Speech and multimedia Transmission Quality (STQ) - Audiovisual QoS for communication over IP networks

The present document addresses combination network performance parameters and user perceived media (audio and video) quality parameters for audiovisual communications on IP networks. The access technologies covered include both wired (e.g. xDSL) and wireless (e.g. UMTS, WLAN) technologies. The display size range covered is from those of small mobile terminals (e.g. 2") up to large TV sets (e.g. 40" or more). It is applicable to:
- Broadcasting and streaming applications such as IPTV and VoD.
- Interactive point-to-pint applications such as videotelephony and videoconferencing.
Where the media coding standards define two or more profiles, the baseline profile is addressed in the normative part of the standard. Informative annexes present an overview of network QoS mechanisms and the effects on connection performance as well as guidance on terminal parameters that may influence the user perceived media performance.

Kakovost prenosa govora in večpredstavnih vsebin (STQ) - Kakovost avdiovizualne storitve pri komunikaciji prek omrežij z internetnim protokolom (IP)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jun-2009
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-May-2009
Due Date
16-Jul-2009
Completion Date
10-Jun-2009

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ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
ETSI Standard
Speech and multimedia Transmission Quality (STQ);
Audiovisual QoS for communication over IP networks
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
Reference
DES/STQ-00097
Keywords
multimedia, QoS
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
Individual copies of the present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org

The present document may be made available in more than one electronic version or in print. In any case of existing or

perceived difference in contents between such versions, the reference version is the Portable Document Format (PDF).

In case of dispute, the reference shall be the printing on ETSI printers of the PDF version kept on a specific network drive

within ETSI Secretariat.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

http://portal.etsi.org/tb/status/status.asp

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

http://portal.etsi.org/chaircor/ETSI_support.asp
Copyright Notification
No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission.
The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2009.
All rights reserved.
TM TM TM TM

DECT , PLUGTESTS , UMTS , TIPHON , the TIPHON logo and the ETSI logo are Trade Marks of ETSI registered

for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP is a Trade Mark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

LTE™ is a Trade Mark of ETSI currently being registered
for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

GSM® and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ...................................................................................................................................... 10

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 11

3.1 Definitions ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Parameters affecting audiovisual user perceived quality ....................................................................... 13

4.1 Audiovisual user perceived quality model ....................................................................................................... 13

4.2 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 14

4.2.1 Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.2.2 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.2.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.2.4 Lip synchronization .................................................................................................................................... 20

4.3 Network transmission protocols and principles ................................................................................................ 21

4.3.1 Unreliable communication .......................................................................................................................... 21

4.3.2 Multicast ..................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.3.3 Reliable communication ............................................................................................................................. 22

4.3.4 Multipoint ................................................................................................................................................... 22

4.3.5 DSL Access ................................................................................................................................................ 22

4.3.5.1 Asymmetrical DSL................................................................................................................................ 23

4.3.5.2 Symmetrical DSL .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6 Wireless access ........................................................................................................................................... 24

4.3.6.1 2G Mobile access .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6.2 3G Mobile access .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6.3 DECT .................................................................................................................................................... 25

4.3.6.4 Broadband Wireless Access .................................................................................................................. 26

4.3.6.5 WLAN ................................................................................................................................................... 27

4.3.7 Broadcasting ............................................................................................................................................... 27

4.4 Network performance parameters .................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1 Transmission bandwidth ............................................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1.1 General considerations .......................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1.2 Speech transmission .............................................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1.3 Audio transmission ............................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1.4 Video transmission ................................................................................................................................ 30

4.4.2 Packet loss .................................................................................................................................................. 30

4.4.2.1 General considerations .......................................................................................................................... 30

4.4.2.2 Speech transmission .............................................................................................................................. 30

4.4.2.3 Audio transmission ............................................................................................................................... 31

4.4.2.4 Video transmission ................................................................................................................................ 32

4.4.3 Transmission delay ..................................................................................................................................... 33

4.4.3.1 General .................................................................................................................................................. 33

4.4.3.2 Transmitting terminal delay .................................................................................................................. 33

4.4.3.3 Access network delay ............................................................................................................................ 34

4.4.3.4 Core network delay ............................................................................................................................... 35

4.4.3.5 Receiving terminal delay ....................................................................................................................... 35

4.4.4 Transmission delay variations (jitter) ......................................................................................................... 35

4.5 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.1 Packet loss recovery.................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.2 Playout buffer ............................................................................................................................................. 36

4.5.3 Audio characteristics................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.4 Video display .............................................................................................................................................. 36

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)

4.6 Audio-video interaction .................................................................................................................................... 37

5 Audiovisual applications classification .................................................................................................. 37

5.1 Delay sensitive applications ............................................................................................................................. 38

5.2 Delay insensitive applications .......................................................................................................................... 38

6 Delay sensitive audiovisual applications requirements .......................................................................... 38

6.1 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 38

6.1.1 Narrowband speech..................................................................................................................................... 38

6.1.2 Wideband speech ........................................................................................................................................ 39

6.1.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 39

6.2 Network performance requirements ................................................................................................................. 40

6.3 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 41

6.3.1 Narrowband speech..................................................................................................................................... 41

6.3.2 Wideband speech ........................................................................................................................................ 41

6.3.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 41

7 Delay insensitive audiovisual applications requirements ....................................................................... 41

7.1 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 41

7.1.1 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 41

7.1.2 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 42

7.2 Network performance requirements ................................................................................................................. 43

7.3 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 44

7.3.1 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

7.3.2 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

Annex A (informative): Audio-video quality interaction .................................................................... 45

A.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 45

A.2 Available information............................................................................................................................. 45

A.2.1 TR 102 479 ....................................................................................................................................................... 45

A.2.2 Results presented to ITU-T Recommendation SG 12 ...................................................................................... 47

Annex B (informative): QoS mechanisms and the effects on connection performance ................... 50

B.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 50

B.2 QoS mechanisms .................................................................................................................................... 50

B.2.1 Integrated services (IntServ)............................................................................................................................. 50

B.2.2 Differentiated services (DiffServ) .................................................................................................................... 50

B.2.3 WLAN QoS mechanism ................................................................................................................................... 51

B.2.4 WiMax QoS mechanism .................................................................................................................................. 52

B.2.5 HSPA packet scheduling .................................................................................................................................. 52

B.2.6 RACS ............................................................................................................................................................... 53

B.3 Effects on connection performance ........................................................................................................ 55

Annex C (informative): Packet loss recovery ....................................................................................... 56

C.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 56

C.2 Application layer packet loss recovery methods .................................................................................... 56

C.2.1 Speech and audio recovery ............................................................................................................................... 56

C.2.2 Video recovery ................................................................................................................................................. 59

C.3 Performance improvement ..................................................................................................................... 60

Annex D (informative): Provisional QoS Classes defined in ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541 ....... 62

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 63

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (http://webapp.etsi.org/IPR/home.asp).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Speech and multimedia Transmission

Quality (STQ).
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
1 Scope

The present document addresses combination network performance parameters and user perceived media (audio and

video) quality parameters for audiovisual communications on IP networks.

The access technologies covered include both wired (e.g. xDSL) and wireless (e.g. UMTS, WLAN) technologies.

The display size range covered is from those of small mobile terminals (e.g. 2") up to large TV sets (e.g. 40" or more).

It is applicable to:
• Broadcasting and streaming applications such as IPTV and VoD.

• Interactive point-to-pint applications such as videotelephony and videoconferencing.

Where the media coding standards define two or more profiles, the baseline profile is addressed in the normative part of

the standard.

Informative annexes present an overview of network QoS mechanisms and the effects on connection performance as

well as guidance on terminal parameters that may influence the user perceived media performance.

2 References

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific.
• For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.

• Non-specific reference may be made only to a complete document or a part thereof and only in the following

cases:

- if it is accepted that it will be possible to use all future changes of the referenced document for the

purposes of the referring document;
- for informative references.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

http://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.
2.1 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of the present document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For non-specific references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

[1] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540: "Internet protocol data communication service - IP packet

transfer and availability performance parameters".

[2] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541: "Network performance objectives for IP-based services".

[3] ITU-T Recommendation G.711: "Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies".

[4] ITU-T Recommendation G.722: "7 kHz audio-coding within 64 kbit/s".

[5] ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1: "Dual rate speech coder for multimedia communications

transmitting at 5,3 and 6,3 kbit/s".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)

[6] ITU-T Recommendation G.726: "40, 32, 24, 16 kbit/s Adaptive Differential Pulse Code

Modulation (ADPCM)".

[7] ITU-T Recommendation G.728: "Coding of speech at 16 kbit/s using low-delay code exited linear

prediction".

[8] ITU-T Recommendation G.729: "Coding of speech at 8 kbit/s using conjugate-structure

algebraic-code-excited linear-prediction (CS-ACELP)".

[9] ITU-T Recommendation G.729.1: "G.729 Embedded Variable bit-rate coder: An 8-32 kbit/s

scalable wideband coder bitstream interoperable with G.729".

[10] ETSI TS 126 071 (V6.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); AMR speech Codec; General description
(3GPP TS 26.071, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".

[11] 3GPP2 C.S0014-C v1.0 Enhanced Variable Rate Codec, Speech Service Option 3, 68 and 70 for

Wideband Spread Spectrum Digital Systems, January 2007.

[12] ITU-T Recommendation G.722.1: "Low-complexity coding at 24 and 32 kbit/s for hands-free

operation in systems with low frame loss".

[13] ITU-T Recommendation G.711.1: "Wideband embedded extension for G.711 pulse code

modulation".

[14] ETSI TS 126 171 (V6.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); AMR speech codec, wideband; General description

(3GPP TS 26.171, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".
NOTE: TS 126 171 is identical to ITU-T Recommendation G.722.2.

[15] IETF RFC 3351: "RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control".

[16] ISO/IEC 11172: "Information technology -- Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for

digital storage media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s (MPEG 1, 5 parts)".

[17] ISO/IEC 13818: "Information technology -- Generic coding of moving pictures and associated

audio information (MPEG 2, 9 parts)".

[18] ISO/IEC 14496: "Information technology -- Coding of audio-visual objects (MPEG 4; currently in

11 parts)".

[19] ETSI TS 126 290 (V6.3.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Audio codec processing functions; Extended

Adaptive Multi-Rate - Wideband (AMR-WB+) codec; Transcoding functions
(3GPP TS 26.290, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".

[20] ITU-T Recommendation G.719: "Low-complexity full-band audio coding for high-quality

conversational applications".

[21] ETSI TS 102 366: "Digital Audio Compression (AC-3, Enhanced AC-3) Standard".

[22] ITU-T Recommendation H.261: "Video codec for audiovisual services at p × 64 kbit/s".

[23] ITU-T Recommendation H.262: "Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and

associated audio information: Video".
[24] ITU-T Recommendation H.263: "Video coding for low bit rate communication".

[25] ITU-T Recommendation H.264: "Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services".

NOTE: This recommendation is identical to MPEG 4 Annex 10.

[26] SMPTE 421M (2006): "Television - VC-1 Compressed Video Bitstream Format and Decoding

Process".

[27] ITU-R Recommendation BT.1359-1: "Relative timing of sound and vision for broadcasting".

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
[28] IETF RFC 768: "User Datagram Protocol".

[29] ETSI TS 122 146 (V7.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service

(MBMS); Stage 1 (3GPP TS 22.146, version 7.1.0 Release 7)".
[30] IETF RFC 793: "Transmission Control Protocol".

[31] ITU-T Recommendation G.995.1: "Overview of digital subscriber line (DSL) Recommendations".

[32] IEEE 802.3 (2005): "IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and

information exchange between systems-Local and metropolitan area networks; Specific

requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access

Method and Physical Layer Specifications".
[33] ITU-T Recommendation G.992: Parts 1 to 5.
[34] ITU-T Recommendation G.993: Parts 1 and 2.

[35] ITU-T Recommendation G.991.1: "High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) transceivers".

[36] ITU-T Recommendation G.991.2: "Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL)

transceivers".

[37] ETSI TS 101 113 (V7.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM);

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 1
(GSM 02.60, version 7.5.0 Release 1998)".

[38] ETSI TS 122 228 (V8.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Service requirements for the Internet Protocol (IP)

multimedia core network subsystem (IMS); Stage 1 (3GPP TS 22.228, version 8.5.0 Release 8)".

[39] ETSI TS 122 173 (V7.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS)

Multimedia Telephony Service and supplementary services; Stage 1
(3GPP TS 22.173, version 7.5.0 Release 7)".

[40] ETSI TS 125 308 (V7.7.0): "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); High Speed

Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA); Overall description; Stage 2
(3GPP TS 25.308, version 7.7.0 Release 7)".

[41] ETSI TS 125 319 (V7.6.0): "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Enhanced

uplink; Overall description; Stage 2 (3GPP TS 25.319, version 7.6.0 Release 7)".

[42] ETSI TS 123 107 (V7.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture

(3GPP TS 23.107, version 7.1.0 Release 7)".

[43] ETSI TS 123 207 (V7.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) concept and

architecture (3GPP TS 23.207, version 7.0.0 Release 7)".

[44] ETSI EN 300 175-2: "Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); Common

Interface (CI); Part 2: Physical Layer (PHL)".

[45] IEEE 802.16 (2004): "Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks. Part 16: Air Interface

for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems".

[46] IEEE 802.11 (2007): "Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange

between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks. Specific requirements. Part 11: Wireless

LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications".

[47] ETSI EN 300 401: "Radio Broadcasting Systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to mobile,

portable and fixed receivers".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)

[48] ETSI TS 102 428: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); DMB video service; User Application

Specification".

[49] ETSI EN 302 307: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Second generation framing structure,

channel coding and modulation systems for Broadcasting, Interactive Services, News Gathering

and other broadband satellite applications".

[50] ETSI EN 300 744: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing structure, channel coding and

modulation for digital terrestrial television".

[51] ETSI EN 300 419: "Access and Terminals (AT); 2 048 kbit/s digital structured leased lines

(D2048S); Connection characteristics".

[52] ETSI EN 302 304: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Transmission System for Handheld

Terminals (DVB-H)".

[53] ETSI EN 302 583: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing Structure, channel coding and

modulation for Satellite Services to Handheld devices (SH) below 3 GHz".

[54] ETSI TS 101 154: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Specification for the use of Video and

Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream".

[55] ETSI TS 102 005: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Specification for the use of Video and

Audio Coding in DVB services delivered directly over IP protocols".
[56] ITU-T Recommendation G.114:
...

Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)
ETSI Standard
Speech and multimedia Transmission Quality (STQ);
Audiovisual QoS for communication over IP networks
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)
Reference
DES/STQ-00097
Keywords
multimedia, QoS
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
Individual copies of the present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org

The present document may be made available in more than one electronic version or in print. In any case of existing or

perceived difference in contents between such versions, the reference version is the Portable Document Format (PDF).

In case of dispute, the reference shall be the printing on ETSI printers of the PDF version kept on a specific network drive

within ETSI Secretariat.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

http://portal.etsi.org/tb/status/status.asp

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

http://portal.etsi.org/chaircor/ETSI_support.asp
Copyright Notification
No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission.
The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2009.
All rights reserved.
TM TM TM TM

DECT , PLUGTESTS , UMTS , TIPHON , the TIPHON logo and the ETSI logo are Trade Marks of ETSI registered

for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP is a Trade Mark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

LTE™ is a Trade Mark of ETSI currently being registered
for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

GSM® and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Informative references ...................................................................................................................................... 10

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 11

3.1 Definitions ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Parameters affecting audiovisual user perceived quality ....................................................................... 13

4.1 Audiovisual user perceived quality model ....................................................................................................... 13

4.2 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 14

4.2.1 Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.2.2 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.2.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.2.4 Lip synchronization .................................................................................................................................... 20

4.3 Network transmission protocols and principles ................................................................................................ 21

4.3.1 Unreliable communication .......................................................................................................................... 21

4.3.2 Multicast ..................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.3.3 Reliable communication ............................................................................................................................. 22

4.3.4 Multipoint ................................................................................................................................................... 22

4.3.5 DSL Access ................................................................................................................................................ 22

4.3.5.1 Asymmetrical DSL................................................................................................................................ 23

4.3.5.2 Symmetrical DSL .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6 Wireless access ........................................................................................................................................... 24

4.3.6.1 2G Mobile access .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6.2 3G Mobile access .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6.3 DECT .................................................................................................................................................... 25

4.3.6.4 Broadband Wireless Access .................................................................................................................. 26

4.3.6.5 WLAN ................................................................................................................................................... 27

4.3.7 Broadcasting ............................................................................................................................................... 27

4.4 Network performance parameters .................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1 Transmission bandwidth ............................................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1.1 General considerations .......................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1.2 Speech transmission .............................................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1.3 Audio transmission ............................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1.4 Video transmission ................................................................................................................................ 30

4.4.2 Packet loss .................................................................................................................................................. 30

4.4.2.1 General considerations .......................................................................................................................... 30

4.4.2.2 Speech transmission .............................................................................................................................. 30

4.4.2.3 Audio transmission ............................................................................................................................... 31

4.4.2.4 Video transmission ................................................................................................................................ 32

4.4.3 Transmission delay ..................................................................................................................................... 33

4.4.3.1 General .................................................................................................................................................. 33

4.4.3.2 Transmitting terminal delay .................................................................................................................. 33

4.4.3.3 Access network delay ............................................................................................................................ 34

4.4.3.4 Core network delay ............................................................................................................................... 35

4.4.3.5 Receiving terminal delay ....................................................................................................................... 35

4.4.4 Transmission delay variations (jitter) ......................................................................................................... 35

4.5 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.1 Packet loss recovery.................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.2 Playout buffer ............................................................................................................................................. 36

4.5.3 Audio characteristics................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.4 Video display .............................................................................................................................................. 36

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)

4.6 Audio-video interaction .................................................................................................................................... 37

5 Audiovisual applications classification .................................................................................................. 37

5.1 Delay sensitive applications ............................................................................................................................. 38

5.2 Delay insensitive applications .......................................................................................................................... 38

6 Delay sensitive audiovisual applications requirements .......................................................................... 38

6.1 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 38

6.1.1 Narrowband speech..................................................................................................................................... 38

6.1.2 Wideband speech ........................................................................................................................................ 39

6.1.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 39

6.2 Network performance requirements ................................................................................................................. 40

6.3 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 41

6.3.1 Narrowband speech..................................................................................................................................... 41

6.3.2 Wideband speech ........................................................................................................................................ 41

6.3.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 41

7 Delay insensitive audiovisual applications requirements ....................................................................... 41

7.1 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 41

7.1.1 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 41

7.1.2 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 42

7.2 Network performance requirements ................................................................................................................. 43

7.3 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 44

7.3.1 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

7.3.2 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

Annex A (informative): Audio-video quality interaction .................................................................... 45

A.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 45

A.2 Available information............................................................................................................................. 45

A.2.1 TR 102 479 ....................................................................................................................................................... 45

A.2.2 Results presented to ITU-T Recommendation SG 12 ...................................................................................... 47

Annex B (informative): QoS mechanisms and the effects on connection performance ................... 50

B.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 50

B.2 QoS mechanisms .................................................................................................................................... 50

B.2.1 Integrated services (IntServ)............................................................................................................................. 50

B.2.2 Differentiated services (DiffServ) .................................................................................................................... 50

B.2.3 WLAN QoS mechanism ................................................................................................................................... 51

B.2.4 WiMax QoS mechanism .................................................................................................................................. 52

B.2.5 HSPA packet scheduling .................................................................................................................................. 52

B.2.6 RACS ............................................................................................................................................................... 53

B.3 Effects on connection performance ........................................................................................................ 55

Annex C (informative): Packet loss recovery ....................................................................................... 56

C.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 56

C.2 Application layer packet loss recovery methods .................................................................................... 56

C.2.1 Speech and audio recovery ............................................................................................................................... 56

C.2.2 Video recovery ................................................................................................................................................. 59

C.3 Performance improvement ..................................................................................................................... 60

Annex D (informative): Provisional QoS Classes defined in ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541 ....... 62

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 63

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)
Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (http://webapp.etsi.org/IPR/home.asp).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Speech and multimedia Transmission

Quality (STQ), and is now submitted for the ETSI standards Membership Approval Procedure.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)
1 Scope

The present document addresses combination network performance parameters and user perceived media (audio and

video) quality parameters for audiovisual communications on IP networks.

The access technologies covered include both wired (e.g. xDSL) and wireless (e.g. UMTS, WLAN) technologies.

The display size range covered is from those of small mobile terminals (e.g. 2") up to large TV sets (e.g. 40" or more).

It is applicable to:
• Broadcasting and streaming applications such as IPTV and VoD.

• Interactive point-to-pint applications such as videotelephony and videoconferencing.

Where the media coding standards define two or more profiles, the baseline profile is addressed in the normative part of

the standard.

Informative annexes present an overview of network QoS mechanisms and the effects on connection performance as

well as guidance on terminal parameters that may influence the user perceived media performance.

2 References

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific.
• For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.

• Non-specific reference may be made only to a complete document or a part thereof and only in the following

cases:

- if it is accepted that it will be possible to use all future changes of the referenced document for the

purposes of the referring document;
- for informative references.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

http://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)
2.1 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of the present document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For non-specific references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

[1] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540: "Internet protocol data communication service - IP packet

transfer and availability performance parameters".

[2] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541: "Network performance objectives for IP-based services".

[3] ITU-T Recommendation G.711: "Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies".

[4] ITU-T Recommendation G.722: "7 kHz audio-coding within 64 kbit/s".

[5] ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1: "Dual rate speech coder for multimedia communications

transmitting at 5,3 and 6,3 kbit/s".

[6] ITU-T Recommendation G.726: "40, 32, 24, 16 kbit/s Adaptive Differential Pulse Code

Modulation (ADPCM)".

[7] ITU-T Recommendation G.728: "Coding of speech at 16 kbit/s using low-delay code exited linear

prediction".

[8] ITU-T Recommendation G.729: "Coding of speech at 8 kbit/s using conjugate-structure

algebraic-code-excited linear-prediction (CS-ACELP)".

[9] ITU-T Recommendation G.729.1: "G.729 Embedded Variable bit-rate coder: An 8-32 kbit/s

scalable wideband coder bitstream interoperable with G.729".

[10] ETSI TS 126 071 (V6.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); AMR speech Codec; General description
(3GPP TS 26.071, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".

[11] 3GPP2 C.S0014-C v1.0 Enhanced Variable Rate Codec, Speech Service Option 3, 68 and 70 for

Wideband Spread Spectrum Digital Systems, January 2007.

[12] ITU-T Recommendation G.722.1: "Low-complexity coding at 24 and 32 kbit/s for hands-free

operation in systems with low frame loss".

[13] ITU-T Recommendation G.711.1: "Wideband embedded extension for G.711 pulse code

modulation".

[14] ETSI TS 126 171 (V6.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); AMR speech codec, wideband; General description

(3GPP TS 26.171, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".
NOTE: TS 126 171 is identical to ITU-T Recommendation G.722.2.

[15] IETF RFC 3351: "RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control".

[16] ISO/IEC 11172: "Information technology -- Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for

digital storage media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s (MPEG 1, 5 parts)".

[17] ISO/IEC 13818: "Information technology -- Generic coding of moving pictures and associated

audio information (MPEG 2, 9 parts)".

[18] ISO/IEC 14496: "Information technology -- Coding of audio-visual objects (MPEG 4; currently in

11 parts)".

[19] ETSI TS 126 290 (V6.3.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Audio codec processing functions; Extended

Adaptive Multi-Rate - Wideband (AMR-WB+) codec; Transcoding functions
(3GPP TS 26.290, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)

[20] ITU-T Recommendation G.719: "Low-complexity full-band audio coding for high-quality

conversational applications".

[21] ETSI TS 102 366: "Digital Audio Compression (AC-3, Enhanced AC-3) Standard".

[22] ITU-T Recommendation H.261: "Video codec for audiovisual services at p × 64 kbit/s".

[23] ITU-T Recommendation H.262: "Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and

associated audio information: Video".
[24] ITU-T Recommendation H.263: "Video coding for low bit rate communication".

[25] ITU-T Recommendation H.264: "Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services".

NOTE: This recommendation is identical to MPEG 4 Annex 10.

[26] SMPTE 421M (2006): "Television - VC-1 Compressed Video Bitstream Format and Decoding

Process".

[27] ITU-R Recommendation BT.1359-1: "Relative timing of sound and vision for broadcasting".

[28] IETF RFC 768: "User Datagram Protocol".

[29] ETSI TS 122 146 (V7.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service

(MBMS); Stage 1 (3GPP TS 22.146, version 7.1.0 Release 7)".
[30] IETF RFC 793: "Transmission Control Protocol".

[31] ITU-T Recommendation G.995.1: "Overview of digital subscriber line (DSL) Recommendations".

[32] IEEE 802.3 (2005): "IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and

information exchange between systems-Local and metropolitan area networks; Specific

requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access

Method and Physical Layer Specifications".
[33] ITU-T Recommendation G.992: Parts 1 to 5.
[34] ITU-T Recommendation G.993: Parts 1 and 2.

[35] ITU-T Recommendation G.991.1: "High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) transceivers".

[36] ITU-T Recommendation G.991.2: "Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL)

transceivers".

[37] ETSI TS 101 113 (V7.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM);

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 1
(GSM 02.60, version 7.5.0 Release 1998)".

[38] ETSI TS 122 228 (V8.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Service requirements for the Internet Protocol (IP)

multimedia core network subsystem (IMS); Stage 1 (3GPP TS 22.228, version 8.5.0 Release 8)".

[39] ETSI TS 122 173 (V7.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS)

Multimedia Telephony Service and supplementary services; Stage 1
(3GPP TS 22.173, version 7.5.0 Release 7)".

[40] ETSI TS 125 308 (V7.7.0): "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); High Speed

Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA); Overall description; Stage 2
(3GPP TS 25.308, version 7.7.0 Release 7)".

[41] ETSI TS 125 319 (V7.6.0): "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Enhanced

uplink; Overall description; Stage 2 (3GPP TS 25.319, version 7.6.0 Release 7)".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 Final draft ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-02)

[42] ETSI TS 123 107 (V7.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture

(3GPP TS 23.107, version 7.1.0 Release 7)".

[43] ETSI TS 123 207 (V7.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) concept and

architecture (3GPP TS 23.207, version 7.0.0 Release 7)".

[44] ETSI EN 300 175-2: "Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); Common

Interface (CI); Part 2: Physical Layer (PHL)".

[45] IEEE 802.16 (2004): "Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks. Part 16: Air Interface

for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems".

[46] IEEE 802.11 (2007): "Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange

between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks. Specific requirements. Part 11: Wireless

LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications".

[47] ETSI EN 300 401: "Radio Broadcasting Systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to mobile,

portable and fixed receivers".

[48] ETSI TS 102 428: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); DMB video service; User Application

Specification".

[49] ETSI EN 302 307: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Second generation framing structure,

channel coding and modulation systems for Broadcasting, Interactive Services, News Gathering

and other broadband satellite applications".

[50] ETSI EN 300 744: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing structure, channel coding and

modulation for digital terrestrial television".

[51] ETSI EN 300 419: "Access and Terminals (AT); 2 048 kbit/s digital structured leased lines

(D2048S); Connection characteristics".

[52] ETSI EN 302 304: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Transmission System for Handheld

Terminals (DVB-H)".

[53] ETSI EN 302 583: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing Structure, channel coding and

modulation for Satellite Services to Handheld devices (SH) below 3 GHz".

[54] ETSI TS 101 154: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Specification for the use of Video and

Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream".
[55] ETSI TS 102 005: "
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
01-julij-2009
.DNRYRVWSUHQRVDJRYRUDLQYHþSUHGVWDYQLKYVHELQ 674 .DNRYRVW

DYGLRYL]XDOQHVWRULWYHSULNRPXQLNDFLMLSUHNRPUHåLM]LQWHUQHWQLPSURWRNRORP ,3

Speech and multimedia Transmission Quality (STQ) - Audiovisual QoS for
communication over IP networks
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ES 202 667 Version 1.1.1
ICS:
33.040.35 Telefonska omrežja Telephone networks
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
ETSI Standard
Speech and multimedia Transmission Quality (STQ);
Audiovisual QoS for communication over IP networks
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
2 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
Reference
DES/STQ-00097
Keywords
multimedia, QoS
ETSI
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Important notice
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within ETSI Secretariat.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

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If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

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Copyright Notification
No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission.
The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2009.
All rights reserved.
TM TM TM TM

DECT , PLUGTESTS , UMTS , TIPHON , the TIPHON logo and the ETSI logo are Trade Marks of ETSI registered

for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP is a Trade Mark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

LTE™ is a Trade Mark of ETSI currently being registered
for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

GSM® and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
3 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ...................................................................................................................................... 10

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 11

3.1 Definitions ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Parameters affecting audiovisual user perceived quality ....................................................................... 13

4.1 Audiovisual user perceived quality model ....................................................................................................... 13

4.2 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 14

4.2.1 Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.2.2 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.2.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.2.4 Lip synchronization .................................................................................................................................... 20

4.3 Network transmission protocols and principles ................................................................................................ 21

4.3.1 Unreliable communication .......................................................................................................................... 21

4.3.2 Multicast ..................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.3.3 Reliable communication ............................................................................................................................. 22

4.3.4 Multipoint ................................................................................................................................................... 22

4.3.5 DSL Access ................................................................................................................................................ 22

4.3.5.1 Asymmetrical DSL................................................................................................................................ 23

4.3.5.2 Symmetrical DSL .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6 Wireless access ........................................................................................................................................... 24

4.3.6.1 2G Mobile access .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6.2 3G Mobile access .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.6.3 DECT .................................................................................................................................................... 25

4.3.6.4 Broadband Wireless Access .................................................................................................................. 26

4.3.6.5 WLAN ................................................................................................................................................... 27

4.3.7 Broadcasting ............................................................................................................................................... 27

4.4 Network performance parameters .................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1 Transmission bandwidth ............................................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1.1 General considerations .......................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1.2 Speech transmission .............................................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1.3 Audio transmission ............................................................................................................................... 28

4.4.1.4 Video transmission ................................................................................................................................ 30

4.4.2 Packet loss .................................................................................................................................................. 30

4.4.2.1 General considerations .......................................................................................................................... 30

4.4.2.2 Speech transmission .............................................................................................................................. 30

4.4.2.3 Audio transmission ............................................................................................................................... 31

4.4.2.4 Video transmission ................................................................................................................................ 32

4.4.3 Transmission delay ..................................................................................................................................... 33

4.4.3.1 General .................................................................................................................................................. 33

4.4.3.2 Transmitting terminal delay .................................................................................................................. 33

4.4.3.3 Access network delay ............................................................................................................................ 34

4.4.3.4 Core network delay ............................................................................................................................... 35

4.4.3.5 Receiving terminal delay ....................................................................................................................... 35

4.4.4 Transmission delay variations (jitter) ......................................................................................................... 35

4.5 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.1 Packet loss recovery.................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.2 Playout buffer ............................................................................................................................................. 36

4.5.3 Audio characteristics................................................................................................................................... 36

4.5.4 Video display .............................................................................................................................................. 36

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
4 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)

4.6 Audio-video interaction .................................................................................................................................... 37

5 Audiovisual applications classification .................................................................................................. 37

5.1 Delay sensitive applications ............................................................................................................................. 38

5.2 Delay insensitive applications .......................................................................................................................... 38

6 Delay sensitive audiovisual applications requirements .......................................................................... 38

6.1 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 38

6.1.1 Narrowband speech..................................................................................................................................... 38

6.1.2 Wideband speech ........................................................................................................................................ 39

6.1.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 39

6.2 Network performance requirements ................................................................................................................. 40

6.3 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 41

6.3.1 Narrowband speech..................................................................................................................................... 41

6.3.2 Wideband speech ........................................................................................................................................ 41

6.3.3 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 41

7 Delay insensitive audiovisual applications requirements ....................................................................... 41

7.1 Coding algorithms ............................................................................................................................................ 41

7.1.1 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 41

7.1.2 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 42

7.2 Network performance requirements ................................................................................................................. 43

7.3 Terminal characteristics ................................................................................................................................... 44

7.3.1 Audio .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

7.3.2 Video .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

Annex A (informative): Audio-video quality interaction .................................................................... 45

A.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 45

A.2 Available information............................................................................................................................. 45

A.2.1 TR 102 479 ....................................................................................................................................................... 45

A.2.2 Results presented to ITU-T Recommendation SG 12 ...................................................................................... 47

Annex B (informative): QoS mechanisms and the effects on connection performance ................... 50

B.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 50

B.2 QoS mechanisms .................................................................................................................................... 50

B.2.1 Integrated services (IntServ)............................................................................................................................. 50

B.2.2 Differentiated services (DiffServ) .................................................................................................................... 50

B.2.3 WLAN QoS mechanism ................................................................................................................................... 51

B.2.4 WiMax QoS mechanism .................................................................................................................................. 52

B.2.5 HSPA packet scheduling .................................................................................................................................. 52

B.2.6 RACS ............................................................................................................................................................... 53

B.3 Effects on connection performance ........................................................................................................ 55

Annex C (informative): Packet loss recovery ....................................................................................... 56

C.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 56

C.2 Application layer packet loss recovery methods .................................................................................... 56

C.2.1 Speech and audio recovery ............................................................................................................................... 56

C.2.2 Video recovery ................................................................................................................................................. 59

C.3 Performance improvement ..................................................................................................................... 60

Annex D (informative): Provisional QoS Classes defined in ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541 ....... 62

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 63

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
5 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (http://webapp.etsi.org/IPR/home.asp).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Speech and multimedia Transmission

Quality (STQ).
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
6 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)
1 Scope

The present document addresses combination network performance parameters and user perceived media (audio and

video) quality parameters for audiovisual communications on IP networks.

The access technologies covered include both wired (e.g. xDSL) and wireless (e.g. UMTS, WLAN) technologies.

The display size range covered is from those of small mobile terminals (e.g. 2") up to large TV sets (e.g. 40" or more).

It is applicable to:
• Broadcasting and streaming applications such as IPTV and VoD.

• Interactive point-to-pint applications such as videotelephony and videoconferencing.

Where the media coding standards define two or more profiles, the baseline profile is addressed in the normative part of

the standard.

Informative annexes present an overview of network QoS mechanisms and the effects on connection performance as

well as guidance on terminal parameters that may influence the user perceived media performance.

2 References

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific.
• For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.

• Non-specific reference may be made only to a complete document or a part thereof and only in the following

cases:

- if it is accepted that it will be possible to use all future changes of the referenced document for the

purposes of the referring document;
- for informative references.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

http://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.
2.1 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of the present document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For non-specific references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

[1] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540: "Internet protocol data communication service - IP packet

transfer and availability performance parameters".

[2] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541: "Network performance objectives for IP-based services".

[3] ITU-T Recommendation G.711: "Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies".

[4] ITU-T Recommendation G.722: "7 kHz audio-coding within 64 kbit/s".

[5] ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1: "Dual rate speech coder for multimedia communications

transmitting at 5,3 and 6,3 kbit/s".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 667 V1.1.1:2009
7 ETSI ES 202 667 V1.1.1 (2009-04)

[6] ITU-T Recommendation G.726: "40, 32, 24, 16 kbit/s Adaptive Differential Pulse Code

Modulation (ADPCM)".

[7] ITU-T Recommendation G.728: "Coding of speech at 16 kbit/s using low-delay code exited linear

prediction".

[8] ITU-T Recommendation G.729: "Coding of speech at 8 kbit/s using conjugate-structure

algebraic-code-excited linear-prediction (CS-ACELP)".

[9] ITU-T Recommendation G.729.1: "G.729 Embedded Variable bit-rate coder: An 8-32 kbit/s

scalable wideband coder bitstream interoperable with G.729".

[10] ETSI TS 126 071 (V6.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); AMR speech Codec; General description
(3GPP TS 26.071, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".

[11] 3GPP2 C.S0014-C v1.0 Enhanced Variable Rate Codec, Speech Service Option 3, 68 and 70 for

Wideband Spread Spectrum Digital Systems, January 2007.

[12] ITU-T Recommendation G.722.1: "Low-complexity coding at 24 and 32 kbit/s for hands-free

operation in systems with low frame loss".

[13] ITU-T Recommendation G.711.1: "Wideband embedded extension for G.711 pulse code

modulation".

[14] ETSI TS 126 171 (V6.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); AMR speech codec, wideband; General description

(3GPP TS 26.171, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".
NOTE: TS 126 171 is identical to ITU-T Recommendation G.722.2.

[15] IETF RFC 3351: "RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control".

[16] ISO/IEC 11172: "Information technology -- Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for

digital storage media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s (MPEG 1, 5 parts)".

[17] ISO/IEC 13818: "Information technology -- Generic coding of moving pictures and associated

audio information (MPEG 2, 9 parts)".

[18] ISO/IEC 14496: "Information technology -- Coding of audio-visual objects (MPEG 4; currently in

11 parts)".

[19] ETSI TS 126 290 (V6.3.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Audio codec processing functions; Extended

Adaptive Multi-Rate - Wideband (AMR-WB+) codec; Transcoding functions
(3GPP TS 26.290, version 6.0.0 Release 6)".

[20] ITU-T Recommendation G.719: "Low-complexity full-band audio coding for high-quality

conversational applications".

[21] ETSI TS 102 366: "Digital Audio Compression (AC-3, Enhanced AC-3) Standard".

[22] ITU-T Recommendation H.261: "Video codec for audiovisual services at p × 64 kbit/s".

[23] ITU-T Recommendation H.262: "Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and

associated audio information: Video".
[24] ITU-T Recommendation H.263: "Video coding for low bit rate communication".

[25] ITU-T Recommendation H.264: "Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services".

NOTE: This recommendation is identical to MPEG 4 Annex 10.

[26] SMPTE 421M (2006): "Television - VC-1 Compressed Video Bitstream Format and Decoding

Process".

[27] ITU-R Recommendation BT.1359-1: "Relative timing of sound and vision for broadcasting".

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[28] IETF RFC 768: "User Datagram Protocol".

[29] ETSI TS 122 146 (V7.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service

(MBMS); Stage 1 (3GPP TS 22.146, version 7.1.0 Release 7)".
[30] IETF RFC 793: "Transmission Control Protocol".

[31] ITU-T Recommendation G.995.1: "Overview of digital subscriber line (DSL) Recommendations".

[32] IEEE 802.3 (2005): "IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and

information exchange between systems-Local and metropolitan area networks; Specific

requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access

Method and Physical Layer Specifications".
[33] ITU-T Recommendation G.992: Parts 1 to 5.
[34] ITU-T Recommendation G.993: Parts 1 and 2.

[35] ITU-T Recommendation G.991.1: "High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) transceivers".

[36] ITU-T Recommendation G.991.2: "Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL)

transceivers".

[37] ETSI TS 101 113 (V7.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM);

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 1
(GSM 02.60, version 7.5.0 Release 1998)".

[38] ETSI TS 122 228 (V8.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Service requirements for the Internet Protocol (IP)

multimedia core network subsystem (IMS); Stage 1 (3GPP TS 22.228, version 8.5.0 Release 8)".

[39] ETSI TS 122 173 (V7.5.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS)

Multimedia Telephony Service and supplementary services; Stage 1
(3GPP TS 22.173, version 7.5.0 Release 7)".

[40] ETSI TS 125 308 (V7.7.0): "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); High Speed

Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA); Overall description; Stage 2
(3GPP TS 25.308, version 7.7.0 Release 7)".

[41] ETSI TS 125 319 (V7.6.0): "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Enhanced

uplink; Overall description; Stage 2 (3GPP TS 25.319, version 7.6.0 Release 7)".

[42] ETSI TS 123 107 (V7.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture

(3GPP TS 23.107, version 7.1.0 Release 7)".

[43] ETSI TS 123 207 (V7.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) concept and

architecture (3GPP TS 23.207, version 7.0.0 Release 7)".

[44] ETSI EN 300 175-2: "Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); Common

Interface (CI); Part 2: Physical Layer (PHL)".

[45] IEEE 802.16 (2004): "Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks. Part 16: Air Interface

for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems".

[46] IEEE 802.11 (2007): "Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange

between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks. Specific requirements. Part 11: Wireless

LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications".

[47] ETSI EN 300 401: "Radio Broadcasting Systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to mobile,

portable and fixed receivers".
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[48] ETSI TS 102 428: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); DMB video service; User Application

Specification".

[49] ETSI EN 302 307: "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Second generation framing structure,

channel coding and modulation systems for Broadcasting, Interactive Services,
...

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