Determination of the resistance to cryogenic spillage of insulation materials - Part 1: Liquid phases (ISO 20088-1:2016)

This part of ISO 20088 Part 1 describes a method for determining the resistance to liquid cryogenic spillage on CSP systems. It is applicable where CSP systems are installed on carbon steel and will be in contact with cryogenic fluids.
Liquid nitrogen is used as the cryogenic medium since it has a lower boiling point than liquid natural gas or liquid oxygen. Additionally, it can be safely used for experiment.
Future parts of the standard will cover vapor phase and high pressure jet exposure conditions.

Bestimmung der Beständigkeit von Isoliermaterialien bei kryogenem Auslaufen - Teil 1: Flüssigkeit (ISO 20088-1:2016)

Dieser Teil von ISO 20088 beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Beständigkeit von kryogenen Auslaufschutzsystemen (CSP) bei kryogenem Auslaufen. Es ist anwendbar, wenn CSP Systeme auf Kohlen-stoffstahl installiert sind und sich in Kontakt mit kryogenen Flüssigkeiten befinden.
Als kryogenes Medium wird flüssiger Stickstoff verwendet, da er einen niedrigeren Siedepunkt als flüssiges Erdgas oder flüssiger Sauerstoff hat. Darüber hinaus kann er sicher bei Versuchen verwendet werden.
Zukünftige Teile der Norm befassen sich mit der Dampfphase und der Exposition unter Hochdruckstrahl-bedingungen.
Das Prüflabor ist für die Durchführung einer angemessenen Risikobewertung nach örtlichen Vorschriften verantwortlich, um die Auswirkung der Exposition von flüssigem und gasförmigem Stickstoff auf die Ausrüstung und das Personal zu prüfen.

Détermination de la résistance des matériaux d'isolation thermique suite à un refroidissement cryogénique - Partie 1: Phase liquide (ISO 20088-1:2016)

ISO 20088-1:2016 décrit une méthode pour déterminer la résistance à une fuite cryogénique liquide sur les systèmes de Protection contre les Fuites Cryogéniques (CSP). Il s'applique quand des systèmes CSP sont installés sur de l'acier au carbone et seront en contact avec des fluides cryogéniques.
L'azote liquide est utilisé comme milieu cryogénique, puisqu'il a un point d'ébullition plus bas que le gaz naturel liquéfié ou l'oxygène liquide. Il peut de plus être utilisé sans danger pour l'expérimentation.
Les parties à venir du présent document traiteront des conditions en phase vapeur et d'émission sous forme de jet.
Il est de la responsabilité du laboratoire d'essai de réaliser une appréciation adéquate du risque suivant la réglementation locale afin de prendre en compte l'impact de l'exposition à l'azote liquide et gazeux sur les équipements et le personnel.

Ugotavljanje obstojnosti izolacijskih materialov pri razlitju v kriogenem področju - 1. del: Tekoča faza (ISO 20088-1:2016)

Ta del standarda ISO 20088 1. del opisuje metodo za ugotavljanje obstojnosti pri razlitju v kriogenem področju v sistemih CSP. Uporablja se, kjer so sistemi nameščeni na ogljikovo jeklo in bodo v stiku s kriogenimi tekočinami. Kot kriogen medij se uporablja tekoči dušik, saj ima nižjo točko vretja kot tekoči zemeljski plin ali tekoči kisik. Poleg tega ga je mogoče varno uporabljati pri eksperimentih. Prihodnji deli standarda bodo zajemali fazo izparevanja in pogoje izpostavljenosti visokotlačnega curka.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
05-Jan-2016
Publication Date
08-Dec-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Nov-2016
Due Date
09-Jan-2017
Completion Date
09-Dec-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
01-januar-2017

8JRWDYOMDQMHREVWRMQRVWLL]RODFLMVNLKPDWHULDORYSULUD]OLWMXYNULRJHQHPSRGURþMX

GHO7HNRþDID]D ,62

Determination of the resistance to cryogenic spillage of insulation materials - Part 1:

Liquid phases (ISO 20088-1:2016)

Bestimmung der Beständigkeit von Isoliermaterialien bei kryogenem Auslaufen - Teil 1:

Flüssigkeit (ISO 20088-1:2016)
Détermination de la résistance des matériaux d'isolation thermique suite à un
refroidissement cryogénique - Partie 1: Phase liquide (ISO 20088-1:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20088-1:2016
ICS:
23.020.40 Proti mrazu odporne posode Cryogenic vessels
(kriogenske posode)
SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
EN ISO 20088-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.200
English Version
Determination of the resistance to cryogenic spillage of
insulation materials - Part 1: Liquid phases (ISO 20088-
1:2016)

Détermination de la résistance des matériaux Bestimmung der Beständigkeit von Isoliermaterialien

d'isolation thermique suite à un refroidissement bei kryogenem Auslaufen - Teil 1: Flüssigkeit (ISO

cryogénique - Partie 1: Phase liquide (ISO 20088- 20088-1:2016)
1:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 August 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20088-1:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
EN ISO 20088-1:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
EN ISO 20088-1:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 20088-1:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67

"Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 282 “Installation and equipment for LNG” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20088-1:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20088-1:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20088-1
First edition
2016-09-15
Determination of the resistance
to cryogenic spillage of insulation
materials —
Part 1:
Liquid phase
Détermination de la résistance des matériaux d’isolation thermique
suite à un refroidissement cryogénique —
Partie 1: Phase liquide
Reference number
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Test configurations ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Sample holder .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Construction of the test items and substrates ....................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Material ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Release tank ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Specimen support ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5 Sample holder .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Cryogenic spillage protection materials ...................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Wet applied coating systems ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Pre-formed system testing ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

7 Instrumentation .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Thermocouple location .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Test apparatus and conditions ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 Injection point and position ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

8.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.2 Injection point position .............................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

10 Repeatability and reproducibility ...................................................................................................................................................10

11 Uncertainty of measurement ................................................................................................................................................................10

12 Test report ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................10

13 Practical applications of test results .............................................................................................................................................11

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

13.2 Performance criteria .......................................................................................................................................................................11

13.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

13.2.2 Coatings and spray-applied materials ........................................................................................................11

13.2.3 Systems and assemblies .........................................................................................................................................11

13.3 Factors affecting the validity of the test .........................................................................................................................12

13.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

13.3.2 Leakage of the release tank .................................................................................................................................12

13.3.3 Failure of thermocouples .................. .....................................................................................................................12

13.3.4 Loss of sample integrity/loss of containment .....................................................................................12

Annex A (normative) Methods of fixing thermocouples ...............................................................................................................13

Annex B (normative) Complete set-up ............................................................................................................................................................15

Annex C (normative) Thermocouple positioning inside the sample holder ...........................................................17

Annex D (informative) Classification ................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structure

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, Subcommittee SC 9, Liquefied natural gas

installations and equipment.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
Introduction

The test described in the procedure in this document is one in which some of the properties of cryogenic

spillage protection materials can be determined. This test is designed to give an indication of how

cryogenic spillage protection materials will perform in a sudden exposure to cryogenic liquid.

The dimensions of the test specimen can be smaller than typical items of structure and plant and the

release of liquid can be substantially less than that which might occur in a credible event. However,

individual thermal and mechanical loads imparted to the cryogenic spillage protection materials, from

the cryogenic spillage defined in the procedure described in this document, have been shown to be

similar to those by large-scale cryogenic spillage.
Further parts of ISO 20088 are planned for future publication:
— Part 2 : Vapour phase;
— Part 3: High pressure jet release.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
Determination of the resistance to cryogenic spillage of
insulation materials —
Part 1:
Liquid phase

CAUTION — The attention of all persons concerned with managing and carrying out cryogenic

spillage testing is drawn to the fact that liquid nitrogen testing can be hazardous and that there

is a danger of receiving a “cold burn” and/or the possibility that harmful gases (risk of anoxia)

can be evolved during the test. Mechanical and operational hazards can also arise during the

construction of the test elements or structures, their testing and disposal of test residues. An

assessment of all potential hazards and risks to health shall be made and safety precautions

shall be identified and provided. Appropriate training and personal protection equipment shall

be given to relevant personnel.
1 Scope

This document describes a method for determining the resistance to liquid cryogenic spillage on

cryogenic spillage protection (CSP) systems. It is applicable where CSP systems are installed on carbon

steel and will be in contact with cryogenic fluids.

Liquid nitrogen is used as the cryogenic medium since it has a lower boiling point than liquid natural

gas or liquid oxygen and it is not flammable. Additionally, it can be safely used for experiment.

Future parts of the standard will cover vapour phase and jet exposure conditions.

The test laboratory is responsible to conduct an appropriate risk assessment according to local

regulation in order to consider the impact of liquid and gaseous nitrogen exposure to equipment and

personnel.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 630-1, Structural steels — Part 1: General technical delivery conditions for hot-rolled products

ISO 845, Cellular plastics and rubbers — Determination of apparent density

ISO 8301, Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal resistance and related properties —

Heat flow meter apparatus

ISO 16903, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Characteristics of LNG, influencing the design, and

material selection

ISO 22899-1, Determination of the resistance to jet fires of passive fire protection materials — Part 1:

General requirements

EN 10029, Tolerances on dimensions, shape and mass for hot rolled steel plates 3mm thick or above

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
floating liquid natural gas
FLNG

floating liquid natural gas facilities such as floating production storage and offloading (LNG-FPSO),

floating storage and re-gasification unit (LNG-FSRU)
3.2
cryogenic spill
unintended exposure to cryogenic liquid (CL) at −196°C
3.3
cryogenic spill protection
CSP

coating or cladding arrangement, or free-standing system which, in the event of a cryogenic spill, will

provide thermal protection to restrict the heat transfer rate of the substrate
3.4
limiting temperature

minimum temperature that the equipment, assembly or structure to be protected may be allowed to reach

3.5
release point
assembly from which the cryogenic fluid flows out
3.6
sponsor
person or organization who/which requests a test
3.7
specimen owner
person or company that holds/produces a material to test
4 Test configurations
4.1 General

There is one basic configuration under which the test can be conducted. This is a liquid configuration

where the material to be tested is rapidly exposed to liquid nitrogen in a pool at a temperature of −196 °C.

For reasons of clarity, flexible hoses used for fume extraction are not shown in Figures 1 to 4 below.

4.2 Sample holder

Samples will be tested in a sample holder with exact dimension as specified in ISO 22899-1:2007,

Figure 11.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
5 Construction of the test items and substrates
5.1 General
The key items required for the test are:
— a liquid nitrogen injection point;
— a sample holder;
— the insulation part.

It is important to reduce vapour generation during the liquid nitrogen dumping. Flexible hoses are to be

used without forced ventilation.
5.2 Material

The material normally used is a 10 mm thick steel plate complying with ISO 630-1, Grade Fe 430. An all

welded construction shall be used and all welds shall be 5 mm fillet and continuous unless otherwise

stated. All dimensions are in millimetres and, unless otherwise stated, the following tolerances shall

be used:
— whole number ±1,0 mm;
— decimal to point, 0 mm ± 0,4 mm;
— decimal to point, 00 mm ± 0,2 mm;
— angles 0’ 30”;
— radius 0,4 mm.
5.3 Release tank

The liquid nitrogen is contained within a tank of a constant surface area either a square base of 750 mm

or circular base of 846 mm diameter. The release orifice shall be 100 mm in diameter.

When there is 250 l of stable non-bubbling liquid nitrogen within the tank, the test is ready to start.

The release tank shall be constructed of cryogenic resistant stainless steel and externally insulated for

personnel protection.
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
Detail D
Section view F-F
Scale 1:2
Scale 1:10
⌀12
Detail E
⌀12
Scale 1:2
Top view
Scale 1:10
⌀140
F F
⌀98
□750
⌀100
Figure 1 — Layout of a square release tank
Figure 2 — Layout of a cylindrical release tank
5.4 Specimen support

A square generic support will be used to hold the test sample. It shall be constructed with 10 mm carbon

steel. The centre of the table is hollow and will receive the sample holder as shown in Figure 3.

4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
1000
1060
40 80
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
Figure 3 — Specimen support

The support walls and bottom panel are to be permanently insulated with rigid foam boards with a U

value of a minimum of 1,25 W/m ·K. An example material would be polyurethane (PU) foam boards

with the following characteristics:
3 3
— density: 130 kg/m ± 5 kg/m determined as in accordance with ISO 845;
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
— thickness: 30 mm ± 2 mm;

— thermal conductivity at 20 °C: 40 mW/m·K ± 4 mW/m·K determined as in accordance with ISO 8301.

5.5 Sample holder

All beams should be welded onto the bottom flat panel. Planarity of the bottom panel shall be in

accordance with EN 10029 as shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 — Sample holder

The sample holder walls and top should be externally insulated with an insulation material as described

in 5.4. Rigid foam board walls should have a height of 1 m. The box shall be fully vapour tight.

The top cover shall have three holes: one for liquid nitrogen injection in the centre and two for fume

extraction (see Annex B).
5.6 Test method

When there is 250 l of liquid nitrogen within the tank, the test is ready to start. At the beginning of the

test the liquid nitrogen is quickly released towards the specimen of material under test from a height

of 1 000 mm. It is necessary to ensure a permanent 5 cm level of liquid nitrogen in both parts of the

basin in the sample holder for the duration of the test, liquid nitrogen is fed via the tank with suitable

cryogenic flexible hose for example with 6,35 mm diameter. The procedure for the test is detailed in

Clause 9.
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
6 Cryogenic spillage protection materials
6.1 General

CSP systems generally come in two forms: wet applied materials/coatings and preformed materials.

Preformed systems include boards, tiles, blankets, sandwich panels, etc. and are characterized by

systems that include joints and fixings. Pre-formed systems may be used in conjunction with wet

applied materials.

The application/installation methodology, including any necessary surface preparation, reinforcement,

thickness, top-coats, field joints, etc., is to be determined by the sponsor and/or specimen owner and

details provided for inclusion within test report.
6.2 Wet applied coating systems

For testing CSP systems/materials that are wet applied as coatings, the sample holder test specimen,

as shown in Figure 4, shall have material applied directly to all internal surfaces. The system thickness

should be uniform across the whole specimen.
6.3 Pre-formed system testing

When testing pre-formed systems, the system shall, as a minimum, be installed to cover the bottom of

the test assembly on to which the LN pool is formed, as shown in Figure 4.

The method of installing the system shall include representative joints, fixings and wet applied material

interface details; a minimum of two joints should be included as follows:

a) one joint located along line of thermocouples: 4, 7, 10 (or 3, 6, 9) as shown in Figure 5;

b) one joint located along line of thermocouples: 5, 6, 7, 8 as shown in Figure 5.

Joints should be tested, either in a single test or separate tests as determined by the sponsor and/or

specimen owner ensuring the details are representative in accordance with Clause 10.

7 Instrumentation
7.1 General

Thermocouples shall be fastened to all test specimens. The type and fixing shall be in accordance with

one of the methods described in Annex A.
Readings shall be recorded at intervals of not more than 1 s.
7.2 Thermocouple location
Thermocouples are positioned as shown in Figure 5.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 20088-1:2017
ISO 20088-1:2016(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 view from rear of specimen
2 thermocouple location
3 simulated corner or edge feature of “l” beam
Figure 5 — Thermocouple location at sample holder
8 Test apparatus and conditions
8.1 Injection point and position
8.1.1 General

Details of construction of the injection point, from which the liquid nitrogen is issued, are given in 5.3.

Liquid nitrogen should be a minimum of 98 % purity.
8.1.2 Injection point position

The injection point shall be positioned vertically above and normal to the bottom panel of the test

specimen. The tip of the injection point shall be located 1 000 mm ± 5 mm above the web of the CSP

material specimen. The centre of the injection point shall align with the centre of the test s

...

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