Solid biofuels - Sample preparation (ISO 14780:2017)

The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be
applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenherstellung (ISO 14780:2017)

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Reduktion von Gesamtproben (oder Einzelproben) auf Laboratoriums-proben und von Laboratoriumsproben auf Teilproben und allgemeine Analysenproben fest und gilt für biogene Festbrennstoffe.
Die in diesem Dokument festgelegten Verfahren können bei der Probenvorbereitung angewendet werden, zum Beispiel, wenn Proben im Hinblick auf Energiegehalt, Wasser- und Aschegehalt, Schüttdichte, mechanische Festigkeit, Partikelgrößenverteilung, Ascheschmelzverhalten, chemische Zusammensetzung und Verunreinigungen zu prüfen sind.

Biocombustibles solides - Préparation des échantillons (ISO 14780:2017)

ISO 14780:2017 définit les méthodes permettant de réduire les échantillons composites (ou les prélèvements élémentaires) en échantillons pour laboratoire et les échantillons pour laboratoire en sous-échantillons et en échantillons pour analyse générale. Elle s'applique aux biocombustibles solides.
Les méthodes définies dans le présent document peuvent être utilisées pour la préparation d'échantillons devant, par exemple, être soumis à des essais portant sur le pouvoir calorifique, le taux d'humidité, la teneur en cendres, la masse volumique apparente, la durabilité, la distribution granulométrique, le comportement des cendres en fusion, la composition chimique et les impuretés.

Trdna biogoriva - Priprava vzorcev (ISO 14780:2017)

Predlagani mednarodni standard opisuje metode za zmanjšanje kombiniranih vzorcev (ali vzorcev) na laboratorijske vzorce in laboratorijskih vzorcev na podvzorce ter splošne analizne vzorce, uporablja pa se tudi za trdna biogoriva. Metode, ki so opisane v tem predlaganem dokumentu, se lahko uporabijo za pripravo vzorcev, ko je potrebno preskusiti na primer kalorično vrednost, vsebnost vlage, vsebnost pepela, prostorninsko maso, odpornost, porazdelitev velikosti delcev, lastnosti pepela pri taljenju, kemično sestavo in nečistoče. Te metode niso namenjene za uporabo pri zelo velikih vzorcih, ki so potrebni za preskušanje premostitvenih lastnosti.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
05-Apr-2016
Publication Date
05-Jun-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-May-2017
Due Date
29-Jul-2017
Completion Date
06-Jun-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
01-julij-2017
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 14780:2011
Trdna biogoriva - Priprava vzorcev (ISO 14780:2017)
Solid biofuels - Sample preparation (ISO 14780:2017)
Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenherstellung (ISO 14780:2017)
Biocombustibles solides - Préparation des échantillons (ISO 14780:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14780:2017
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
EN ISO 14780
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.40; 27.190 Supersedes EN 14780:2011
English Version
Solid biofuels - Sample preparation (ISO 14780:2017)

Biocombustibles solides - Préparation des échantillons Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenherstellung (ISO

(ISO 14780:2017) 14780:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 March 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14780:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
EN ISO 14780:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
EN ISO 14780:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14780:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 14780:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14780:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14780:2017 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14780
First edition
2017-04
Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
Biocombustibles solides — Préparation des échantillons
Reference number
ISO 14780:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles of correct sample reduction ........................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Apparatus for sample division................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.2 Riffle boxes ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6.1.3 Rotary sample dividers .............................................................................................................................................. 3

6.1.4 Shovels and scoops ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.2 Apparatus for particle size-reduction ................................................................................................................................. 5

6.2.1 Coarse cutting mill or wood crusher .............................................................................................................. 5

6.2.2 Cutting mill ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2.3 Axe ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2.4 Hand saw ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2.5 Sieves ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.6 Balance ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Sample reduction — General principles ...................................................................................................................................... 6

8 Methods for sample division .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2 Riffling ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.3 Strip mixing................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.4 Long pile-alternate shovel method ........................................................................................................................................ 9

8.5 Rotary divider .......................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.6 Coning and quartering ...................................................................................................................................................................10

8.7 Mass reducing straw-like material (handful sampling)....................................................................................10

9 Method for reducing laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples.....11

9.1 Mixing ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Initial sample division ...................................................................................................................................................................11

9.3 Pre-drying ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.4 Coarse cutting (particle size reduction to <31,5 mm) .......................................................................................12

9.5 Sample division of <31,5 mm material ............................................................................................................................12

9.6 Particle size reduction of <31,5 mm material to <1 mm ..................................................................................12

9.7 Sample division of <1 mm material ...................................................................................................................................13

9.8 Particle size reduction of <1 mm material to <0,25 mm ..................................................................................13

10 Storage and labelling.....................................................................................................................................................................................13

11 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Precision in relation to division method .........................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Scheme of sample preparation for samples from single delivery .........................19

Annex C (informative) Scheme of sample preparation for samples from continuous delivery ...........20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
Introduction

Biofuels are a major source of renewable energy. International standards are needed for production,

trade and use of solid biofuels. For sampling of solid biofuels, see ISO 18135.

This document can be used in regard to production, controlling and analysis of solid biofuels in general.

This document was developed with significant content from EN 14780:2011.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14780:2017(E)
Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
1 Scope

This document defines methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples

and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.

The methods defined in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the

samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability,

particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3310-1, Test sieves — Technical requirements and testing — Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth

ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO 18134-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 1: Total

moisture — Reference method

ISO 18134-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 2: Total

moisture — Simplified procedure
ISO 18135, Solid Biofuels — Sampling
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16559 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
nominal top size

aperture size of the sieve through which at least 95 % by mass of the material passes

Note 1 to entry: For pellets (and other long materials), the diameter is used to determine the nominal top size.

Note 2 to entry: Includes additional information not found in ISO 16559.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
4 Symbols
M moisture loss, in percentage
m initial mass of the sample, g
sample,1
m mass of the sample after pre-drying, g
sample,2

W width and is at least 2,5 times the nominal top size of the material and should be wide

enough for normal oversized material particles to enter the sampling device
5 Principles of correct sample reduction

The main purpose of sample preparation is that a sample is reduced to one or more test portions

that are in general smaller than the original sample. The main principle for sample reduction is that

the composition of the sample as taken on site shall not be changed during each stage of the sample

preparation. Each sub-sample shall be representative of the original sample. To reach this goal, every

particle in the sample before sample division shall have an equal probability of being included in the

sub-sample following sample division. Two basic methods are used during the sample preparation.

These methods are:
— sample division;
— particle size-reduction of the sample.

CAUTION — Avoid loss of moisture and fine particles during milling and other operations.

Because of the risk of changes in the moisture content (loss of moisture), a sub-sample (moisture

analysis sample) shall be separated at the earliest possible stage of the sample preparation procedure.

As an alternative, a separate moisture analysis sample may be taken. The sample reduction shall be

carried out by a procedure that does not conflict with the requirements of ISO 18134-1 or ISO 18134-2.

For materials that have to be examined for moisture content, care should be taken to avoid any

significant heat build-up and risk of drying.
6 Apparatus
6.1 Apparatus for sample division
6.1.1 General

Sample division is the process of reducing the mass of the sample without reducing the size of the

particles. This subclause gives some suitable apparatus for this purpose. To determine the correct use

of each apparatus for different purposes, refer to Clause 8.

If the nominal top size of the sample is not known, a value of this parameter has to be assumed. After

the sample reduction, the assumed value should be compared to the actual value to assure that the

requirements of the apparatus for sample division and sample size used are met.
6.1.2 Riffle boxes

A riffle box should have an equal number of slots and at least six at each side (preferably more if

possible), with adjacent slots directing material into different sub-samples, and the width of the slots

shall be at least 2,5 times the nominal top size of the material to be riffled (see Figure 1).

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
Key
1 width
Figure 1 — Example of a riffle box
6.1.3 Rotary sample dividers

The inner dimensions of the equipment where the sample is fed shall be at least 2,5 times as wide as the

nominal top size of the material to be processed and should be large enough to handle normal oversized

material particles. The rotary sample divider shall have a feeder device adjusted, so that the number

of compartments multiplied by the number of rotations shall not be less than 120 while the sample is

being divided. See Figure 2 for an example of a rotating divider.
Key
1 feeder
2 funnel
3 rotating receivers
4 divided sample
Figure 2 — Example of a rotary sample divider
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
6.1.4 Shovels and scoops

A shovel or scoop are tools used for manual sample division. They shall have a flat bottom, with

edges raised high enough to prevent particles from rolling off, shall be at least 2,5 times as wide as

the nominal top size of the material to be processed, and should be large enough to handle normal

oversized material particles. See Figures 3 and 4 for examples of scoops and a shovel, respectively.

Key
1 width
2 height
Figure 3 — Example of scoops
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
Figure 4 — Example of a shovel
6.2 Apparatus for particle size-reduction

CAUTION — When analysing metals (major or minor elements), take care that there is no

contamination from the sample preparation or reduction equipment.
6.2.1 Coarse cutting mill or wood crusher

Coarse cutting mills can be used for cutting materials into lengths of about 10 mm to 30 mm (depending

on the biofuel and the analyses to be performed). Drying of the material during coarse cutting shall be

avoided by limiting heat production and air flow through the material. The equipment shall be designed

so that it does not lose dust or contaminate the material with pieces of metal, and shall be easy to clean.

NOTE To prevent moisture losses during particle size reduction, a cutting mill or crushing mill with as low a

cutting or crushing speed as possible is preferred.
6.2.2 Cutting mill

Cutting mills can be used for reducing the nominal top size of materials used as biofuels from

about 10 mm to 30 mm down to about 1 mm or less (depending on the biofuel and the analyses to

be performed). The mill shall be provided with screens of various aperture sizes covering this range,

including an appropriate sieve to control the nominal top size of the material produced. Other apparatus

may be used provided that they are designed so that they do not get blocked with the material that is

being processed. Avoid the use of cutting mills whose cutting faces contain significant quantities of an

element that is to be determined in the analysis.

NOTE Cross beater mills can be used without any excessive dusting, when fitted with dust filters (like a

filter sock) between the mill and the receiving container. They are suitable for final grinding of hard, wood type

materials after the pre-grinding with cutting type mills.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
6.2.3 Axe

An axe is used for cutting wood logs or coarse material down to a maximum 30 mm thickness or suitable

size to be processed in a cutting mill provided with a 30 mm sieve.
6.2.4 Hand saw

A hand saw is used to saw off wood logs or coarse material down to a maximum 30 mm thickness or

suitable size to be processed in a cutting mill provided with a 30 mm sieve.

A chain saw may contaminate the sample by chain oil and should therefore not be used. A saw machine

should not be used for size reduction to avoid the risk of losing moisture in the sample as a result of heat

caused by friction.
6.2.5 Sieves

A wire-mesh sieve with an aperture size of 1 mm, in accordance with ISO 3310-1, is recommended to

check the nominal top size of general analysis samples. A wire-mesh sieve with an aperture size of

0,25 mm will be recommended if sub-samples with this nominal top size are required.

6.2.6 Balance

A balance is required that is capable of determining the mass of samples to an accuracy of 0,1 % of the

sample mass, and the mass of sub-samples to an accuracy of 0,1 % of the sub-sample mass.

7 Sample reduction — General principles

For every sample division stage to be carried out, it is important that a sufficient mass of material

is retained, otherwise the sub-samples produced or the test portions to be taken may not be

representative of the original sample. Due to various shape and size of different solid biofuels, different

methods for determination of minimum sample masses have to be applied. Table 2 gives a guideline for

minimum masses to be retained after each sample division stage, depending on the nominal top size of

the material.

Regarding pellets, the pellets diameter shall be considered the nominal top size and the opening of the

equipment shall be large enough for the longest pellets to pass through.

In addition to the minimum masses stated in Table 2, the mass after sample division shall be sufficiently

large for the actual test or tests to be performed. Table 1 gives a guideline for the selection of the method

to be applied to determinate the minimum sample mass to be retained after each sample division stage.

Supplementary requirements concerning the masses of the test portions are given in international

standards for test methods of solid biofuels.

Table 1 — Guideline to choose a method to determine the minimum masses to be retained

during sample division stages
1 2 3 4
Material Bulk material of Large pieces Straw-like material Irregular/mixed
less than or equal >100 mm material, with a low bulk den- materials, e.g.
to 100 mm nominal e.g. wood logs or sity (≤BD 200 kg/ hogfuels, logging
top size as defined in briquettes m ) and lengths residues, bark
ISO 16559 >31,5 mm

Method for determi- Calculate the mini- Number of pieces Minimum sample To be determined ac-

nation of minimum mum sample mass should be stated, e.g. mass should be de- cording to fuel type

sample mass according to Table 2 10 pieces randomly fined, e.g. 500 g
collected
6 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)

Table 2 — Guideline for minimum masses to be retained during sample division stages,

applicable for material according to column 1 in Table 1
Nominal top size Minimum mass
mm g
100 15 000
63 4 000
45 1 500
31,5 500
16 350
8 250
3,15 100
1 30
0,25 10

According to particle size distribution, shape and density of particles, the calculation of minimum

sample mass should be adapted to the methods given here at the best in practical terms.

Figure 5 summarizes the range of steps that can be taken during sample reduction.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
NOTE List of optional sub-sample extractions can not be exhaustive.

Figure 5 — Flow sheet for sample preparation and optional extraction of sub-samples

8 Methods for sample division
8.1 General

Combined samples may be divided into two or more laboratory samples and laboratory samples are

in general further divided in sub-samples (test portions). This clause describes the methods and

procedures for sample division. For every division step, the mass of retained material given in Table 2

shall be taken into account.
8 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
8.2 Riffling

This may be used for materials that can be passed through the riffle without bridging. It is not suitable

for straw, bark, or other materials containing elongated particles, or for wet and/or sticky materials.

Brittle materials should be handled with care to avoid the production of fine materials. Place the whole

of the combined sample into one of the containers of the riffle so that it is evenly distributed throughout

the container. Place the other two containers in position under the riffle. Pour the contents of the

first containe
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
01-julij-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 14780:2011
Trdna biogoriva - Priprava vzorcev (ISO 14780:2017)
Solid biofuels - Sample preparation (ISO 14780:2017)
Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenherstellung (ISO 14780:2017)
Biocombustibles solides - Préparation des échantillons (ISO 14780:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14780:2017
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
EN ISO 14780
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.40; 27.190 Supersedes EN 14780:2011
English Version
Solid biofuels - Sample preparation (ISO 14780:2017)

Biocombustibles solides - Préparation des échantillons Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenherstellung (ISO

(ISO 14780:2017) 14780:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 March 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14780:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
EN ISO 14780:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
EN ISO 14780:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14780:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 14780:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14780:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14780:2017 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14780
First edition
2017-04
Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
Biocombustibles solides — Préparation des échantillons
Reference number
ISO 14780:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles of correct sample reduction ........................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Apparatus for sample division................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.2 Riffle boxes ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6.1.3 Rotary sample dividers .............................................................................................................................................. 3

6.1.4 Shovels and scoops ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.2 Apparatus for particle size-reduction ................................................................................................................................. 5

6.2.1 Coarse cutting mill or wood crusher .............................................................................................................. 5

6.2.2 Cutting mill ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2.3 Axe ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2.4 Hand saw ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2.5 Sieves ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.6 Balance ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Sample reduction — General principles ...................................................................................................................................... 6

8 Methods for sample division .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2 Riffling ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.3 Strip mixing................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.4 Long pile-alternate shovel method ........................................................................................................................................ 9

8.5 Rotary divider .......................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.6 Coning and quartering ...................................................................................................................................................................10

8.7 Mass reducing straw-like material (handful sampling)....................................................................................10

9 Method for reducing laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples.....11

9.1 Mixing ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Initial sample division ...................................................................................................................................................................11

9.3 Pre-drying ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.4 Coarse cutting (particle size reduction to <31,5 mm) .......................................................................................12

9.5 Sample division of <31,5 mm material ............................................................................................................................12

9.6 Particle size reduction of <31,5 mm material to <1 mm ..................................................................................12

9.7 Sample division of <1 mm material ...................................................................................................................................13

9.8 Particle size reduction of <1 mm material to <0,25 mm ..................................................................................13

10 Storage and labelling.....................................................................................................................................................................................13

11 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Precision in relation to division method .........................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Scheme of sample preparation for samples from single delivery .........................19

Annex C (informative) Scheme of sample preparation for samples from continuous delivery ...........20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
ISO 14780:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
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Introduction

Biofuels are a major source of renewable energy. International standards are needed for production,

trade and use of solid biofuels. For sampling of solid biofuels, see ISO 18135.

This document can be used in regard to production, controlling and analysis of solid biofuels in general.

This document was developed with significant content from EN 14780:2011.
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SIST EN ISO 14780:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14780:2017(E)
Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
1 Scope

This document defines methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples

and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.

The methods defined in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the

samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability,

particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3310-1, Test sieves — Technical requirements and testing — Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth

ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO 18134-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 1: Total

moisture — Reference method

ISO 18134-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 2: Total

moisture — Simplified procedure
ISO 18135, Solid Biofuels — Sampling
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16559 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
nominal top size

aperture size of the sieve through which at least 95 % by mass of the material passes

Note 1 to entry: For pellets (and other long materials), the diameter is used to determine the nominal top size.

Note 2 to entry: Includes additional information not found in ISO 16559.
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4 Symbols
M moisture loss, in percentage
m initial mass of the sample, g
sample,1
m mass of the sample after pre-drying, g
sample,2

W width and is at least 2,5 times the nominal top size of the material and should be wide

enough for normal oversized material particles to enter the sampling device
5 Principles of correct sample reduction

The main purpose of sample preparation is that a sample is reduced to one or more test portions

that are in general smaller than the original sample. The main principle for sample reduction is that

the composition of the sample as taken on site shall not be changed during each stage of the sample

preparation. Each sub-sample shall be representative of the original sample. To reach this goal, every

particle in the sample before sample division shall have an equal probability of being included in the

sub-sample following sample division. Two basic methods are used during the sample preparation.

These methods are:
— sample division;
— particle size-reduction of the sample.

CAUTION — Avoid loss of moisture and fine particles during milling and other operations.

Because of the risk of changes in the moisture content (loss of moisture), a sub-sample (moisture

analysis sample) shall be separated at the earliest possible stage of the sample preparation procedure.

As an alternative, a separate moisture analysis sample may be taken. The sample reduction shall be

carried out by a procedure that does not conflict with the requirements of ISO 18134-1 or ISO 18134-2.

For materials that have to be examined for moisture content, care should be taken to avoid any

significant heat build-up and risk of drying.
6 Apparatus
6.1 Apparatus for sample division
6.1.1 General

Sample division is the process of reducing the mass of the sample without reducing the size of the

particles. This subclause gives some suitable apparatus for this purpose. To determine the correct use

of each apparatus for different purposes, refer to Clause 8.

If the nominal top size of the sample is not known, a value of this parameter has to be assumed. After

the sample reduction, the assumed value should be compared to the actual value to assure that the

requirements of the apparatus for sample division and sample size used are met.
6.1.2 Riffle boxes

A riffle box should have an equal number of slots and at least six at each side (preferably more if

possible), with adjacent slots directing material into different sub-samples, and the width of the slots

shall be at least 2,5 times the nominal top size of the material to be riffled (see Figure 1).

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Key
1 width
Figure 1 — Example of a riffle box
6.1.3 Rotary sample dividers

The inner dimensions of the equipment where the sample is fed shall be at least 2,5 times as wide as the

nominal top size of the material to be processed and should be large enough to handle normal oversized

material particles. The rotary sample divider shall have a feeder device adjusted, so that the number

of compartments multiplied by the number of rotations shall not be less than 120 while the sample is

being divided. See Figure 2 for an example of a rotating divider.
Key
1 feeder
2 funnel
3 rotating receivers
4 divided sample
Figure 2 — Example of a rotary sample divider
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6.1.4 Shovels and scoops

A shovel or scoop are tools used for manual sample division. They shall have a flat bottom, with

edges raised high enough to prevent particles from rolling off, shall be at least 2,5 times as wide as

the nominal top size of the material to be processed, and should be large enough to handle normal

oversized material particles. See Figures 3 and 4 for examples of scoops and a shovel, respectively.

Key
1 width
2 height
Figure 3 — Example of scoops
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Figure 4 — Example of a shovel
6.2 Apparatus for particle size-reduction

CAUTION — When analysing metals (major or minor elements), take care that there is no

contamination from the sample preparation or reduction equipment.
6.2.1 Coarse cutting mill or wood crusher

Coarse cutting mills can be used for cutting materials into lengths of about 10 mm to 30 mm (depending

on the biofuel and the analyses to be performed). Drying of the material during coarse cutting shall be

avoided by limiting heat production and air flow through the material. The equipment shall be designed

so that it does not lose dust or contaminate the material with pieces of metal, and shall be easy to clean.

NOTE To prevent moisture losses during particle size reduction, a cutting mill or crushing mill with as low a

cutting or crushing speed as possible is preferred.
6.2.2 Cutting mill

Cutting mills can be used for reducing the nominal top size of materials used as biofuels from

about 10 mm to 30 mm down to about 1 mm or less (depending on the biofuel and the analyses to

be performed). The mill shall be provided with screens of various aperture sizes covering this range,

including an appropriate sieve to control the nominal top size of the material produced. Other apparatus

may be used provided that they are designed so that they do not get blocked with the material that is

being processed. Avoid the use of cutting mills whose cutting faces contain significant quantities of an

element that is to be determined in the analysis.

NOTE Cross beater mills can be used without any excessive dusting, when fitted with dust filters (like a

filter sock) between the mill and the receiving container. They are suitable for final grinding of hard, wood type

materials after the pre-grinding with cutting type mills.
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6.2.3 Axe

An axe is used for cutting wood logs or coarse material down to a maximum 30 mm thickness or suitable

size to be processed in a cutting mill provided with a 30 mm sieve.
6.2.4 Hand saw

A hand saw is used to saw off wood logs or coarse material down to a maximum 30 mm thickness or

suitable size to be processed in a cutting mill provided with a 30 mm sieve.

A chain saw may contaminate the sample by chain oil and should therefore not be used. A saw machine

should not be used for size reduction to avoid the risk of losing moisture in the sample as a result of heat

caused by friction.
6.2.5 Sieves

A wire-mesh sieve with an aperture size of 1 mm, in accordance with ISO 3310-1, is recommended to

check the nominal top size of general analysis samples. A wire-mesh sieve with an aperture size of

0,25 mm will be recommended if sub-samples with this nominal top size are required.

6.2.6 Balance

A balance is required that is capable of determining the mass of samples to an accuracy of 0,1 % of the

sample mass, and the mass of sub-samples to an accuracy of 0,1 % of the sub-sample mass.

7 Sample reduction — General principles

For every sample division stage to be carried out, it is important that a sufficient mass of material

is retained, otherwise the sub-samples produced or the test portions to be taken may not be

representative of the original sample. Due to various shape and size of different solid biofuels, different

methods for determination of minimum sample masses have to be applied. Table 2 gives a guideline for

minimum masses to be retained after each sample division stage, depending on the nominal top size of

the material.

Regarding pellets, the pellets diameter shall be considered the nominal top size and the opening of the

equipment shall be large enough for the longest pellets to pass through.

In addition to the minimum masses stated in Table 2, the mass after sample division shall be sufficiently

large for the actual test or tests to be performed. Table 1 gives a guideline for the selection of the method

to be applied to determinate the minimum sample mass to be retained after each sample division stage.

Supplementary requirements concerning the masses of the test portions are given in international

standards for test methods of solid biofuels.

Table 1 — Guideline to choose a method to determine the minimum masses to be retained

during sample division stages
1 2 3 4
Material Bulk material of Large pieces Straw-like material Irregular/mixed
less than or equal >100 mm material, with a low bulk den- materials, e.g.
to 100 mm nominal e.g. wood logs or sity (≤BD 200 kg/ hogfuels, logging
top size as defined in briquettes m ) and lengths residues, bark
ISO 16559 >31,5 mm

Method for determi- Calculate the mini- Number of pieces Minimum sample To be determined ac-

nation of minimum mum sample mass should be stated, e.g. mass should be de- cording to fuel type

sample mass according to Table 2 10 pieces randomly fined, e.g. 500 g
collected
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Table 2 — Guideline for minimum masses to be retained during sample division stages,

applicable for material according to column 1 in Table 1
Nominal top size Minimum mass
mm g
100 15 000
63 4 000
45 1 500
31,5 500
16 350
8 250
3,15 100
1 30
0,25 10

According to particle size distribution, shape and density of particles, the calculation of minimum

sample mass should be adapted to the methods given here at the best in practical terms.

Figure 5 summarizes the range of steps that can be taken during sample reduction.

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NOTE List of optional sub-sample extractions can not be exhaustive.

Figure 5 — Flow sheet for sample preparation and optional extraction of sub-samples

8 Methods for sample division
8.1 General

Combined samples may be divided into two or more laboratory samples and laboratory samples are

in general further divided in sub-samples (test portions). This clause describes the methods and

procedures for sample division. For every division step, the mass of retained material given in Table 2

shall be taken into account.
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8.2 Riffling

This may be used for materials that can be passed through the riffle without bridging. It is not suitable

for straw, bark, or other materials containing elongated particles, or for wet and/or sticky materials.

Brittle materials should be handled with care to avoid the production of fine materials. Place the whole

of the combined sample into one of the containers of the riffle so that it is evenly distributed throughout

the container. Place the other two containers in position under the riffle. Pour the contents of the

first con
...

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