Masonry and masonry products - Methods for determining thermal properties

This document specifies methods for the determination of thermal properties of masonry and masonry products.

Mauerwerk und Mauerwerksprodukte - Verfahren zur Bestimmung von wärmeschutztechnischen Eigenschaften

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Ermittlung der wärmeschutztechnischen Eigenschaften von Mauerwerk und Mauerwerksprodukten fest.

Maçonnerie et éléments de maçonnerie - Méthodes pour la détermination des propriétés thermiques

Le présent document spécifie les méthodes de détermination des propriétés thermiques de la maçonnerie et des produits de maçonnerie.

Zidovje in zidarski proizvodi - Metode za ugotavljanje toplotnih lastnosti

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Sep-2019
Publication Date
11-Nov-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Aug-2020
Due Date
30-Oct-2020
Completion Date
12-Nov-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1745:2020
01-december-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 1745:2012
Zidovje in zidarski proizvodi - Metode za ugotavljanje toplotnih lastnosti
Masonry and masonry products - Methods for determining thermal properties
Mauerwerk und Mauerwerksprodukte - Verfahren zur Bestimmung von
wärmeschutztechnischen Eigenschaften

Maçonnerie et éléments de maçonnerie - Méthodes pour la détermination des propriétés

thermiques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1745:2020
ICS:
91.080.30 Zidane konstrukcije Masonry
91.120.10 Toplotna izolacija stavb Thermal insulation of
buildings
SIST EN 1745:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 1745:2020
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 91.080.30; 91.120.10 Supersedes EN 1745:2012
English Version
Masonry and masonry products - Methods for determining
thermal properties

Maçonnerie et éléments de maçonnerie - Méthodes Mauerwerk und Mauerwerksprodukte - Verfahren zur

pour la détermination des propriétés thermiques Bestimmung von wärmeschutztechnischen

Eigenschaften
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 May 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1745:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword........................................................................................................................................ 4

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms, definitions and symbols .................................................................................................. 9

3.1 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Symbols ..............................................................................................................................................10

4 Determination of λ10,dry, unit –values for solid masonry units and λ10,dry,mor –values

for mortars .......................................................................................................................................11

4.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................11

4.2 λ –values for solid masonry units and mortars .....................................................12

10,dry, mat
4.2.1 Method S1. Determination of λ –values from tabulated λ /net dry
10,dry,unit 10,dry,mat

density relationship ......................................................................................................................12

4.2.2 Method S2. Determination of λ –values based on λ /net dry density
10,dry,unit 10,dry,mat

curve ...................................................................................................................................................12

4.2.3 Method S3. Determination of λ –values from determining the thermal
10,dry,unit

transmittance (U ) of masonry built from solid masonry units and mortar ........14

mas

4.3 Test methods and numbers of samples to be taken ..........................................................16

5 Determination of equivalent λ -values for masonry units with formed voids
10,dry,unit

and composite masonry units ...................................................................................................16

5.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Calculation methods......................................................................................................................17

5.3 λ -values of masonry units with formed voids and composite units .............17

10,dry,unit

5.3.1 Determination of λ -values from tabulated λ /λ relationship ................17

10,dry,unit unit mat

5.3.2 Determination of λ -values based on calculation ...................................................18

10,dry,unit
5.3.3 Method P5. Determination of λ –values from determining the thermal
10,dry,unit
transmittance (U ) of masonry built from masonry units with formed voids or
mas

composite masonry units and mortar ....................................................................................18

5.4 Test methods and numbers of samples to be taken ..........................................................21

6 Moisture conversion .....................................................................................................................22

6.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................22

6.2 Procedure A (for materials, mortar, solid masonry units and masonry): .................22

6.3 Procedure B (for masonry units with formed voids): .......................................................23

6.4 Procedure C (for composite masonry units): .......................................................................23

7 Determination of design thermal values (R or λ ) for masonry built
design,mas design,mas

from masonry units and mortar ...............................................................................................23

7.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................23

7.2 R – or λ –values based on calculation ..........................................................24

design,mas design,mas
7.2.1 R – or λ –values based on λ –values for the masonry units and
design,mas design,mas design

the mortar .........................................................................................................................................24

7.2.2 R –or λ –values using a numerical calculation method based on the
design,mas design,mas

design thermal conductivity of the materials used – ........................................................24

7.3 R – or λ –values of masonry built from masonry units with formed
design,mas design,mas

voids and mortar based on tabulated values .......................................................................24

7.3.1 Tabulated values ............................................................................................................................24

7.3.2 Application of Annex B .................................................................................................................25

7.3.3 Alternative application of Annex B ..........................................................................................25

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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
7.4 Method S4/P6 R – or λ –values of masonry based on masonry
design,mas design,mas

testing ................................................................................................................................................ 26

8 Determination of the thermal transmittance of masonry .............................................. 26

9 Specific heat capacity ................................................................................................................... 27

10 Rounding rules for λ-values for masonry units and masonry ....................................... 27

Annex A (normative) Tabulated λ -values of materials used for masonry
10,dry,mat

products ............................................................................................................................................ 28

Annex B (informative) R - or λ -values of masonry built from a range of
dry,mas 10,dry,mas

masonry units containing formed voids................................................................................ 38

Annex C (informative) Example of how to use the tables in Annex B ........................................ 78

Annex D (normative) Requirements for appropriate calculation procedures ...................... 80

D.1 Capabilities of the program ....................................................................................................... 80

D.2 Input data and results .................................................................................................................. 80

D.3 Testing of the program accuracy.............................................................................................. 81

D.4 Reference cases .............................................................................................................................. 81

D.4.1 Case 1: Calculation of thermal resistance R and thermal conductivity λ of a

10,dry,unit

masonry unit (vertically perforated unit) ............................................................................ 81

D.4.2 Case 2: Calculation of thermal resistance R of masonry consisting of
dry,mas
vertically perforated masonry units, bed joints with mortar layers and internal/

external plaster layers ................................................................................................................. 83

D.4.3 CASE 3: Calculation of thermal resistance R of masonry consisting of masonry

units, horizontal mortar layers, vertical mortar pockets and additional external

insulation layer .............................................................................................................................. 85

Annex E (informative) Assessment and verification of constancy of performance .............. 89

Annex F (informative) Alternative procedure for the moisture correction of units with

formed voids .................................................................................................................................... 91

Annex G (informative) Simplified methodology for determining design moisture content

of composite masonry units ....................................................................................................... 92

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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 1745:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 125 “Masonry”,

the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1745:2012.

The following is a list of significant technical changes since the last edition EN 1745:2012:

— replacement of Figure 1 by Tables 1 a and 1 b;
— editorial improvement;
— changes in the definitions 3.1.5 and 3.1.10;
— correction of term in Annex A;
— amendment heading of column in Annex A;
— addition of Annex G.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey

and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
Introduction

This document provides methods for the determination of dry and design thermal conductivity and

thermal resistance values of masonry products and masonry.
The following types of masonry unit are covered by this document:
— solid masonry units;
— masonry units with formed voids;
— composite masonry units.

Methods are described for the determination of the dry thermal conductivity of solid masonry units

(λ10,dry,unit) and of mortar (λ10,dry,mor) and for the determination of equivalent dry thermal conductivity of

masonry units with formed voids and composite masonry units (λ ). Procedures are also

10,dry,unit

described for the determination of the design thermal values of masonry units and masonry. The

different methods are illustrated in Table 1.

The value in dry state is a characteristic of a masonry material, masonry unit or of masonry.

The determination of thermal values can be based on tabulated data, measurements, calculations or a

combination of these.

Design thermal values may be determined according to procedures given in this European standard

according to the intended application, environmental and climatic conditions, bearing in mind the

purpose of this determination, such as:
— energy consumption;
— design of heating and cooling equipment;
— surface temperature determination;
— compliance with national building regulations;
— consideration of non-steady-state thermal conditions in buildings.
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
Table 1 a — Determination of thermal properties of masonry units and masonry
Overview of methods to determine λ
10,dry,unit
Method Masonry
a b
Determination of λ Required parameters
10,dry,unit
(Clause) units
using tabulated value from Annex A
S1 Net dry density of
solid for the λ / net dry density
10,dry,mat
(4.2.1) unit/material
relationship
based on determination of dry
Net dry density and thermal
S2 thermal conductivity by measurement
solid conductivity of unit/material
(4.2.2) and of the masonry unit material / dry
density curve
based on determination of the thermal Net dry density and
S3 transmittance (U ) of masonry, then percentage area of units;
mas
solid
(4.2.3) adjusting for the influence of the thermal conductivity and
mortar percentage area of mortar
Net dry density and thermal
based on determination of dry
P1 with formed conductivity of unit/material
thermal conductivity of the masonry
(5.3.1.3) voids and configuration of the
unit material, then using Annex B
units
Net dry density of
P2 with formed using tabulated values from Annex A,
unit/material and
(5.3.1.4) voids then using Annex B
configuration of the units
with formed by calculation according to 5.2, using Net dry density and thermal
P3 voids dry thermal conductivity by conductivity of unit/infill
(5.3.2.2) and measurement of the masonry unit material and configuration of
composite material and any infill the units
by calculation according to 5.2 using
Net dry density and thermal
with formed tabulated thermal conductivity of the
P4 conductivity of unit/infill
voids and masonry unit material from Annex A
(5.3.2.3) material and configuration of
composite and thermal conductivity of any infill
the units
material
based on determination of the thermal Gross dry density and
with formed
P5 transmittance (U ) of masonry, then percentage area of units,
mas
voids and
(5.3.3) adjusting for the influence of the thermal conductivity and
composite
mortar percentage area of mortar
Methods S1 and S2 are also applicable for the determination of λ10,dry,mor .
If necessary, moisture correction according to Clause 6.
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
Table 1 b — Determination of thermal properties of masonry units and masonry
a b
Overview of methods to determine λ and λ
design,unit design,mas
a b a
λ Masonry Determination of λ / Required parameters
design design,unit
(Clause) units λ
design,mas
λ solid, by applying moisture correction Thermal conductivity in dry
design,unit
(6) with formed according to Clause 6 upon λ state and moisture conversion
10,dry,unit
voids and factor of unit
composite
λ solid, by using a simplified calculation Design thermal conductivity
design,mas
(7.2.1) with formed based of unit and mortar and
voids and on λ and λ percentage area of mortar
design,unit design,mor
composite joints
λ solid, by numerical calculation based Design thermal conductivity
design,mas
(7.2.2) with formed on λ of materials and configuration
design,mat
voids and
composite
λ with formed using of Annex B and application of Net dry density and thermal
design,mas
(7.3) voids the correction according to 6.3 conductivity of unit/material
and respective moisture
conversion factors
S4/P6 solid, by applying moisture correction Thermal transmission of
with formed according to Clause 6 onto the masonry and moisture
λdesign,mas
voids and thermal transmittance (U ) of conversion factor
mas
(7.4)
composite masonry
Or alternatively the design thermal resistance of the unit Rdesign,unit .
Or alternatively the design thermal resistance of the masonry R .
design,mas
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for the determination of thermal properties of masonry and masonry

products.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

EN 772-3, Methods of test for masonry units — Part 3: Determination of net volume and percentage of

voids of clay masonry units by hydrostatic weighing

EN 772-4, Methods of test for masonry units — Part 4: Determination of real and bulk density and of total

and open porosity for natural stone masonry units

EN 772-13, Methods of test for masonry units — Part 13: Determination of net and gross dry density of

masonry units (except for natural stone)

EN 772-16, Methods of test for masonry units — Part 16: Determination of dimensions

EN 1015-10, Methods of test for mortar for masonry — Part 10: Determination of dry bulk density of

hardened mortar

EN 1934, Thermal performance of buildings — Determination of thermal resistance by hot box method

using heat flow meter — Masonry

EN 1936, Natural stone test methods — Determination of real density and apparent density, and of total

and open porosity

EN 12664, Thermal performances of building materials and products — Determination of thermal

resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods — Dry and moist products of

medium and low thermal resistance

EN 12667, Thermal performance of building materials and products- Determination of thermal

resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods – Products of high and medium

thermal resistance

EN ISO 6946, Building components and building elements — Thermal resistance and thermal

transmittance — Calculation methods (ISO 6946)

EN ISO 7345, Thermal performance of buildings and building components — Physical quantities and

definitions (ISO 7345)

EN ISO 10211, Thermal bridges in building construction — Heat flows and surface temperatures —

Detailed calculations (ISO 10211)
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)

EN ISO 10456:2007, Building materials and products — Hygrothermal properties — Tabulated design

values and procedures for determining declared and design thermal values (ISO 10456:2007)

3 Terms, definitions and symbols

For the purposes of this document, the following terms, definitions and symbols and those given in

EN ISO 7345 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
masonry

assemblage of masonry units laid in a specified pattern and joined together with masonry mortar

3.1.2
masonry product
masonry units, masonry mortars, rendering and plastering mortars
3.1.3
solid masonry unit

masonry unit containing no perforations except external indentations such as grip holes, grooves, etc.

3.1.4
masonry unit with formed voids
masonry unit with a system of intentionally formed voids
3.1.5
composite masonry unit
masonry unit incorporating additional material
3.1.6
thermal value

common term for either the thermal conductivity (W/(m K)) or the thermal resistance (m ·K/W)

3.1.7
dry state
state after drying under conditions stated in the relevant standards
3.1.8
thermal value in dry state

value of a thermal property of a building material or product in a dry state determined according to

this European Standard as a basis for the calculation of design thermal values

Note 1 to entry: The dry thermal value can be expressed as thermal conductivity or thermal resistance.

As impacted by EN ISO 10456:2007/AC:2009.
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
3.1.9
design thermal value

value of a thermal property of a building material or product under specific external and internal

conditions which can be considered as typical of the performance of that material or product when

incorporated in a building component or building
3.1.10
equivalent thermal conductivity of masonry unit

value derived by dividing the width of a masonry unit with formed voids or a composite masonry unit

by its thermal resistance excluding surface resistance
3.1.11
equivalent masonry thermal conductivity

value derived by dividing the thickness of a given masonry by its thermal resistance excluding surface

resistance
3.1.12
reference conditions

set of conditions identifying a state of equilibrium selected as the base to which the thermal values of

building materials and products are referred
3.2 Symbols

The order of the indices for thermal values is temperature, condition and subject.

Symbol Quantity Unit
λ thermal conductivity at an average temperature of 10 °C in dry state W/(m·K)
10,dry,mat
for a masonry unit material and/or infill material

λ10,dry,mas thermal conductivity at an average temperature of 10 °C in dry state W/(m·K)

for the masonry
λ thermal conductivity at an average temperature of 10 °C in dry state W/(m·K)
10,dry,mor
for the mortar
λ thermal conductivity at an average temperature of 10 °C in dry state W/(m·K)
10,dry,unit
for the unit. For solid units the λ is the same as λ and
10,dry, unit 10,dry, mat
for units with formed voids and composite units the λ is the
10,dry, unit
equivalent thermal conductivity.
λ design thermal conductivity for the masonry W/(m·K)
design,mas
λ design thermal conductivity for the mortar W/(m·K)
design,mor
λdesign,unit design thermal conductivity for the unit W/(m·K)
λ equivalent thermal conductivity of voids W/(m·K)
λ individually determined thermal conductivity W/(m·K)
R thermal resistance of voids m ·K/W
R individually determined thermal resistance m ·K/W
R thermal resistance of masonry m ·K/W
dry,mas
R design thermal resistance of masonry m ·K/W
design,mas
R , R internal and external surface resistance m ·K/W
si se
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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
R total thermal resistance of masonry m ·K/W
tot,mas
a percentage area of mortar joint in the measured masonry %
mor
a percentage area of units in the measured masonry %
unit
d thickness of the masonry m
T Temperature K
μ water vapour resistance factor
c specific heat capacity J/(kg·K)
l length of a masonry unit mm
w width of a masonry unit mm
h height of a masonry unit mm
unit
h thickness of a mortar joint mm
mor
F moisture conversion factor
f moisture conversion coefficient by mass kg/kg
3 3
f moisture conversion coefficient by volume m /m
u moisture content mass by mass kg/kg
3 3
ψ moisture content volume by volume m /m
U thermal transmittance of the masonry at an average temperature of W/(m ·K)
10,dry,mas
10 °C in dry state
U thermal transmittance of the masonry W/(m ·K)
mas
U thermal transmittance of the mortar W/(m ·K)
mor
U thermal transmittance of the units W/(m ·K)
unit
P fractile of population %
ρ gross dry density kg/m
g,dry
ρ net dry density kg/m
n,dry
v percentage of voids %
4 Determination of λ –values for solid masonry units and λ –
10,dry, unit 10,dry,mor
values for mortars
4.1 General

λ10,dry,unit –values for solid masonry units and λ10,dry,mor –values for mortars are identical to the λ10,dry,mat –

values. The λ –values of solid masonry units and of mortars can be determined from tests

10,dry,mat

carried out on samples of the material or from tables or graphs which relate λ to density or from

10,dry,mat

determining the thermal transmittance (U ) of masonry built from masonry units and mortar. In all

mas
cases the λ –value is to be representative of the material.
10,dry,mat

NOTE For the determination of the λ -value, λ -value and λ -value, with fractile X and

10,dry,unit 10,dry,mor 10,dry,mat

confidence level Y, the basis is the corresponding gross dry density or net dry density and configuration.

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SIST EN 1745:2020
EN 1745:2020 (E)
4.2 λ10,dry, mat –values for solid masonry units and mortars
4.2.1 Method S1. Determination of λ –values from tabulated λ /net dry density
10,dry,unit 10,dry,mat
relationship

Tabulated λ –values for different materials used for masonry products are given in Annex A,

10,dry,mat

differentiated by material and dry density. This annex also contains values for the water vapour

resistance factor, the specific heat capacity and the moisture conversion coefficient.

These tabulated values are valid for materials where there is factory production control of the net dry

density but no directly determined λ -values. λ –values are given as 50 % and 90 % fractiles (P).

10,dry,mat
4.2.2 Method S2. Determination of λ –values based on λ /net dry density curve
10,dry,unit 10,dry,mat
4.2.2.1 General

To determine the λ –value from a λ /net dry density relationship the following procedure

10,dry,mat 10,dry,mat
shall be used:
4.2.2.2 Test specimens

Test specimens shall be in accordance with the requirements of EN 12664. Care should be taken that

the test specimens are representative of the masonry product itself.
NOTE An appropriate way to ensure this, is to cut specimens from masonry units.
4.2.2.3 Conditioning of specimens

Normally masonry materials are tested in a dry condition. It is also possible to carry out tests in a moist

condition (e.g. conditioned to constant mass in an environment of (23 ± 2) °C and 50 % ± 5 % relative

humidity), in which case the measured value has to be converted to the dry state following one of the

procedures given in 6.2.
4.2.2.4 Test measurement

The reference test method is given in EN 12664. The test shall be carried out at a mean temperature

of 10 °C.

Alternative test methods, which may require different test specimens and different conditioning

methods, may be used, if the correlation between the reference test method and the alternative method

can be given.
4.2.2.5 Establishing a product related λ /net dry density-curve
10,dry,mat
Three items of information are necessary for this determination procedure:

1) the tabulated λ /net dry density-correlation for the given material (see Annex A);

10,dry,mat

2) the product net dry density range, which can be derived either from the production history or

from the net dry density tolerances which are given in the relevant product standards;

3) at least three individual test measurements of the n
...

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