Railway applications - Rubber suspension components - Rubber diaphragms for pneumatic suspension springs

This standard defines: - characteristics that suspension diaphragms shall achieve, together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification; - approval procedure to be implemented by the customer; - guidelines for qualification of the product with specified requirements; - quality monitoring of diaphragms in manufacture; - supply requirements. This standard applies to suspension diaphragms designed to be fitted on railway vehicles and similar vehicles running on dedicated tracks with permanent guide systems, whatever the type of rail and the running surface.

Bahnanwendungen - Federungselemente aus Elastomer - Membranen aus Elastomer für pneumatische Tragfedern

Diese Norm legt fest:
   Eigenschaften, die Federungsmembranen aufweisen müssen, sowie die anwendbaren Prüfungen und Prüfverfahren, die zur Überprüfung durchzuführen sind;
   Freigabeverfahren, das vom Kunden einzusetzen ist;
   Richtlinien für die Qualifizierung des Produkts in bezug auf die festgelegten Anforderungen;
   Qualitätsüberwachung während der Herstellung von Membranen;
   Lieferungsanforderungen.
Diese Norm gilt für Federungsmembranen, die für den Einbau in Schienenfahrzeuge und ähnlichen spurgebundenen Fahrzeugen mit Dauerleitsystemen, unabhängig von der Schienenart und der Lauffläche, konstruiert wurden.
Die Norm enthält keine Angaben zu weiteren Bauteilen von Federungsmembran-Baugruppen oder Steuersystemen, wie z. B. Luftbehälter, Rahmen, Aussteifungen, Federungs-Notsysteme oder elastische Halter (wie z. B. Reihenfedern) usw., die die Leistung der Membran beeinflussen.

Applications ferroviaires - Pieces de suspension a base d'élastomere - Membranes a base d'élastomere pour ressorts pneumatiques de suspension

La présente Norme européenne définit :
   les caractéristiques auxquelles doivent satisfaire les membranes de suspension, ainsi que les contrôle et essais a effectuer ;
   la procédure d'homologation appliquée par le client ;
   la procédure de qualification du produit en fonction des exigences spécifiées ;
   les modalités de surveillance de la qualité de la fabrication des membranes ;
   les exigences d'approvisionnement.
Les prescriptions de la présente Norme s'appliquent aux membranes de suspension devant équiper les véhicules ferroviaires circulant en site propre et a guidage permanent, sans distinction de la nature du roulement et du chemin du roulement.
La présente Norme européenne ne définit pas les autres composants des ressorts pneumatiques ou des systemes de contrôle tels que réservoirs d'air, armatures, raidisseurs, systemes de suspension de secours ou pieds élastiques (tel que ressorts en série), etc., qui agissent sur les performances de la membrane.

Železniške naprave – Vzmetni elementi iz elastomerov – Membrane iz elastomerov za zračne, nosilne vzmeti

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-May-2004
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Jun-2004
Due Date
01-Jun-2004
Completion Date
01-Jun-2004

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Bahnanwendungen - Federungselemente aus Elastomer - Membranen aus Elastomer für pneumatische TragfedernApplications ferroviaires - Pieces de suspension a base d'élastomere - Membranes a base d'élastomere pour ressorts pneumatiques de suspensionRailway applications - Rubber suspension components - Rubber diaphragms for pneumatic suspension springs45.040Materiali in deli za železniško tehnikoMaterials and components for railway engineering21.160VzmetiSpringsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 13597:2003SIST EN 13597:2004en01-junij-2004SIST EN 13597:2004SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 13597:2004

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 13597February 2003ICS 21.160; 45.060.01English versionRailway applications - Rubber suspension components - Rubberdiaphragms for pneumatic suspension springsApplications ferroviaires - Pièces de suspension à based'élastomère - Membranes à base d'élastomère pourressorts pneumatiques de suspensionBahnanwendungen - Federungselemente aus Elastomer -Membranen aus Elastomer für pneumatische TragfedernThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 November 2002.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UnitedKingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2003 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 13597:2003 ESIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)2ContentspageForeword......................................................................................................................................................................4Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................51Scope..............................................................................................................................................................62Normative references....................................................................................................................................63Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations.........................................................................................73.1Terms and definitions....................................................................................................................................73.2Symbols and abbreviations..........................................................................................................................83.3Three dimensional definition of characteristics.......................................................................................144Definition documents..................................................................................................................................154.1General..........................................................................................................................................................154.2Documents to be provided by the customer.............................................................................................154.3Documents to be provided by the supplier...............................................................................................165Conditions of utilisation..............................................................................................................................165.1General..........................................................................................................................................................165.2Climatic and atmospheric conditions........................................................................................................165.3Environmental conditions...........................................................................................................................165.4Mechanical conditions................................................................................................................................166Definition of the product.............................................................................................................................176.1General..........................................................................................................................................................176.2Resistance to operating conditions...........................................................................................................196.2.1Low temperature..........................................................................................................................................196.2.2Ozone............................................................................................................................................................196.2.3Oil and petroleum product..........................................................................................................................196.2.4Cleaning product..........................................................................................................................................196.2.5Abrasion........................................................................................................................................................196.2.6Fire behaviour..............................................................................................................................................196.2.7Other conditions..........................................................................................................................................206.3Physical characteristics..............................................................................................................................206.3.1Appearance of diaphragms in new condition...........................................................................................206.3.2Appearance of diaphragms under extreme horizontal deformations....................................................206.3.3Adherence between plies............................................................................................................................206.3.4Pressure resistance.....................................................................................................................................206.3.5Air-tightness.................................................................................................................................................206.3.6Fatigue resistance.......................................................................................................................................206.3.7Burst resistance...........................................................................................................................................216.4Geometrical and dimensional characteristics..........................................................................................216.4.1Space envelope............................................................................................................................................216.4.2Overall dimensions of new diaphragms....................................................................................................216.4.3Overall dimensions of grown diaphragms................................................................................................216.5Functional characteristics..........................................................................................................................226.5.1Stiffnesses of diaphragms..........................................................................................................................226.5.2Characteristic "internal pressure versus axial static force"...................................................................276.5.3Axial isobar characteristic..........................................................................................................................287Inspection and test methods......................................................................................................................297.1General..........................................................................................................................................................297.1.1General test conditions...............................................................................................................................297.1.2Instrumentation............................................................................................................................................307.1.3Definition and preparation of test pieces..................................................................................................30SIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)37.2Verification of the resistance to operating conditions............................................................................307.2.1Low temperature..........................................................................................................................................307.2.2Ozone............................................................................................................................................................307.2.3Oil and petroleum product..........................................................................................................................317.2.4Cleaning product.........................................................................................................................................317.2.5Abrasion.......................................................................................................................................................317.2.6Fire behaviour..............................................................................................................................................327.3Verification of physical characteristics.....................................................................................................327.3.1Appearance of diaphragms in new condition...........................................................................................327.3.2Appearance of diaphragms under extreme horizontal deformations....................................................327.3.3Adherence between plies............................................................................................................................327.3.4Pressure resistance.....................................................................................................................................327.3.5Air-tightness.................................................................................................................................................337.3.6Fatigue resistance.......................................................................................................................................347.3.7Burst resistance...........................................................................................................................................347.4Verification of geometrical and dimensional characteristics.................................................................347.4.1Overall dimensions of diaphragms in relation to axial static force........................................................347.4.2Overall dimensions of diaphragms in relation to radial deformation....................................................357.4.3Overall dimensions of diaphragms in relation to axial deformation......................................................357.5Verification of functional characteristics..................................................................................................367.5.1Stiffnesses....................................................................................................................................................367.5.2Characteristic "internal pressure versus axial static force"...................................................................447.5.3Axial isobar characteristic..........................................................................................................................458Marking.........................................................................................................................................................469Traceability...................................................................................................................................................4710Supplier production plan qualification......................................................................................................4711Approval and qualification of the product................................................................................................4711.1Approval.......................................................................................................................................................4711.2Qualification.................................................................................................................................................4711.2.1General..........................................................................................................................................................4711.2.2Test pieces...................................................................................................................................................4711.2.3Qualification procedure...............................................................................................................................4811.2.4Validity of the product qualification...........................................................................................................4812Inspection and quality surveillance...........................................................................................................48Annex A (informative)

Types of diaphragms.........................................................................................................49A.1Object............................................................................................................................................................49A.2Illustration of typical diaphragm installations..........................................................................................49Annex B (normative)

Test pieces taken from diaphragms..................................................................................51B.1Object............................................................................................................................................................51B.2Preparation of test pieces...........................................................................................................................51B.3Definition of zones for taking test pieces on diaphragms.......................................................................51Annex C (informative)

Example of fatigue test programme.................................................................................53C.1Object............................................................................................................................................................53C.2Test method..................................................................................................................................................53Annex D (normative)

Qualification procedure.......................................................................................................56D.1Object............................................................................................................................................................56D.2Qualification procedure...............................................................................................................................56Annex E (informative)

Recommended tolerances to characteristics of diaphragms.......................................58E.1Object............................................................................................................................................................58E.2Tolerance classes........................................................................................................................................58Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................59SIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)4ForewordThis document (EN 13597:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 "Railway applications",the secretariat of which is held by DIN.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text orby endorsement, at the latest by August 2003, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest byAugust 2003.This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the EuropeanFree Trade Association:¾ Council Directive 96/48/EEC of 23 July 1996 on interoperability of the European high-speed train network 1) ;¾ Council Directive 93/38/EEC of 14 June 1993 coordinating the procurement procedures of entities operating inthe water, energy, transport and telecommunications sectors 2) ;¾ Council Directive 91/440/EEC of 29 July 1991 on the development of the community’s railways. 3)The annexes B and D are normative.The annexes A and C and E are informative.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the followingcountries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

1) Official Journal of the European Communities N° L 235 of 17.09.962) Official Journal of the European Communities N° L 199 of 09.08.933) Official Journal of the European Communities N° L 237 of 24.08.91SIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)5IntroductionDesigning a suspension diaphragm requires knowledge of the mechanical system of which it forms part. Specificcharacteristics are therefore needed for each case, which only the customer can specify.The requirements of the European Standard should operate in conjunction with the conditions for the supply of airspring suspension diaphragms.This European Standard is the result of studies and research to improve the performances and quality of rubberdiaphragms for pneumatic suspension springs in order to meet the requirements of railway rolling stock.This European Standard is designed for the railway operators, the manufacturers and equipment suppliers of therailway industry as well as for the suppliers of rubber diaphragms for pneumatic suspensions springs.SIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)61 ScopeThis European Standard specifies:¾ characteristics that suspension diaphragms

achieves, together with applicable inspection and test methods tobe carried out for verification;¾ approval procedure to be implemented by the customer;¾ guidelines for qualification of the product with specified requirements;¾ quality monitoring of diaphragms in manufacture;¾ supply requirements.This European Standard applies to suspension diaphragms designed to be fitted on railway vehicles and similarvehicles running on dedicated tracks with permanent guide systems, whatever the type of rail and the runningsurface.The European Standard does not detail the other components of pneumatic suspension assemblies or controlsystems such as air reservoirs, frames, stiffeners, emergency suspension systems or elastic supports (such asseries springs), etc., which will affect the diaphragm performance.2 Normative referencesThis European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. Thesenormative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. Fordated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this EuropeanStandard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of thepublication referred to applies (including amendments).EN 45020, Standardization and related activities – General vocabulary (ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996).ISO 31-1, Quantities and units – Part 1: Space and time.ISO 31-3, Quantities and units – Part 3: Mechanics.ISO 36, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Determination of adhesion to textile fabric.ISO 48, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Determination of hardness (hardness between 10 IRHD and 100IRHD 4)).ISO 471, Rubber – Temperatures, humidities and times for conditioning and testing.ISO 1382, Rubber – Vocabulary.ISO 1431-2, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Resistance to ozone cracking – Part 2: Dynamic strain test.ISO 1817, Rubber, vulcanized – Determination of the effect of liquids.ISO 2781, Rubber, vulcanized – Determination of density.

4) IRHD : International Rubber Hardness DegreesSIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)7ISO 2921, Rubber, vulcanized – Determination of low-temperature characteristics – Temperature – Retractionprocedure (TR test).ISO 4649, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Determination of abrasion resistance using a rotating cylindricaldrum device.ISO 10209-1, Technical product documentation – Vocabulary – Part 1: Terms relating to technical drawings:general and types of drawings.3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations3.1 Terms and definitionsFor the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions in ISO 1382 together with the followingapply.3.1.1beadend feature of the diaphragm which enables it to be secured and sealed to the surrounding structureNOTEA diaphragm has two beads.3.1.2bead corereinforcing core, vulcanized in at both ends of the carcassNOTEIt assures permanent seating on a conical or other specifically shaped mounting part.3.1.3carcassstructure of reinforcing material, typically consisting of heavy duty fabric plies arranged crosswise, embedded in theelastomer for flexible force transmission3.1.4diaphragmthe term "diaphragm" herein applies to the finished product, comprising of carcass and beads for use as part ofpneumatic suspension systemNOTEDifferent types of diaphragms are illustrated in annex A.3.1.4.1new diaphragmdiaphragm in new condition and never yet used3.1.4.2grown diaphragmdiaphragm which has been in use and, as a result, has changed dimensionally3.1.5plylayer typically made up of rubberized fabricSIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)8Key1 Bead cores2 Beads3 Inner layer of rubber4 Carcass5 Ply6 Outer layer of rubber7 Rubberized fabricFigure 1 — Different parts of a diaphragm3.2 Symbols and abbreviationsThe majority of the symbols, used in this standard and defined in this sub-clause, are in accordance with ISO 31-1and ISO 31-3.Decimal multiples and submultiples of units defined in Table 1 can be used.SIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)9Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviationsSymbolAbbreviationUnitExplanationAem2Effective area of the diaphragm, with:¾ Ae = F / p¾ DAe / Dd : Variation of the effective area in function of axial displacement.DAe / Dd = ( ( F( j+1 ) - Fj ) / p ) / ( d( j+1 ) - dj )am or radAmplitude of the movement, with a = Dd / 2 or a = DQ / 2.Key1 Displacement ( d or Q)2 Time (t)3 d (t) or Q (t)4 Dd or DQFigure 2 — Amplitude definitionDmOuter diameter of diaphragm (see Figures 5, A.1, A.2, A.3 and A.4), with:Dpj : Outer diameter of diaphragm for a given internal pressure (see explanationsymbol p).dmLinear displacement, with:dM :Maximum operational displacement;Dd :Difference between peak movements measured on the "force versus lineardisplacement" diagram (see Figures 2 and 14).NOTE

The above symbols state the direction of the displacement (see 3.3). For example, dMxcorresponding to a maximum displacement parallel to axis Ox.emThickness of test sample for verification of low temperature resistance (see 7.2.1).FNStatic force applied on the diaphragm, with:FJ :Various operational forces (F1, F2, F3,.etc.), with : 0 £ F0 < Fj < FM;F0 :Minimum operational force;FM :Maximum operational force;DF :Difference between peak forces measured on the "force versus lineardisplacement" diagram (see Figure 14).NOTE

The above symbols state the direction of the force (see 3.3). For example, Fz0corresponding to the minimum operational force applied on the diaphragm alongaxis Oz.to followSIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)10Table 1 (continued)SymbolAbbreviationUnitExplanationfHzFrequencyHmHeight of the diaphragm (see Figures 5, 6, A.1, A.2, A.3 and A.4), with:H1 :Maximum overall dimension of the diaphragm in relation to its upper surface(supporting face of the upper bead) when the diaphragm is submitted to a radialdisplacement.H2 :Minimum overall dimension of the diaphragm in relation to its upper surface(supporting face of the upper bead) when the diaphragm is submitted to a radialdisplacement.Hpj :Height of the diaphragm for a given internal pressure (see explanation symbol p).hNmHeight of levelling of the diaphragm.Distance between the thrust surfaces of the diaphragm beads (see Figures 5, 6, A.1,A.2, A.3 and A.4).This dimension is essential when setting the height of pneumatic springs and shall bespecified in the definition documents.ksN/mStiffness at constant velocity.Stiffness of the diaphragm measured along an axis, at constant velocity.NOTE 1

The above symbol states the direction of the characteristic (see 3.3). For example,ksy corresponding to constant velocity stiffness measured about axis Oy.NOTE 2

It is permitted to define a flexibility at constant velocity instead of a stiffness atconstant velocity, where flexibility is the inverse of stiffness (1/ks).kQsNm/radRotational stiffness at constant velocity.Stiffness of the diaphragm measured around an axis, at constant velocity.NOTE 1

The above symbol states the direction of the characteristic (see 3.3). For example,kQsz corresponding to rotational stiffness at constant velocity measured aroundaxis Oz.NOTE 2

It is permitted to define a rotational flexibility at constant velocity instead of arotational stiffness at constant velocity, where flexibility is the inverse of stiffness(1/kQs).kdynN/mStiffness under sinusoidal motion.Stiffness of the diaphragm measured along an axis, under a sinusoidal motion.NOTE 1

The above symbol states the direction of the characteristic (see 3.3). For example,kdynz corresponding to stiffness measured about axis Oz under a sinusoidalmotion.NOTE 2

It is permitted to define a flexibility under a sinusoidal motion instead of a stiffnessunder a sinusoidal motion, where flexibility is the inverse of stiffness (1/kdyn).to followSIST EN 13597:2004

EN 13597:2003 (E)11Table 1 (continued)SymbolAbbreviationUnitExplanationkQdynNm/radRotational stiffness under sinusoidal motion.Stiffness of the diaphragm measured around an axis, under a sinusoidal motion.NOTE 1

The above symbol states the direction of the characteristic (see 3.3). For example,kQdynz corresponding to rotational stiffness measured around axis Oz under asinusoidal motion.NOTE 2

It is permitted to define a rotational flexibility under a sinusoidal motion instead of arotational stiffness under a sinusoidal motion, where flexibility is the inverse ofstiffness (1/kQdyn).LBmHalf of the distance between the bogie pivots of the vehicle to which the diaphragm isfitted.LbmDistance from the diaphragm centre line to the bogie pivot.l0mReference length of test piece for verification of low temperature resistance (see7.2.1).MNmMoment applied around an axis of the diaphragm, with:MJ :Various operational moments (M1, M2, M3,.etc.), with : 0 < Mj < MM.MM :Maximum operational moment corresponding to a maximum angulardisplacement QM.DM : Difference between peak moments measured on the "moment versus angulardisplacement" diagram (see Figure 14).NOTE

The above symbols state the axis of rotation (see 3.3). For example, MMzcorresponding to the maximum moment applied around axis Oz.pPaDiaphragm relative internal pressure (above atmospheric pressure), with:pj : Various internal pressures (p1, p2, etc.) when diaphragm is submitted to an axialstatic force Fj, with: 0 £ p0 < pj < pM.p0 : Internal pressure when diaphragm is submitted to the minimum axial static forceF0.pM : Internal pressure when diaphragm is submitted to the maximum axial static forceFM.pB:Diaphragm bursting pressure.NOTE 1

1 Pa = 1 N/m² ; 1 bar = 100 kPa.NOTE 2

Use of this symbol as a suffix indicates a parameter which varies with internalpressure (which should be defined according to the above definitions).R1mMaximum overall dimension of the diaphragm in relation

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