Firefighters helmets - Helmets for technical rescue

This European Standard specifies the minimum requirements for technical rescue helmets. These helmets are intended to protect the upper head mainly against the effects of mechanical hazards such as impact and penetration, flame, electrical and chemical hazards whilst conducting technical rescue and associated activities.
Technical rescues involves work associated with the environments and conditions associated with operational scenarios such as but not limited to those found during road traffic collisions and when working in and around collapsed structures often for extended periods of time after natural disasters (flood, earthquake, etc.)
Requirements for marking and information to be supplied by the manufacturer are included.
Helmets for use whilst firefighting in buildings and other structures or in wildland firefighting environments, are not covered by this European Standard, see EN 443 and EN 16471.
Helmets for use in water rescue operations using craft are also not covered by this European Standard.
Protection of the face, eyes, ears and neck may require additional items of PPE, which are not covered by this European Standard.

Feuerwehrhelme - Helme für technische Rettung

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Mindestanforderungen an Helme für technische Rettung fest. Diese Helme sind dazu vorgesehen, die obere Hälfte des Kopfes hauptsächlich gegen die Auswirkungen mechanischer Gefährdungen wie Stoß und Durchdringung, Flammen, elektrische und chemische Gefährdungen bei der Durchführung von technischen Rettungsmaßnahmen und damit verbundenen Tätigkeiten zu schützen.
Technische Rettungsmaßnahmen umfassen Arbeiten, die mit der jeweiligen Umgebung im Zusammenhang stehen sowie mit den Einsatzszenarien verbundene Bedingungen wie Verkehrsunfälle, die jedoch nicht darauf beschränkt sind, sondern häufig Arbeiten in und um eingestürzte(n) Bauwerke(n) im Anschluss an Naturkatastrophen (Überschwemmung, Erdbeben usw.) über längere Zeiträume einschließen.
Anforderungen an die Kennzeichnung und an die Herstellerinformation sind ebenfalls enthalten.
Helme zur Verwendung für die Brandbekämpfung in Gebäuden und anderen baulichen Anlagen oder für Wald- und Flächenbrandbekämpfung werden in dieser Europäischen Norm nicht behandelt, siehe EN 443 und EN 16471.
Helme zur Anwendung bei Rettungsaktionen im Wasser mit handwerklichen Techniken werden in dieser Europäischen Norm ebenfalls nicht behandelt.
Der Schutz des Gesichtes, der Augen, der Ohren und des Halses kann zusätzliche Gegenstände Persönlicher Schutzausrüstung erfordern, die in dieser Europäischen Norm nicht behandelt werden.

Casques de sapeurs-pompiers - Casques pour les opérations de secours technique

La présente Norme européenne précise les exigences minimales pour les casques de secours techniques. Ces casques sont destinés à protéger la partie supérieure de la tête, principalement contre les effets des dangers mécaniques tels que les chocs et les perforations, les flammes, et des dangers électriques et chimiques lors des opérations de secours techniques et activités connexes.
Les secours techniques impliquent un travail lié aux environnements et aux conditions associés aux scénarios opérationnels, y compris, mais sans s'y limiter, aux situations de collisions routières et lors d'interventions, parfois de longue durée, dans et autour de structures effondrées, suite à des catastrophes naturelles (inondations, tremblements de terre, etc.).
Elle précise également les exigences de fabrication et les informations que le fournisseur doit donner.
Les casques destinés à la lutte contre les feux dans les constructions ou autres structures, ou dans les espaces naturels, ne sont pas couverts par la présente norme, voir l'EN 443 et l'EN 16471.
Les casques destinés aux opérations de secours dans l'eau avec utilisation de structure flottante ne sont pas non plus couverts par la présente norme.
La protection du visage, des yeux, des oreilles et du cou peut nécessiter davantage d'EPI (équipements de protection individuelle), qui ne sont pas couverts par la présente norme.

Gasilske čelade - Čelade za tehnično reševanje

Ta evropski standard določa minimalne zahteve za čelade za tehnično reševanje. Te čelade so namenjene zaščiti zgornjega dela glave predvsem pred posledicami mehanskih nevarnosti, kot so udarci in preboji, ogenj ter električne in kemične nevarnosti med tehničnim reševanjem in povezanimi dejavnostmi.
Tehnično reševanje vključuje delo, povezano z okolji in pogoji, ki so povezani z operativnimi scenariji, ki med drugim vključujejo scenarije pri prometnih nesrečah in pri delu v porušenih zgradbah ali okoli njih, pogosto v daljših časovnih obdobjih po naravnih katastrofah (poplave, potresi itd.).
Zahteve za označevanje in informacije, ki jih mora zagotoviti proizvajalec, so vključene.
Ta evropski standard ne vključuje čelad za gašenje v stavbah in drugih zgradbah ali čelad za gašenje v naravi. Glej standarda EN 443 in EN 16471.
Ta evropski standard ne vključuje niti čelad za uporabo pri reševalnih operacijah v vodi s plovili.
Za zaščito obraza, oči, ušes in vratu je morda potrebna dodatna osebna zaščitna oprema (PPE), ki ni zajeta v tem evropskem standardu.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Nov-2012
Publication Date
19-Jan-2015
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Jan-2015
Due Date
12-Mar-2015
Completion Date
20-Jan-2015

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Feuerwehrhelme - Helme für technische RettungCasques de sapeurs-pompiers - Casques pour les opérations de secours techniqueFirefighters helmets - Helmets for technical rescue13.340.20Varovalna oprema za glavoHead protective equipment13.220.10Gašenje požaraFire-fightingICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16473:2014SIST EN 16473:2015en,fr,de01-februar-2015SIST EN 16473:2015SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16473:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16473
December 2014 ICS 13.340.20 English Version
Firefighters helmets - Helmets for technical rescue
Casques de sapeurs-pompiers - Casques pour les opérations de secours technique

Feuerwehrhelme - Helme für technische Rettung This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 November 2014.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 16473:2014 ESIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5 3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6 4 Physical requirements ..........................................................................................................................7 4.1 Materials .................................................................................................................................................7 4.2 Projections .............................................................................................................................................7 4.3 Retention system ...................................................................................................................................7 4.4 Accessories and non-integral additional protective devices ............................................................8 4.5 Visors ......................................................................................................................................................8 5 Performance requirements ...................................................................................................................8 5.1 Extent of coverage .................................................................................................................................8 5.2 Shock absorption...................................................................................................................................8 5.2.1 Crown impact .........................................................................................................................................8 5.2.2 Lateral impacts (front, side, rear) .........................................................................................................8 5.3 Protection against high speed particles .............................................................................................8 5.4 Penetration resistance ..........................................................................................................................8 5.5 Retention system effectiveness ...........................................................................................................8 5.6 Retention system strength ...................................................................................................................9 5.7 Flame resistance ....................................................................................................................................9 5.7.1 Helmet shell ............................................................................................................................................9 5.7.2 Retention system ...................................................................................................................................9 5.7.3 Accessories and non-integral additional protective devices ............................................................9 5.8 Lateral crushing .....................................................................................................................................9 5.9 Thermal resistance ................................................................................................................................9 5.10 Field of vision ...................................................................................................................................... 10 5.11 Electrical properties ........................................................................................................................... 10 5.11.1 Conductive headform ......................................................................................................................... 10 5.11.2 Surface insulation ............................................................................................................................... 10 5.12 Resistance to contact with liquid chemicals ................................................................................... 10 5.13 Practical performance ........................................................................................................................ 10 5.13.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 10 5.13.2 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 11 6 Test methods ....................................................................................................................................... 11 6.1 Sampling and helmet adjustment ..................................................................................................... 11 6.1.1 Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 11 6.1.2 Helmet adjustment .............................................................................................................................. 11 6.2 Visual inspection ................................................................................................................................ 11 6.3 Conditioning ........................................................................................................................................ 11 6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 11 6.3.2 Cleaning and disinfection .................................................................................................................. 11 6.3.3 Ultraviolet (UV) ageing ....................................................................................................................... 12 6.3.4 Solvent conditioning .......................................................................................................................... 12 6.3.5 'Thermal plus' conditioning ............................................................................................................... 12 6.3.6 'Thermal minus' conditioning ............................................................................................................ 12 6.3.7 Wet conditioning ................................................................................................................................. 12 6.4 Extent of coverage .............................................................................................................................. 12 6.4.1 Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 12 SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 3 6.4.2 Samples ................................................................................................................................................ 12 6.4.3 Test method ......................................................................................................................................... 12 6.5 Shock absorption ................................................................................................................................ 13 6.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13 6.5.2 Crown impact ....................................................................................................................................... 13 6.5.3 Lateral impacts (front, side, rear) ...................................................................................................... 13 6.6 Protection against high speed particles ........................................................................................... 13 6.7 Penetration resistance ........................................................................................................................ 14 6.8 Retention system effectiveness ......................................................................................................... 14 6.9 Retention system strength ................................................................................................................. 14 6.10 Flame resistance ................................................................................................................................. 14 6.10.1 Helmet shell and items ........................................................................................................................ 14 6.10.2 Helmet retention system components .............................................................................................. 14 6.11 Lateral crushing ................................................................................................................................... 14 6.11.1 Principle................................................................................................................................................ 14 6.11.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 14 6.12 Thermal resistance .............................................................................................................................. 15 6.13 Field of vision ...................................................................................................................................... 15 6.14 Electrical properties ............................................................................................................................ 15 6.14.1 Preconditioning ................................................................................................................................... 15 6.14.2 Conductive headform test .................................................................................................................. 15 6.14.3 Surface insulation test ........................................................................................................................ 15 6.15 Resistance to contact with liquid chemicals .................................................................................... 15 6.16 Practical performance testing ............................................................................................................ 15 6.16.1 Test subjects ........................................................................................................................................ 15 6.16.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 16 6.16.3 Test report ............................................................................................................................................ 17 7 Marking ................................................................................................................................................. 17 8 Information to be supplied by the manufacturer.............................................................................. 18 Annex A (normative)

Conditioning and testing schedule ........................................................................... 20 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 89/686/EEC ....................................................................................... 22

SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 16473:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 158 “Head protection”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2015 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2015. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. The purpose of this European Standard is to provide minimum performance requirements for helmets designed for use for technical rescue operations and associated activities by for example firefighters, rescue and medical personnel as described in the scope. Consequently, the protective helmet should be comfortable, light and commensurate with the risks to which the rescue personnel may be exposed in order to be effective. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the minimum requirements for technical rescue helmets. These helmets are intended to protect the upper head mainly against the effects of mechanical hazards such as impact and penetration, flame, electrical and chemical hazards while conducting technical rescue and associated activities. Technical rescues involve the environments and conditions associated with operational scenarios such as but not limited to those found during road traffic collisions, railway incidents and when working in and around collapsed structures, often for extended periods of time, after natural disasters (flood, earthquake, etc.). Requirements for marking and information to be supplied by the manufacturer are included. Helmets for use while firefighting in buildings and other structures or in wildland firefighting environments, are not covered by this European Standard see EN 443 and EN 16471. Helmets for use in water rescue operations using craft, such as boats, canoes etc., are also not covered by this European Standard. Protection of the face and eyes, when not provided by visors, ears and neck might require additional items of personal protective equipment (PPE), which are not covered by this European Standard. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 168:2001, Personal eye-protection - Non-optical test methods EN 960:2006, Headforms for use in the testing of protective helmets EN 1811, Reference test method for release of nickel from all post assemblies which are inserted into pierced parts of the human body and articles intended to come into direct and prolonged contact with the skin EN 13087-1:2000, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 1: Conditions and conditioning EN 13087-2, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 2: Shock absorption EN 13087-3:2000, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 3: Resistance to penetration EN 13087-4, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 4: Retention system effectiveness EN 13087-5:2012, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 5: Retention system strength EN 13087-6, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 6: Field of vision EN 13087-7:2000, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 7: Flame resistance EN 13087-8:2000, Protective helmets - Test methods - Part 8: Electrical properties EN ISO 13688:2013, Protective clothing - General requirements (ISO 13688:2013) EN 14458:2004, Personal eye-equipment - Faceshields and visors for use with firefighters' and high performance industrial safety helmets used by firefighters, ambulance and emergency services SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 6 ISO 1817:20051), Rubber, vulcanized — Determination of the effect of liquids ISO 6344-1, Coated abrasives — Grain size analysis — Part 1: Grain size distribution test ISO 17493, Clothing and equipment for protection against heat — Test method for convective heat resistance using a hot air circulating oven 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 helmet for technical rescue headwear, including all integral components supplied by the manufacturer, intended primarily to protect the upper part of a wearer's head against hazards which may occur during technical rescue activities Note 1 to entry: Hereafter, helmets for technical rescue are referred to as helmets. 3.2 helmet shell component in hard material with a smooth finish, which gives the helmet its general shape 3.3 protective padding material and/or suspension system which serves to dampen impact energy 3.4 retention system those parts which are responsible for securing the helmet in position on the head, including items which enable adjustment or improved comfort 3.5 chin strap part of a retention system, including a strap which passes under or on the wearer's chin and which helps to ensure that the helmet is correctly maintained in place 3.6 head form shape replacing the head which is used for testing certain characteristics Note 1 to entry: The head form is designed in accordance with EN 960. 3.7 accessories additional device(s) supplied or recommended by the manufacturer which may be attached to the helmet but which provide no protective function to the wearer EXAMPLES

Lamp brackets, cable clips, badges and trims.

1) ISO 1817:2005 is replaced by ISO 1817:2011, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of the effect of liquids. SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 7 3.8 non-integral additional protective devices additional protective device(s) supplied or recommended by the manufacturer which may be attached to the helmet and intended to be removable by the user EXAMPLES

Mesh visors, ear defenders, neck-guard and safety goggles. 4 Physical requirements 4.1 Materials For those parts of the helmet coming, or that may come, into contact with the skin the material used shall not be subject to any known appreciable alteration from contact with sweat or with substances likely to be found in toiletries. Materials shall not be used which are known to cause skin disorders or other adverse effects on health. Examples for documents that can be presented as evidence of chemical innocuousness are given in the note. NOTE The following list of documents is given for information and as examples of documents to be examined: a)

materials specifications; b) safety data sheets relating to the materials; c) information relating to the suitability of the materials for use with food, in medical devices, or other relevant applications; d) information relating to toxicological, allergenic, carcinogenic, toxic to reproduction or mutagenic investigations on the materials; e) information relating to ecotoxicological and other environmental investigations on the materials. The examination should determine whether the claim that the materials are suitable for use in the protective helmet is justified. Particular attention needs to be paid to the presence of plasticisers, unreacted components, heavy metals, impurities and the chemical identity of pigments and dyes. All metallic materials which could come into prolonged contact with the skin (e.g. studs, fittings) shall have a release of Nickel of less than 0,5 µg/cm3 per week, when tested according to EN 1811. Substances recommended for cleaning, maintenance or disinfection shall have no adverse effect on the helmet and shall be not known to be likely to have any adverse effect upon the wearer, when applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Materials shall conform to the relevant requirements of EN ISO 13688 4.2 Projections There shall be no sharp edges, roughness or projections on any part of the helmet, which are likely to cause injury to the wearer, in contact or potential contact with the wearer when the helmet is worn. Test according to 6.16. 4.3 Retention system The helmet shall be fitted with a retention system, including a chinstrap. The chinstrap shall be adjustable in length. SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 8 4.4 Accessories and non-integral additional protective devices When the helmet manufacturer states any accessories and/or non-integral additional protective devices, as defined in 3.7 and 3.8, as being for use with the helmet, the helmet with such items fitted to it shall continue to satisfy the requirements of this European Standard. However, some accessories and/or non-integral additional protective devices might not be suitable for technical rescue operations where there is a potential exposure to flame. In such cases, information shall be provided by the manufacturer as to the conditions under which such accessories and/or non-integral additional protective devices might be used. 4.5 Visors Visors intended for use and supplied with helmets conforming to this European Standard shall conform to the requirements of EN 14458. Visors refer only to helmet mounted face guards and eye guards as defined in EN 14458, excluding goggles and spectacles. 5 Performance requirements 5.1 Extent of coverage When the helmet is tested by the method described in 6.4, it shall cover at least the area situated above plane AA’ as defined in EN 960:2006, Figure 1. 5.2 Shock absorption 5.2.1 Crown impact When a helmet is tested by the method described in 6.5.2, the force transmitted to the head form shall not exceed 5 kN, for an impact energy of (50 ± 2) J. 5.2.2 Lateral impacts (front, side, rear) When a helmet is tested by the method described in 6.5.3, the force transmitted to the head form shall not exceed 5 kN, for an impact energy of (25 ± 1) J. 5.3 Protection against high speed particles When a helmet is tested by the method described in 6.6: a) projectile shall be prevented from passing completely through the helmet; b) there shall be no contact with the headform so that a mark appears on the white paper on the opposite side to that struck by the ball. 5.4 Penetration resistance When a helmet is tested by the method described in 6.7, there shall be no contact between the striker and the test block, for an impact energy of (30 ± 1) J. 5.5 Retention system effectiveness When a helmet is tested by the method described in 6.8, the helmet shall not come completely off the headform. SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 9 5.6 Retention system strength When a helmet is tested by the method described in 6.9, the following shall apply: a) Maximum dynamic elongation shall not exceed 25 mm under the intermediate load condition; b) Minimum width of the chin strap under intermediate load condition shall be 15 mm; c) The release point of the retention system shall be between 500 N and 1 000 N. 5.7 Flame resistance 5.7.1 Helmet shell When a helmet is tested by the method given in 6.10.1, any of the externally exposed materials of the helmet shell, not within 5 mm of an edge, shall not burn with the emission of flame or drip molten material after a period of 5 s has elapsed from the removal of the flame. 5.7.2 Retention system Materials of the retention system that are outside of the helmet shell, when tested by the method given in 6.10.2, shall not burn with the emission of flame or drip molten material after a period of 5 s has elapsed from the removal of the flame. 5.7.3 Accessories and non-integral additional protective devices Any items as defined in 3.7 and 3.8 stated as being for use with the helmet by the helmet manufacturer for technical rescue and associated operations and on the outside of the helmet shell, shall be tested by the method given in 6.10.1 in their in-use position. The flame shall not be applied within 5 mm of any edge of the item and the item shall not burn with the emission of flame or drip molten material after a period of 5 s has elapsed from the removal of the flame. 5.8 Lateral crushing When the helmet is tested by the method given in 6.11, the maximum transverse deformation of the helmet shall not exceed 40 mm. The residual deformation shall not exceed 15 mm. 5.9 Thermal resistance When the helmet fitted with any items, as defined in 3.7 and 3.8 stated as being for use with the helmet by the helmet manufacturer, are tested by the method given in 6.12, they shall conform to the following requirements: a) no part of the helmet or any item as defined in 3.7 and 3.8 that is not in contact with the head form before this test shall come into contact with the head form as a result of this test. Test by visual inspection; b) there shall be no separation, melting or dripping of any part of the helmet or any item as defined in 3.7 and 3.8; c) any moveable elements of the helmet or any item as defined in 3.7 and 3.8, e.g. chin strap closure and release device(s), visors, hearing defenders, etc. shall remain functional; d) there shall be no ignition of any part of the helmet or any item as defined in 3.7 and 3.8; and e) there shall be no ignition, melting or loss of legibility of the product labels. SIST EN 16473:2015

EN 16473:2014 (E) 10 5.10 Field of vision When the helmet is tested by the method given in 6.14 the wearer's field of vision shall correspond to the following angles: a) horizontal field of vision of not less than 105° on both right- and left-hand sides; b) vertical field of vision in the upwards direction of not less than 7°; c) vertical field of vision in the downwards direction of not less than 45°; d) the specified field of vision shall be achieved with any eye protector in its in-use and out-of-use positions; and e) the periphery of the eye protector may fall within the specified field of vision. The eye protector should not restrict the users' awareness of the surroundings. 5.11 Electrical properties 5.11.1 Conductive headform When the helmet is tested by the method given in 6.14.2, no evidence of breakdown shall be visible and the leakage current shall not exceed 1,2 mA. 5.11.2 Surface insulation When the helmet shell is tested by the method given in 6.14.3, no evidence of breakdown shall be visible and the leakage current shall not exceed 1,2 mA. NOTE 1 These requirements are intended to provide protection to the wearer against short-term accidental contact with live electrical conductors at voltages up to 440 V ac. NOTE 2 The test in 6.14.2 is intended to simulate closely the situation in use – that is the leakage current to the wearer via a live conductor touching the shell. NOTE 3 The test in 6.14.3 is also dependent upon

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