2:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 50598-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2014
ICS 29.160.30
English Version
Ecodesign for power drive systems, motor starters, power
electronics & their driven applications - Part 2: Energy efficiency
indicators for power drive systems and motor starters

Ecoconception des entraînements électriques de Ökodesign für Antriebssysteme, Motorstarter,

puissance, des démarreurs de moteur, de l'électronique de Leistungselektronik und deren angetriebene Einrichtungen -

puissance et de leurs applications entraînées - Partie 2: Teil 2: Indikatoren für die Energieeffizienz von

Indicateurs d'efficacité énergétique pour les entraînements Antriebssystemen und Motorstartern

électriques de puissance (PDS) et les démarreurs de
moteur

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2014-11-17. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 50598-2:2014 E
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SIST EN 50598-2:2015
EN 50598-2:2014 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword...................................................................................................................................................8

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................. 12

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations .............................................................................. 13

3.1 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................... 13

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations .................................................................................................. 16

4 Concept of the reference PDS (RPDS), the reference CDM (RCDM) and the reference

motor (RM) ..................................................................................................................................... 22

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 22

4.2 Predefinition of the speed versus torque loss points of a RPDS, a RCDM, a RM and

the associated power losses ................................................................................................ 23

4.3 Combining the PDS losses with the driven equipment ........................................................ 25

4.4 IE Classes of a line fed motor (IE1 up to IE9) ...................................................................... 27

4.5 IE Classes of a converter fed motor (IE1 up to IE9) ............................................................ 27

4.6 IE Classes of a converter (complete drive module, CDM) (IE0 up to IE9) .......................... 27

4.7 IES Classes of a PDS (IES0 up to IES9) ............................................................................. 28

4.8 Consistency of IE, IES classes ............................................................................................ 28

4.9 Determination of the IES class of a resulting PDS by application of "reference" and

"test" devices and guidance for the manufacturers ............................................................. 29

5 Mathematical model of the CDM, motor and PDS ......................................................................... 30

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 30

5.2 CDM ..................................................................................................................................... 31

5.3 Reference motor (RM) ......................................................................................................... 43

5.4 Reference PDS (RPDS) ....................................................................................................... 49

5.5 PDS losses for regenerative operation ................................................................................ 52

6 Power losses of motor starters ....................................................................................................... 52

7 Limits for IE and IES classes.......................................................................................................... 53

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 53

7.2 CDM ..................................................................................................................................... 53

7.3 Motor .................................................................................................................................... 55

7.4 PDS ...................................................................................................................................... 56

8 Requirements for the user’s documentation .................................................................................. 58

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 58

8.2 Information for selection ....................................................................................................... 60

8.3 Information for determination of energy efficiency classes .................................................. 60

8.4 Information on the determination of additional energy losses and part load

conditions. ............................................................................................................................ 60

9 Type testing .................................................................................................................................... 61

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SIST EN 50598-2:2015
EN 50598-2:2014 (E)

9.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 61

9.2 Type testing of CDM for IE classification ............................................................................. 61

9.3 Type testing of PDS for IES classification ........................................................................... 62

9.4 Determination procedures for CDM and PDS losses in part load operation ....................... 63

9.5 Power loss calculations for CDM ......................................................................................... 63

9.6 Power loss calculations for PDS .......................................................................................... 63

9.7 Input-output measurement method ...................................................................................... 64

9.8 Calorimetric measurement of CDM losses .......................................................................... 67

9.9 Testing conditions for CDM testing ...................................................................................... 68

9.10 Testing conditions for PDS testing ....................................................................................... 69

Annex A (informative) Losses of the RCDM, RM and RPDS ............................................................... 70

Annex B (informative) Description of the elements of an extended product using PDS with

regard to their impact on losses ..................................................................................................... 74

B.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 74

B.2 Losses in the mains cabling and feeding section ................................................................ 74

B.3 Input filter ............................................................................................................................. 76

B.3.1 High frequency EMI filter ........................................................................................ 76

B.3.2 Low frequency line harmonics filter ........................................................................ 76

B.4 Input converter ..................................................................................................................... 77

B.4.1 Diode rectifier .......................................................................................................... 77

B.4.2 Active infeed converter ........................................................................................... 77

B.4.3 Power factor of the input converter ......................................................................... 79

B.5 DC link .................................................................................................................................. 80

B.6 Output inverter ..................................................................................................................... 81

B.7 Output filter and motor cables .............................................................................................. 82

B.7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 82

B.7.2 Sine wave filters ...................................................................................................... 83

B.7.3 dV/dt filters and motor chokes ................................................................................ 84

B.7.4 High frequency EMI motor filters ............................................................................ 84

B.7.5 Motor cables ........................................................................................................... 84

B.8 Motor .................................................................................................................................... 84

B.9 Mechanical load ................................................................................................................... 84

B.10 Control and standby losses .................................................................................................. 84

B.11 Cooling losses ...................................................................................................................... 85

B.11.1 Primary cooling losses ............................................................................................ 85

B.11.2 Secondary cooling losses ....................................................................................... 85

Annex C (informative) Converter topology ........................................................................................... 86

C.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 86

C.2 Voltage source output inverter topologies different from those mathematically

described in 5.2.2 ................................................................................................................. 86

C.3 Voltage source input converter topologies different from those mathematically

described in 5.2.3 ................................................................................................................. 86

C.4 CDM topologies different from voltage source type ............................................................. 86

Annex D (informative) Basic Torque and Power vs. speed profiles, operating points over time ......... 88

D.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 88

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SIST EN 50598-2:2015
EN 50598-2:2014 (E)

D.2 Basic Torque and Power vs. Speed Profile ......................................................................... 88

D.3 Operating points over time ................................................................................................... 89

D.4 Definition of the operating points over time ......................................................................... 89

D.4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 89

D.4.2 Calculation of the energy consumption based on the duty profile .......................... 90

D.4.3 Example of loss calculation for different operating points over time ...................... 91

Annex E (informative) Typical standardized servo application............................................................. 94

E.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 94

E.2 Cycle .................................................................................................................................... 95

E.3 Calculation of motor losses .................................................................................................. 98

E.4 Losses of the servo CDM ................................................................................................... 100

E.5 Losses of the servo PDS ................................................................................................... 100

Annex F (informative) Additional information to 5.3 ........................................................................... 101

Annex G (informative) Application example for loss calculations of a CDM and a PDS .................... 120

G.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 120

G.2 CDM loss determination ..................................................................................................... 120

G.2.1 General ................................................................................................................. 120

G.2.2 Loss determination by maximum losses of neighbouring loss points .................. 121

G.2.3 Loss determination by two-dimensional interpolation of losses of

neighbouring loss points ....................................................................................... 121

G.2.4 Loss determination by the mathematical model described in 5.2......................... 124

G.3 Loss determination of the motor ........................................................................................ 127

G.4 Loss determination of the PDS .......................................................................................... 128

Annex H (informative) Uncertainty of loss determination method ...................................................... 129

H.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 129

H.2 Calculation of uncertainty at randomly occurring errors .................................................... 129

H.3 Typical uncertainties for loss determination methods ........................................................ 129

Annex I (informative) Calorimetric measurement for CDM losses ..................................................... 131

I.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 131

I.2 Calorimeter with two chambers with air as a cooling medium ........................................... 131

I.3 Calorimeter with one chamber with air as a cooling medium ............................................ 132

I.4 Calorimeter with liquid as a cooling medium ..................................................................... 133

Annex J (informative) Flowchart of determination of IE/IES classification for CDM/PDS and

loss determination for part load operating points ......................................................................... 134

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... 136

Figure 1 — Illustration of controversial requirements for the energy related product (ErP)

standardization ...................................................................................................................................... 10

Figure 2 — Illustration of the extended product with included motor system ........................................ 14

Figure 3 — Illustration of the operating points for speed versus torque to determine the relative

power losses of the power drive system (RPDS) .................................................................................. 23

Figure 4 — Illustration of the operating points for speed versus torque to determine the relative

power losses of the reference motor (RM) ............................................................................................ 24

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SIST EN 50598-2:2015
EN 50598-2:2014 (E)

Figure 5 — Illustration of the operating points of the RCDM depending on the relative torque-

producing current and the relative motor stator frequency, to determine the losses of reference

complete drive module (RCDM) ............................................................................................................ 24

Figure 6 — Illustration of the workflow to determine the energy efficiency index (EEI) of an

extended product ................................................................................................................................... 25

Figure 7 — Illustration how to combine different data sources to determine the energy

efficiency index (EEI) of an extended product ....................................................................................... 26

Figure 8 — Three points of relative losses and shaded area of interest for the pump

manufactures while defining the EEI (Energy Efficiency Index) of a pump unit .................................... 26

Figure 9 — Metrical relation of IE, IES classes ..................................................................................... 29

Figure 10 — Guidance for CDM and Motor manufacturers for the usage of "test" and

"reference" devices to determine the IE-/IES classes ........................................................................... 30

Figure 11 — Illustration of the CDM and the test load .......................................................................... 31

Figure 12 — Relative losses p of the 9,95kVA RCDM .................................................................. 42

L,CDM

Figure 13 — Example of the relative power losses of PDS as function of speed and torque ............... 51

Figure 14 — Example of the relative power losses versus switching frequency .................................. 52

Figure 15 — Example of CDM with resistor for dissipating generated power ....................................... 52

Figure 16 — Illustration of IE classes for a CDM .................................................................................. 55

Figure 17 — Illustration of IES classes for a PDS ................................................................................. 56

Figure 18 — Power loss of CDM is a sum of determined loss value and an uncertainty of the

used determination method. .................................................................................................................. 62

Figure 19 — Input-output measurement setup for CDM losses. ........................................................... 64

Figure 20 — Input-output measurement setup for PDS losses. ............................................................ 65

Figure 21 — Order in which measurements shall be made for CDM: (1) to (8). ................................... 66

Figure 22 — Order in which measurements shall be made for PDS: (1) to (8). ................................... 67

Figure 23 — Calorimetric measurement setup for determining CDM losses. ....................................... 68

Figure B.1 — Overview of the extended product and energy flow ........................................................ 74

Figure B.2 — Equivalent circuit of the mains and mains cabling .......................................................... 75

Figure B.3 — Illustration of a single phase line harmonics filter ........................................................... 76

Figure B.4 — PDS with a diode rectifier input converter ....................................................................... 77

Figure B.5 — PDS with a standard AIC input converter ....................................................................... 78

Figure B.6 — PDS with a F3E-AIC input converter without line choke ................................................. 78

Figure B.7 — Typical waveform of a diode rectifier line current ............................................................ 79

Figure B.8 — DC link circuit .................................................................................................................. 80

Figure B.9 — DC link circuit with additional DC chokes ........................................................................ 81

Figure B.10 — Output inverter of the PDS ............................................................................................ 82

Figure B.11 — Motor cable and optional output filter of the PDS ......................................................... 82

Figure B.12 — Typical waveform of inverter output voltage and motor voltage when using a

sine wave output filter ............................................................................................................................ 83

Figure D.1 – Typical basic torque and power vs. speed profiles........................................................... 89

Figure D.2 — Example of operating points over time ........................................................................... 90

Figure E.1 — Sample of a typical torque - speed characteristic ........................................................... 94

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SIST EN 50598-2:2015
EN 50598-2:2014 (E)

Figure E.2 — Speed and torque for a medium dynamic application cycle (sample) ............................ 96

Figure E.3 — Speed and torque for a high dynamic application cycle (sample) .................................. 97

Figure E.4 — Graphic chart of power and losses for medium dynamic application .............................. 99

Figure F.1 — Relative losses versus relative torque, converter operation (parameter speed) ........... 102

Figure F.2 — Relative losses versus relative speed, converter operation (parameter torque) ........... 102

Figure F.3 — Determination of total losses at a running point ............................................................ 103

Figure G.1 — Segments of operating points ....................................................................................... 120

Figure G.2 — Two-dimensional interpolation ...................................................................................... 122

Figure H.1 — Typical standard uncertainties with normal distribution for different CDM and

PDS power loss determination methods ............................................................................................. 130

Figure I.1 — One-step calorimetric measurement setup for comparative loss measurement

(CDM and heating resistor are loaded simultaneously) ...................................................................... 132

Figure I.2 — Two-step calorimetric measurement setup for comparative loss measurement

(CDM and heating resistor are not loaded simultaneously) ................................................................ 133

Figure I.3 — Liquid cooled calorimetric measurement setup for CDM loss measurement ................. 133

Figure J.1 — Determination of IE classification for CDM and loss determination for part load

operating points ................................................................................................................................... 134

Figure J.2 — Determination of IES classification for PDS and loss determination for part load

operating points ................................................................................................................................... 135

Table 1 — Mandates of the European Commission given to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI and

how they are contributed by these standard series parts ...................................................................... 11

Table 2 — Minimum test load currents at different points of operation ................................................. 32

Table 3 — Test load displacement factor between fundamental output current and

fundamental output voltage at different points of operation .................................................................. 32

Table 4 — Reference parameters for Formula (6) ................................................................................ 34

Table 5 — Variables for Formula (6) ..................................................................................................... 34

Table 6 — Reference parameters for Formula (7) ................................................................................ 35

Table 7 — Reference parameters for Formula (8) ................................................................................ 36

Table 8 — Reference parameters for Formula (9) ................................................................................ 36

Table 9 — Reference parameters for Formula (11) .............................................................................. 38

Table 10 — Variables for Formula (11) ................................................................................................. 38

Table 11 — Reference parameters for Formula (12) ............................................................................ 39

Table 12 — Reference parameters for Formula (13) ............................................................................ 40

Table 13 — Reference parameters for Formula (14) ............................................................................ 40

Table 14 — Reference parameter for Formula (17) .............................................................................. 41

Table 15 — Reference parameter for Formula (15) .............................................................................. 41

Table 16 — Relative losses of the 400V/9,95kVA reference
...

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