Residential solid fuel burning appliances - Emission test methods

This European Technical Specification is applicable to residential heating and cooking appliances burning solid fuels and details methods for the measurements of NOx, and OGC/total hydrocarbons emissions and particulate and dust produced by these appliances and is to be used in conjunction with the test methods given in the European Standards covering these appliances.
This European Technical Specification covers the NOx, and OGC/total hydrocarbons emission test methods, however it does not cover input data and detailed calculation procedures.
For the particulate and dust emissions test methods, the national documents of those countries that have a test method are reference methods which are summarised in Informative Annex A, whilst those countries that do not have a specific test method, could choose one of these methods listed in the annex.

Häusliche Feuerstätten für feste Brennstoffe - Emissionsprüfverfahren

Die vorliegende Europäische Technische Spezifikation ist anwendbar auf Festbrennstoff beschickte Heiz- und
Kochgeräte und beschreibt detailliert die Messmethoden für NOx und OGC/Gesamtkohlenwasserstoffemission
sowie durch diese Geräte hervorgerufene Partikel und Staub und ist in Verbindung mit den
entsprechenden, von den Europäischen Normen vorgegebenen Prüfverfahren anzuwenden.
Diese Europäische Technische Spezifikation umfasst die Prüfverfahren betreffend NOx und
OGC/Gesamtkohlenwasserstoffemission. Sie umfasst dennoch keine Eingabedaten und keine detaillierten
Berechnungsverfahren.
Für die Prüfverfahren von Partikel- und Staubemissionen sind die nationalen Dokumente derjenigen Länder,
die eine Prüfmethode besitzen, Referenzmethoden. Diese sind im Anhang A zusammengefasst, während
diejenigen Länder, die keine besondere Prüfmethode haben, zwischen den im Anhang aufgeführten
Methoden wählen können.

Appareils résidentiels à combustibles solides - Méthodes d'essai des émissions

La présente Spécification Technique européenne est applicable aux appareils résidentiels de
chauffage et de cuisson utilisant des combustibles solides et décrit de manière détaillée les méthodes
de mesurage des émissions de NOx et de Composés Organiques Gazeux/hydrocarbures totaux ainsi
que des particules et des poussières produites par ces appareils. Elle doit être utilisée conjointement
aux méthodes d'essai indiquées dans les Normes européennes couvrant ces appareils.
La présente Spécification Technique européenne couvre les méthodes d'essai relatives aux
émissions de NOx et de Composés Organiques Gazeux/hydrocarbures totaux ; néanmoins, elle ne
couvre pas les données d'entrée et les méthodes de calcul détaillées.
En ce qui concerne les méthodes d'essai relatives aux émissions de particules et de poussières, les
publications nationales des pays disposant d'une méthode d'essai constituent les méthodes de
référence qui sont résumées à l'Annexe A informative, alors que les pays ne disposant pas d'une
méthode d'essai spécifique peuvent choisir l'une des méthodes énumérées à l'annexe.

Stanovanjski aparati na trdna goriva - Emisijska preskusna metoda

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Feb-2009
Publication Date
16-Nov-2009
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Nov-2009
Due Date
14-Jan-2010
Completion Date
17-Nov-2009

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15883:2009
01-december-2009
Stanovanjski aparati na trdna goriva - Emisijska preskusna metoda
Residential solid fuel burning appliances - Emission test methods
Häusliche Feuerstätten für feste Brennstoffe - Emissionsprüfverfahren
Appareils résidentiels à combustibles solides - Méthodes d'essai des émissions
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 15883:2009
ICS:
97.100.30 Grelniki na trdo gorivo Solid fuel heaters
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15883:2009 en,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15883:2009
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15883:2009
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 15883
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
July 2009
ICS 97.100.30
English Version
Residential solid fuel burning appliances - Emission test
methods

Appareils résidentiels à combustibles solides - Méthodes Häusliche Feuerstätten für feste Brennstoffe -

d'essai des émissions Emissionsprüfverfahren

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 28 March 2009 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 15883:2009: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ................................................................................................................................................. 3

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope.......................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Definitions .................................................................................................................................. 5

4 Emission test methods: measurements of total hydrocarbons (THC) ................................ 6

4.1 General procedure .................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Equipment .................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Calculation of organic gaseous compounds (OGC) ............................................................. 7

4.4 Uncertainty of measurement ................................................................................................... 8

5 Emissions test methods: measurement of nitrogen oxides................................................. 8

5.1 General procedure .................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Measuring principles of analysers .......................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 Chemiluminescence method ................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) method ............................................................................... 10

5.2.3 Other methods ......................................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Calculation method ................................................................................................................. 11

Annex A (informative) ............................................................................................................................ 12

A.1 Austrian and German particle test methods ........................................................................ 12

A.1.1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 12

A.1.2 Dust measuring equipment .................................................................................................... 12

A.2 Norwegian particle test methods .......................................................................................... 13

A.2.1 The test methods for particle emissions .............................................................................. 14

A.3 UK particle test methods ........................................................................................................ 16

A.3.1 Background to legislation and basis of testing ................................................................... 16

A.3.2 Measurement of smoke emission from Fuels: summary of the BS 3841 Test

Procedure ................................................................................................................................ 17

A.3.3 Measurement of Smoke Emission from a Smoke Reducing Appliance ............................ 18

A.3.4 Brief summary of BS 3841 smoke measurement apparatus .............................................. 19

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... 25

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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TS 15883:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 295

“Residential solid fuel burning appliances”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)
Introduction

All the standards of CEN/TC 295 deal with the field of residential heating and cooking appliances

burning solid fuels covering the standardization of appliance construction, safety and commissioning

requirements and performance requirements (e.g. heat outputs, efficiency and emissions) together

with supporting test methods.

This European Technical Specification (TS) deals with methods for the measurements of NOx, and

OGC/total hydrocarbons emissions and particulate and dust produced by the above mentioned

heating and cooking appliances.

For the nitrogen oxides this European Technical Specification describes the ‘Chemiluminescence

method’ and the ‘Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) method’. Besides these two techniques, there are

also the ‘Non-dispersive ultraviolet (NDUV) method’ and the ‘Non-extractive (in situ) method’ which

are described in detail in ISO 10849:1996.

For the total hydrocarbon contents the method is described but the TS does not give any information

regarding separate constituents due to the measurements being expressed as equivalents of a

reference substance. In this method the measurement is continuous.

Finally, for the measurements of particulate and dust, this European Technical Specification reports,

in the Annex, three official methods that coincide respectively with the combined Austrian and

German method, the Norwegian method and the UK method currently in force in these countries.

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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)
1 Scope

This European Technical Specification is applicable to residential heating and cooking appliances

burning solid fuels and details methods for the measurements of NO , and OGC/total hydrocarbons

emissions and particulate and dust produced by these appliances and is to be used in conjunction

with the test methods given in the European Standards covering these appliances.

This European Technical Specification covers the NO , and OGC/total hydrocarbons emission test

methods, however it does not cover input data and detailed calculation procedures.

For the particulate and dust emissions test methods, the national documents of those countries that

have a test method are reference methods which are summarised in Informative Annex A, whilst

those countries that do not have a specific test method, could choose one of these methods listed in

the annex.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12815:2001, Residential cookers fired by solid fuel — Requirements and test methods

EN 13229:2001, Inset appliances including open fires fired by solid fuels — Requirements and test

methods
EN 13240:2001, Roomheaters fired by solid fuel - Requirements and test methods

ISO 10849:1996, Stationary source emissions — Determination of the mass concentration of nitrogen

oxides — Performance characteristics of automated measuring systems
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of this Technical Specification, the following definitions apply.

3.1.1
absorption
incorporation of a substance into the body of a liquid or solid
3.1.2
calibration

set of operations that establish the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring

instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference

material, and the corresponding values realized by standards
3.1.3
dew point
temperature at, or below which, the condensation from the gas phase will occur
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3.1.4
dust

particles of various shape, structure and density scattered in the gaseous phase of the flue gas

3.1.5
gas sample

portion of gaseous material on which observations can be made in order to provide data on the

gaseous material from which it has been removed

NOTE A sample is taken as being representative of the gaseous material if the same observations are

supplied on any other samples taken from this gaseous material to furnish the same data within preset intervals.

3.1.6
line

gas-tight system of tubing equipped with accessories such a valves, manometers, etc. enabling gas to

be transported from one point to another
3.1.7
measured value

estimated value of the air quality characteristics derived from an output signal; this usually involves

calculations related to the calibration process and conversion to required quantities

3.1.8
nominal heat output

declared heat output of an appliance achieved under defined test conditions when burning the

specified test fuel in accordance with the European standard relevant to that appliance

3.1.9
reference material

material or substance one or more of whose property values is sufficiently homogeneous and well

established to be used for the calibration of an apparatus, the assessment of measurement method,

or for assigning values to materials
3.1.10
resolution

smallest difference between indications, for an identifiable component, of a recording or display

device that can be meaningfully distinguished
3.1.11
sample line

line provided to remove a representative sample of a gas to be analysed and to transport it from the

sample point to the analyzer
4 Emission test methods: measurements of total hydrocarbons (THC)

NOTE These methods are intended to determine the total hydrocarbon content in the flue gases from

appliances burning solid fuels. The method uses an instrument equipped with a flame ionisation detector (FID).

The measurement is continuous. The result obtained is expressed as equivalents of a reference substance,

usually methane or propane. The measurement concerns only the total hydrocarbon content and does not give

any information of separate constituents. The sampling point should be as described for the measurement

section detailed in the test methods appropriate to the appliance as given in the European Standard covering the

requirement and testing of these residential heating and cooking appliances burning solid fuels.

4.1 General procedure

The measurement is extractive and continuous, i.e. a sample of test gas flow is continuously extracted

and is analyzed in a free-standing instrument. The sampling point shall be as described in the test

methods detailed in the European Standard appropriate to the appliance being tested. If there is a

damper or any other device which favours the lack of homogeneity in the flow, the measuring point

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shall be moved to a position where the flow is homogenous. The measuring system shall be heated to

195 °C.
4.2 Equipment
The measuring system consists of the following components.

a) Instrument with flame ionisation detector, FID. Measuring range, usually between 0 -10 and 0 -

100 000 ppm. The instrument shall be equipped with a heated filter.

b) Gas probe with a cleaning filter for particulates. The probe shall consist of a suitable material,

such as corrosion resistant steel. The filter shall be heated so that condensation is avoided. This

requires a temperature in the filter of 195 °C.

c) Sample line. The sample line shall be heated to the same temperature as the filter. The inner line

shall be of PTFE and be exchangeable. The sample line shall be as short as possible.

4.3 Calculation of organic gaseous compounds (OGC)

4.3.1 This method describes how to calculate the content of organic gaseous compounds

expressed in mg/Nm (dry) (at normal condition ) and based upon an oxygen content of 13 % in the

exit flue gases. The calculation of total hydrocarbons (THC) content is based on a continuous

measurement as described in 4.1.
4.3.2 Calculation assumptions

In order to undertake the calculations given in 4.3.3 the following data shall be available:

a) total hydrocarbon content in methane or propane equivalents, mean value;
b) O , CO , CO content, mean values;
2,m 2,m m
c) carbon, hydrogen and moisture content of the test fuel (C, H and W );

d) carbon content of the residue crossing the grate referred to the quantity of the test fuel fired (C ).

4.3.3 Calculations of organic gaseous compounds

If the OGC content is required in methane equivalents it is determined as follows:

()THC ×12 ()21 −13 G
(1)
C = × ×
OGC
22,36 ()21 −O G
2,m D

Alternatively, if the OGC content is required in propane equivalents it is determined as follows:

()THC × 36 ()21 −13 G
(2)
C = × ×
OGC
21,93 ()21 − O G
2,m D
where

C is the calculated content of organic gaseous compound expressed in mg/Nm dry flue gas

OGC
at 13 % O ;
Referred to 273 K and 1013 mbar.
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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)

THC is the measured total hydrocarbon content in the wet flue gas either in ppm methane

equivalents or propane equivalents;

O is the measured content of oxygen in dry flue gas expressed in % as mean value;

2,m
G is the actual specific wet flue gas volume expressed in Nm /kg fuel;
G is the actual specific dry flue gas volume expressed in Nm /kg fuel.
The actual specific flue gas volume in wet condition is to be calculated as:
()C - C ()9 H +W
r (3)
G = +1,24 ×
()0,536 ×()CO +CO 100
2,m m
where
G is the specific flue gas volume in wet conditions in Nm /kg fuel;
C is the carbon content of the test fuel in % of mass;

C is the carbon content of the residue referred to the quantity of the test fuel fired in % of

mass;
CO is the measured mean content of carbon dioxide in the dry flue gas in %;
2,m
CO is the measured mean content of carbon monoxide in the dry flue gas in %;
H is the hydrogen content of the test fuel in % of mass;
W is the moisture content of the test fuel in % of mass.
The actual specific dry flue gas volume, GD, is calculated as:
()C -C
(4)
G =
0,536×()C +CO
2,m
where
G is the specific flue gas volume in wet conditions in Nm /kg fuel;
C is the carbon content of the test fuel in % of mass;

C is the carbon content of the residue referred to the quantity of the test fuel fired in %

of mass;
CO is the measured mean content of carbon dioxide in the dry flue gas in %;
2,m
CO is the measured mean content of carbon monoxide in the dry flue gas in %;
4.4 Uncertainty of measurement

The uncertainty of the measurement for total hydrocarbon is maximum ± 10 % of the measured value.

The total uncertainty of the calculated OGC value, according to this instruction, is ± 15 % of the

calculated value.
5 Emissions test methods: measurement of nitrogen oxides

NOTE The methods detailed in 5.2.1 to 5.2.3 are intended to determine the content of nitrogen oxides (NO)

in flue gases from small combustion appliances. The methods are continuous. The result obtained is expressed

as equivalents of nitrogen dioxide (NO ). The sampling point should be as described for the measurement

section detailed in the test methods as appropriate to the appliance as given in the European Standard covering

the requirement and testing of these residential heating and cooking appliances burning solid fuels.

5.1 General procedure

The measurement is extractive and continuous, i.e. the test gas flow is extracted from the measuring

point by the suction pyrometer and is analysed by an arrangement of a complete measuring system

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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)

as shown in Figure 1A or Figure 1B. This system is suitable for use with all the analysers described in

5.2. The sampling point and the suction pyrometer shall be as described in the test methods detailed

in the European Standard appropriate to the appliance being tested.
4 8
10 11
3 3
Figure 1a — NO measuring device
12 12
1 4
3 3 11
Figure 1b — NO/NO measuring device
Key
1 Gas sampling 9 Flow meter
2 Particulate filter 10 NO-analyser
3 Heating 11 Recorder

4 Sampling line (heated if necessary) 12 Inlet for zero and calibration gas (preferably in front of

the filter) to check the complete system
5 Sample cooler with condensate separator 13 Bypass for excess gas
6 Sample pump 14 inlet for zero and span gas to check the analyser
7 Filter 15 Converter
8 Needle valve 16 NO/NOx analyser
Figures 1A and 1B — Examples of the installation of the measuring devices
5.2 Measuring principles of analysers

NOTE The examples detailed in 5.2.1 to 5.2.3 describe typical principles found in existing analysers.

5.2.1 Chemiluminescence method

If NO reacts with ozone (O ), NO is formed. Part of the NO is in a photochemical reaction state.

3 2 2

When returning to the basic state, these NO molecules can radiate light in the wavelength range of

590 nm to 3 000 nm. The intensity of this light depends on the NO content and is influenced by the

pressure and presence of other gases.
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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)

The content of NO in the gas sample is determined by the measurement of the intensity of the

radiated light.

Interference due to carbon dioxide (CO ) in the sample gas is possible, particularly in the presence of

water vapour, due to the quenching of the chemiluminscence. The extent of the quenching depends

on the CO and H O concentrations and on the type of analyser used. Any necessary corrections shall

2 2

be made to the analyser output either by reference to correction curves supplied by the manufacturers

or by a calibration of the gases which contain approximately the same concentration of CO as the

sample gas.

The measuring range of chemiluminescence analysers used for emission measurements extends

3 3
from 10 mg/m to 20 000 mg/m .

Figure 2 shows an example for the basic arrangement: there are atmospheric pressure and low

pressure analysers depending on the pressure in the reaction chamber. Some analysers have built-in

NO /NO converters and owing to their structure, give signals for NO, NOx, and NO either

2 2
simultaneously or in sequence.
2 4
3 3
7 9
Key
1 Sample inlet 9 Electronics
2 Sample pump 10 Oxygen inlet
3 Magnetic valve 11 Pressure regulator
4 NO /NO converter 12 Ozone regulator
5 Flow regulator 13 Ozone inlet
6 Pressure regulator 14 Signal
7 Reaction chamber 15 Bypass
8 Photomultiplier
Figure 2 — Example for an arrangement of a chemiluminescence analyser
5.2.2 Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) method

The most common application of the IR method are analysers working according to the NDIR method

(see Figure 3). Gases, which consist of molecules of different atoms, absorb light of the characteristic

wavelength in the infrared spectral region. With the NDIR method, spectral analysis of the IR radiation

is omitted and the total absorption of the NO molecule at v = 1.876 cm (= 5,3 µm) is used for the

max
measurement.
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The radiation emitted from the IR source is divided into two beams and then modulated: one beam

passes through the measuring cell, the other through the reference cell containing an IR inactive gas,

usually nitrogen. If the sample gas contains NO, some of the IR energy is absorbed and the difference

in IR energy reaching the detector is proportional to the amount of NO present. The detector is

designed to be sensitive only to the NO-specific wavelengths. A special arrangement of the NDIR

method is the gas filter correlation method. Interference is possible, particularly with water vapour.

5.2.3 Other methods

Beside the two methods mentioned in 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 above, there are the Non-dispersive ultraviolet

(NDUV) method and the Non-extractive (in situ) method. These methods are described in detail by

ISO 10849:1996.
5.3 Calculation method

The measured mean NO content (NO ) shall be converted to a NO -content value based on a

avg 2

standardised oxygen content of 13 % in the flue gas according to the following equation:

21 −O
2s tandardizes
(5)
NO = NO × ×d
2content avg NO
(21 −O2avg)
where
NO is the NO2 content calculated to the standard oxygen content of 13 %;
2content
NO is measured mean content of NO in the dry flue gas in %;
avg
3 3
d density of NO at 13 % oxygen content in kg/m [⇒ 2,05 kg/m ];
NO2 2 n n
O is the standardised oxygen content which is taken as 13%;
2standardised
O is the measured mean content of oxygen in the dry flue gas in %.
2avg
Key
1 Light source 5 Reference cell
2 Chopper motor 6 Detector
3 Chopper wheel 7 Electronics
4 Measuring cell 8 Signal
Figure 3 — Example of a typical NDIR analyser
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CEN/TS 15883:2009 (E)
Annex A
(informative)

NOTE This Informative Annex contains three different methods that coincide respectively with the combined

Austrian and German method, the Norwegian method and the UK method currently called up in National

Legislation in these countries. For a full description of a particular method reference may have to be made to the

relevant National Standard.
A.1 Austrian and German particle test methods
A.1.1 General

Particulate emissions are measured during type testing according to EN 13240:2001 A.4.7,

EN 13229:2001 A.4.7 and EN 12815:2001 A.4.9 (nominal heat output test) parallel to CO

measurement.

The measurement position for particle measurement is arranged upstream of measurement positions

of CO, CO , NO and C H . Measurement of particulate emissions have to be started 3 minutes after

2 x n m
the fuel load is added.
The duration of measurement is 30 minutes.
A.1.2 Dust measuring equipment

The measuring arrangement is illustrated in Figure A.1. The sampling tube with a diameter of 8 mm

widens out to 9,74 mm at the specimen inlet.

The sampling equipment shall be designed so that in a sampling period of 30 minutes a waste gas

volume of 270 ± 13,5 litres relative to normal conditions (273 K, 1013 hPa) is extracted. During the

sampling, it shall be possible to control the volume flow by means of a volume flow measurement.

The sampling probes shall be designed for flue gas temperatures of 325 °C and a waste gas speed of

approx. 4 m/s at 1013 Pa under the conditions described above.

NOTE In the interests of simplifying the measuring method, individual measurement of the flow velocity and

subsequent matching of the inlet cross-section are dispensed with. In order to carry out the measurement, the

sampling probe is centred in the exhaust-gas cross-section, using a threaded cone.

The attachment for the filter sleeve shall be designed so that the filter cannot be damaged during

handling and structurally attached to exclude the possibility of dust entering the pump unit. The

measuring filter is inserted in a filter holder at the end of the sampling probe.

The sampling system shall be designed so that a controlled probe heating system excludes the

possibility of falling below the dew point in front of or in the filter sleeve. Here, the temperature in the

sleeve area shall be maintained at a constant 70 °C, under sampling conditions.

In the event of the waste gas inlet temperature exceeding a value of 225 °C, a cooling apparatus shall

be provided to ensure that a temperature of 70 °C is maintained in the sleeve area. The design of the

cooler shall not have any negative influences on the result of the measurement.

Suitable measures shall be employed to protect the pump and the volume flow control or limiting

device against the action of dust and accumulated condensate.
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Taking the complete measuring procedure into account, in the concentration range of the dust limit

value of 0,15 g/m , the measuring system shall be able to guarantee that the results of the

measurement will have a resolution of ± 0,03 g/m .

The mechanical stability of the dust collecting sleeve shall be retained even at temperatures of 160 °C

and the collecting sleeves shall not suffer mass losses greater than 2 mg.
Key
1 measurement section
2 gas sampling probe and line for particles measurement (heat-insulated)
3 water separator
4 silica gel filter
5 superfine filter
6 pump
7 gas flow meter
A CO2 and CO measurement
B Flue gas temperature ta measurement
C NOx measurement
D CnHm measurement
E Flue Draught measurement
F Particles filter (off-line gravimetric measurement)
Figure A.1 — Measurement section (including NOx, CnHm, Particles measurement)
A.2 Norwegian particle test methods

NOTE The Norwegian Pollution Authority (SFT) has done several investigations in different areas in Norway

of the air pollutions. They have found that wood stoves are one of the greatest contributors to air pollutions.

Numbers from SSB (Statistisk sentralbyrå) says that 65 % of the particles (PM10) are emissions from wood

combustion in Norway. SFT has given the National Office of Building Technology and Administration the authority

to give requirements for particle emission from appliances fired by solid fuel. The Norwegian legislation for

particle emission is given in the Building Regulations. The legislation is connected to the standard NS 3059

Enclosed wood heaters — Smoke emission — Requirements.

NS 3059 tells how to calculate the reported particle emission based upon 4 runs in accordance to

NS 3058, part 1 and 2. NS 3058-1 Enclosed wood heaters — Smoke emission — Part 1: Test facility

and heating pattern gives deta
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS prCEN/TS 15883:2009
01-januar-2009
Stanovanjski aparati na trdna goriva - Emisijska preskusna metoda
Residential solid fuel burning appliances - Emission test methods
Häusliche Feuerstätten für feste Brennstoffe - Emissionsprüfverfahren
Appareils résidentiels à combustibles solides - Méthodes d'essai des émissions
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prCEN/TS 15883
ICS:
97.100.30 Grelniki na trdo gorivo Solid fuel heaters
kSIST-TS prCEN/TS 15883:2009 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS prCEN/TS 15883:2009
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kSIST-TS prCEN/TS 15883:2009
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FINAL DRAFT
prCEN/TS 15883
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
November 2008
ICS 97.100.30
English Version
Residential solid fuel burning appliances - Emission test
methods

Appareils résidentiels à combustibles solides - Méthodes Häusliche Feuerstätten für feste Brennstoffe -

d'essai des émissions Emissionsprüfverfahren

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Technical Committee Approval. It has been drawn up by the Technical

Committee CEN/TC 295.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice

and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prCEN/TS 15883:2008: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. 3

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Definitions.............................................................................................................................................. 5

4 Emission test methods: measurements of total hydrocarbons (THC)............................................ 6

4.1 General procedure................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Equipment.............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Calculation of organic gaseous compounds (OGC) ......................................................................... 7

4.4 Uncertainty of measurement ............................................................................................................... 8

5 Emissions test methods: measurement of nitrogen oxides............................................................. 8

5.1 General procedure................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Measuring principles of analysers ...................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 Chemiluminescence method............................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) method ........................................................................................... 10

5.2.3 Other methods..................................................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Calculation method............................................................................................................................. 11

A.1 Austrian and German particle test methods .................................................................................... 12

A.1.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 12

A.1.2 Dust measuring equipment................................................................................................................ 12

A.2 Norwegian particle test methods ...................................................................................................... 13

A.2.1 The test methods for particle emissions.......................................................................................... 14

A.3 UK particle test methods.................................................................................................................... 17

A.3.1 Background to legislation and basis of testing............................................................................... 17

A.3.2 Measurement of smoke emission from Fuels: summary of the BS 3841 Test

Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 18

A.3.3 Measurement of Smoke Emission from a Smoke Reducing Appliance........................................ 19

A.3.4 Brief summary of BS 3841 smoke measurement apparatus .......................................................... 20

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 26

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Foreword

This document (prCEN/TS 15883:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 295

“Residential solid fuel burning appliances”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This document is currently submitted to the Technical Committee Approval.
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Introduction

All the standards of CEN/TC 295 deal with the field of residential heating and cooking appliances

burning solid fuels covering the standardization of appliance construction, safety and commissioning

requirements and performance requirements (e.g. heat outputs, efficiency and emissions) together

with supporting test methods.

This European Technical Specification (TS) deals with methods for the measurements of NOx, and

OGC/total hydrocarbons emissions and particulate and dust produced by the above mentioned

heating and cooking appliances.

For the nitrogen oxides this European Technical Specification describes the ‘Chemiluminescence

method’ and the ‘Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) method’. Besides these two techniques, there are

also the ‘Non-dispersive ultraviolet (NDUV) method’ and the ‘Non-extractive (in situ) method’ which

are described in detail in ISO 10849:1996.

For the total hydrocarbon contents the method is described but the TS does not give any information

regarding separate constituents due to the measurements being expressed as equivalents of a

reference substance. In this method the measurement is continuous.

Finally, for the measurements of particulate and dust, this European Technical Specification reports,

in the Annex, three official methods that coincide respectively with the combined Austrian and

German method, the Norwegian method and the UK method currently in force in these countries.

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1 Scope

This European Technical Specification is applicable to residential heating and cooking appliances

burning solid fuels and details methods for the measurements of NO , and OGC/total hydrocarbons

emissions and particulate and dust produced by these appliances and is to be used in conjunction

with the test methods given in the European Standards covering these appliances.

This European Technical Specification covers the NO , and OGC/total hydrocarbons emission test

methods, however it does not cover input data and detailed calculation procedures.

For the particulate and dust emissions test methods, the national documents of those countries that

have a test method are reference methods which are summarised in Informative Annex A, whilst

those countries that do not have a specific test method, could choose one of these methods listed in

the annex.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12815:2001, Residential cookers fired by solid fuel — Requirements and test methods

EN 13229:2001, Inset appliances including open fires fired by solid fuels — Requirements and test

methods

ISO 10849:1996, Stationary source emissions — Determination of the mass concentration of nitrogen

oxides — Performance characteristics of automated measuring systems
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of this Technical Specification, the following definitions apply.

3.1.1
absorption
incorporation of a substance into the body of a liquid or solid
3.1.2
calibration

set of operations that establish the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring

instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference

material, and the corresponding values realized by standards
3.1.3
dew point
temperature at, or below which, the condensation from the gas phase will occur
3.1.4
dust

particles of various shape, structure and density scattered in the gaseous phase of the flue gas

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3.1.5
gas sample

portion of gaseous material on which observations can be made in order to provide data on the

gaseous material from which it has been removed

NOTE A sample is taken as being representative of the gaseous material if the same observations are

supplied on any other samples taken from this gaseous material to furnish the same data within preset intervals.

3.1.6
line

gas-tight system of tubing equipped with accessories such a valves, manometers, etc. enabling gas to

be transported from one point to another
3.1.7
measured value

estimated value of the air quality characteristics derived from an output signal; this usually involves

calculations related to the calibration process and conversion to required quantities

3.1.8
nominal heat output

declared heat output of an appliance achieved under defined test conditions when burning the

specified test fuel in accordance with the European standard relevant to that appliance

3.1.9
reference material

material or substance one or more of whose property values is sufficiently homogeneous and well

established to be used for the calibration of an apparatus, the assessment of measurement method,

or for assigning values to materials
3.1.10
resolution

smallest difference between indications, for an identifiable component, of a recording or display

device that can be meaningfully distinguished
3.1.11
sample line

line provided to remove a representative sample of a gas to be analysed and to transport it from the

sample point to the analyzer
4 Emission test methods: measurements of total hydrocarbons (THC)

NOTE These methods are intended to determine the total hydrocarbon content in the flue gases from

appliances burning solid fuels. The method uses an instrument equipped with a flame ionisation detector (FID).

The measurement is continuous. The result obtained is expressed as equivalents of a reference substance,

usually methane or propane. The measurement concerns only the total hydrocarbon content and does not give

any information of separate constituents. The sampling point should be as described for the measurement

section detailed in the test methods appropriate to the appliance as given in the European Standard covering the

requirement and testing of these residential heating and cooking appliances burning solid fuels.

4.1 General procedure

The measurement is extractive and continuous, i.e. a sample of test gas flow is continuously extracted

and is analyzed in a free-standing instrument. The sampling point shall be as described in the test

methods detailed in the European Standard appropriate to the appliance being tested. If there is a

damper or any other device which favours the lack of homogeneity in the flow, the measuring point

shall be moved to a position where the flow is homogenous. The measuring system shall be heated to

195 °C.
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4.2 Equipment
The measuring system consists of the following components.

 Instrument with flame ionisation detector, FID. Measuring range, usually between 0 -10 and 0 -

100 000 ppm. The instrument shall be equipped with a heated filter.

 Gas probe with a cleaning filter for particulates. The probe shall consist of a suitable material,

such as corrosion resistant steel. The filter shall be heated so that condensation is avoided. This

requires a temperature in the filter of 195 °C.

 Sample line. The sample line shall be heated to the same temperature as the filter. The inner line

shall be of PTFE and be exchangeable. The sample line shall be as short as possible.

4.3 Calculation of organic gaseous compounds (OGC)

4.3.1 This method describes how to calculate the content of organic gaseous compounds

expressed in mg/Nm (dry) (at normal condition ) and based upon an oxygen content of 13 % in the

exit flue gases. The calculation of total hydrocarbons (THC) content is based on a continuous

measurement as described in 4.1.
4.3.2 Calculation assumptions

In order to undertake the calculations given in 4.3.3 the following data shall be available:

 total hydrocarbon content in methane or propane equivalents, mean value;
 O , CO , CO content, mean values;
2,m 2,m m
 carbon, hydrogen and moisture content of the test fuel (C, H and W );

 carbon content of the residue crossing the grate referred to the quantity of the test fuel fired (C ).

4.3.3 Calculations of organic gaseous compounds

If the OGC content is required in methane equivalents it is determined as follows:

()THC × 12 ()21 − 13
(1)
C = × ×
OGC
22,36 ()21 −O G
2,m D

Alternatively, if the OGC content is required in propane equivalents it is determined as follows:

()THC × 36 ()21 − 13 G
(2)
C = × ×
OGC
21,93 ()21 − O G
2,m D
where

C is the calculated content of organic gaseous compound expressed in mg/Nm dry flue gas

OGC
at 13 % O ;

THC is the measured total hydrocarbon content in the wet flue gas either in ppm methane

equivalents or propane equivalents;

O is the measured content of oxygen in dry flue gas expressed in % as mean value;

2,m
G is the actual specific wet flue gas volume expressed in Nm /kg fuel;
Referred to 273 K and 1013 mbar.
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G is the actual specific dry flue gas volume expressed in Nm /kg fuel.
The actual specific flue gas volume in wet condition is to be calculated as:
()C - C ()
9 ×H +W
r (3)
G = +1,24 ×
()0,536 ×()CO +CO 100
2,m m
where
G is the specific flue gas volume in wet conditions in Nm /kg fuel;
C is the carbon content of the test fuel in % of mass;

C is the carbon content of the residue referred to the quantity of the test fuel fired in % of

mass;
CO is the measured mean content of carbon dioxide in the dry flue gas in %;
2,m
CO is the measured mean content of carbon monoxide in the dry flue gas in %;
H is the hydrogen content of the test fuel in % of mass;
W is the moisture content of the test fuel in % of mass.
The actual specific dry flue gas volume, GD, is calculated as:
()C -C
(4)
G =
0,536×()C +CO
2,m
where
G is the specific flue gas volume in wet conditions in Nm /kg fuel;
C is the carbon content of the test fuel in % of mass;

C is the carbon content of the residue referred to the quantity of the test fuel fired in %

of mass;
CO is the measured mean content of carbon dioxide in the dry flue gas in %;
2,m
CO is the measured mean content of carbon monoxide in the dry flue gas in %;
4.4 Uncertainty of measurement

The uncertainty of the measurement for total hydrocarbon is maximum ± 10 % of the measured value.

The total uncertainty of the calculated OGC value, according to this instruction, is ± 15 % of the

calculated value.
5 Emissions test methods: measurement of nitrogen oxides

NOTE The methods detailed in 5.2.1 to 5.2.3 are intended to determine the content of nitrogen oxides (NO)

in flue gases from small combustion appliances. The methods are continuous. The result obtained is expressed

as equivalents of nitrogen dioxide (NO ). The sampling point should be as described for the measurement

section detailed in the test methods as appropriate to the appliance as given in the European Standard covering

the requirement and testing of these residential heating and cooking appliances burning solid fuels.

5.1 General procedure

The measurement is extractive and continuous, i.e. the test gas flow is extracted from the measuring

point by the suction pyrometer and is analysed by an arrangement of a complete measuring system

as shown in Figure 1A or Figure 1B. This system is suitable for use with all the analysers described in

5.2. The sampling point and the suction pyrometer shall be as described in the test methods detailed

in the European Standard appropriate to the appliance being tested.
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4 8
10 11
3 3
Figure 1a — NO measuring device
15 5
12 12
1 4
3 3 11
Figure 1b — NO/NO measuring device
Key
1 Gas sampling 9 Flow meter
2 Particulate filter 10 NO-analyser
3 Heating 11 Recorder

4 Sampling line (heated if necessary) 12 Inlet for zero and calibration gas (preferably in front of

the filter) to check the complete system
5 Sample cooler with condensate separator 13 Bypass for excess gas
6 Sample pump 14 inlet for zero and span gas to check the analyser
7 Filter 15 Converter
8 Needle valve 16 NO/NOx analyser
Figures 1A and 1B — Examples of the installation of the measuring devices
5.2 Measuring principles of analysers

NOTE The examples detailed in 5.2.1 to 5.2.3 describe typical principles found in existing analysers.

5.2.1 Chemiluminescence method

If NO reacts with ozone (O ), NO is formed. Part of the NO is in a photochemical reaction state.

3 2 2

When returning to the basic state, these NO molecules can radiate light in the wavelength range of

590 nm to 3 000 nm. The intensity of this light depends on the NO content and is influenced by the

pressure and presence of other gases.
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The content of NO in the gas sample is determined by the measurement of the intensity of the

radiated light.

Interference due to carbon dioxide (CO ) in the sample gas is possible, particularly in the presence of

water vapour, due to the quenching of the chemiluminscence. The extent of the quenching depends

on the CO and H O concentrations and on the type of analyser used. Any necessary corrections shall

2 2

be made to the analyser output either by reference to correction curves supplied by the manufacturers

or by a calibration of the gases which contain approximately the same concentration of CO as the

sample gas.

The measuring range of chemiluminescence analysers used for emission measurements extends

3 3
from 10 mg/m to 20 000 mg/m .

Figure 2 shows an example for the basic arrangement: there are atmospheric pressure and low

pressure analysers depending on the pressure in the reaction chamber. Some analysers have built-in

NO /NO converters and owing to their structure, give signals for NO, NOx, and NO either

2 2
simultaneously or in sequence.
2 4
3 3
7 9
Key
1 Sample inlet 9 Electronics
2 Sample pump 10 Oxygen inlet
3 Magnetic valve 11 Pressure regulator
4 NO /NO converter 12 Ozone regulator
5 Flow regulator 13 Ozone inlet
6 Pressure regulator 14 Signal
7 Reaction chamber 15 Bypass
8 Photomultiplier
Figure 2 — Example for an arrangement of a chemiluminescence analyser
5.2.2 Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) method

The most common application of the IR method are analysers working according to the NDIR method

(see Figure 3). Gases, which consist of molecules of different atoms, absorb light of the characteristic

wavelength in the infrared spectral region. With the NDIR method, spectral analysis of the IR radiation

is omitted and the total absorption of the NO molecule at v = 1.876 cm (= 5,3 µm) is used for the

max
measurement.
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The radiation emitted from the IR source is divided into two beams and then modulated: one beam

passes through the measuring cell, the other through the reference cell containing an IR inactive gas,

usually nitrogen. If the sample gas contains NO, some of the IR energy is absorbed and the difference

in IR energy reaching the detector is proportional to the amount of NO present. The detector is

designed to be sensitive only to the NO-specific wavelengths. A special arrangement of the NDIR

method is the gas filter correlation method. Interference is possible, particularly with water vapour.

5.2.3 Other methods

Beside the two methods mentioned in 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 above, there are the Non-dispersive ultraviolet

(NDUV) method and the Non-extractive (in situ) method. These methods are described in detail by

ISO 10849:1996.
5.3 Calculation method

The measured mean NO content (NO ) shall be converted to a NO -content value based on a

avg 2

standardised oxygen content of 13 % in the flue gas according to the following equation:

21 −O
2s tandardizes
(5)
NO = NO × ×d
2content avg NO
(21 −O2avg)
where
NO is the NO2 content calculated to the standard oxygen content of 13 %;
2content
NO is measured mean content of NO in the dry flue gas in %;
avg
3 3
d density of NO at 13 % oxygen content in kg/m [⇒ 2,05 kg/m ];
NO2 2 n n
O is the standardised oxygen content which is taken as 13%;
2standardised
O is the measured mean content of oxygen in the dry flue gas in %.
2avg
Key
1 Light source 5 Reference cell
2 Chopper motor 6 Detector
3 Chopper wheel 7 Electronics
4 Measuring cell 8 Signal
Figure 3 — Example of a typical NDIR analyser
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Annex A
(informative)

NOTE This Informative Annex contains three different methods that coincide respectively with the combined

Austrian and German method, the Norwegian method and the UK method currently called up in National

Legislation in these countries. For a full description of a particular method reference may have to be made to the

relevant National Standard.
A.1 Austrian and German particle test methods
A.1.1 General

Particulate emissions are measured during type testing according to EN 13240:2001 A.4.7,

EN 13229:2001 A.4.7 and EN 12815:2001 A.4.9 (nominal heat output test) parallel to CO

measurement.

The measurement position for particle measurement is arranged upstream of measurement positions

of CO, CO , NO and C H . Measurement of particulate emissions have to be started 3 minutes after

2 x n m
the fuel load is added.
The duration of measurement is 30 minutes.
A.1.2 Dust measuring equipment

The measuring arrangement is illustrated in Figure A.1. The sampling tube with a diameter of 8 mm

widens out to 9,74 mm at the specimen inlet.

The sampling equipment shall be designed so that in a sampling period of 30 minutes a waste gas

volume of 270 ± 13,5 litres relative to normal conditions (273 K, 1013 hPa) is extracted. During the

sampling, it shall be possible to control the volume flow by means of a volume flow measurement.

The sampling probes shall be designed for flue gas temperatures of 325 °C and a waste gas speed of

approx. 4 m/s at 1013 Pa under the conditions described above.

NOTE In the interests of simplifying the measuring method, individual measurement of the flow velocity and

subsequent matching of the inlet cross-section are dispensed with. In order to carry out the measurement, the

sampling probe is centred in the exhaust-gas cross-section, using a threaded cone.

The attachment for the filter sleeve shall be designed so that the filter cannot be damaged during

handling and structurally attached to exclude the possibility of dust entering the pump unit. The

measuring filter is inserted in a filter holder at the end of the sampling probe.

The sampling system shall be designed so that a controlled probe heating system excludes the

possibility of falling below the dew point in front of or in the filter sleeve. Here, the temperature in the

sleeve area shall be maintained at a constant 70 °C, under sampling conditions.

In the event of the waste gas inlet temperature exceeding a value of 225 °C, a cooling apparatus shall

be provided to ensure that a temperature of 70 °C is maintained in the sleeve area. The design of the

cooler shall not have any negative influences on the result of the measurement.

Suitable measures shall be employed to protect the pump and the volume flow control or limiting

device against the action of dust and accumulated condensate.
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Taking the complete measuring procedure into account, in the concentration range of the dust limit

value of 0,15 g/m , the measuring system shall be able to guarantee that the results of the

measurement will have a resolution of ± 0,03 g/m .

The mechanical stability of the dust collecting sleeve shall be retained even at temperatures of 160 °C

and the collecting sleeves shall not suffer mass losses greater than 2 mg.
Key
1 measurement section
2 gas sampling probe and line for particles measurement (heat-insulated)
3 water separator
4 silica gel filter
5 superfine filter
6 pump
7 gas flow meter
A CO2 and CO measurement
B Flue gas temperature ta measurement
C NOx measurement
D CnHm measurement
E Flue Draught measurement
F Particles filter (off-line gravimetric measurement)
Figure A.1 — Measurement section (including NOx, CnHm, Particles measurement)
A.2 Norwegian particle test methods

NOTE The Norwegian Pollution Authority (SFT) has done several investigations in different areas in Norway

of the air pollutions. They have found that wood stoves are one of the greatest contributors to air pollutions.

Numbers from SSB (Statistisk sentralbyrå) says that 65 % of the particles (PM10) are emissions from wood

combustion in Norway. SFT has given the National Office of Building Technology and Administration the authority

to give requirements for particle emission from appliances fired by solid fuel. The Norwegian legislation for

particle emission is given in the Building Regulations. The legislation is connected to the standard NS 3059

Enclosed wood heaters — Smoke emission — Requirements.
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NS 3059 tells how to calculate the reported particle emission based upon 4 runs in accordance to

NS 3058, part 1 and 2. NS 3058-1 Enclosed wood heaters — Smoke emission — Part 1: Test facility

and heating pattern gives detailed restrictions how to prepare and run the test and NS 3058-2

Enclosed wood heaters — Smoke emission — Part 2: Determination of particulate emission gives

detailed restrictions how to prepare and do particle emission measurements when firing in accordance

to NS 3058-1.
A.2.1 The test methods for particle emissions

Appliances for solid fuel are tested with natural draft with dilution tunnel and sampling on a plane filter

with porosity of 1 µm.

The test fuel shall consist of air-dried spruce with dimension 49 × 49 mm and moisture between 16 to

20 % on wet basis. The distance between the logs shall be 10 mm (see Figure A.2). The fuel charge

density shall be b
...

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