Industrial non-destructive testing equipment - Electron linear accelerator (IEC 62976:2017)

This document gives the rules of naming, technical requirements, test methods, inspection, marking, packaging, transportation, storage and accompanying documents for electron linear accelerator equipment for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT).
This document applies to NDT electron linear accelerator equipment in the X-ray energy range of 1 MeV to 15 MeV, including the accelerator equipment for radiographic film,computed radiography with imaging plates, real-time imaging, digital detector array and industrial computerized tomography.

Industrielle Ausrüstung für die zerstörungsfreie Prüfung - Elektronenlinearbeschleuniger (IEC 62976:2017)

Appareils destinés aux essais non destructifs pour le secteur industriel - Accélérateur électronique linéaire (IEC 62976:2017)

This document gives the rules of naming, technical requirements, test methods, inspection, marking, packaging, transportation, storage and accompanying documents for electron linear accelerator equipment for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT).
This document applies to NDT electron linear accelerator equipment in the X-ray energy range of 1 MeV to 15 MeV, including the accelerator equipment for radiographic film,computed radiography with imaging plates, real-time imaging, digital detector array and industrial computerized tomography.

Oprema za industrijsko neporušitveno preskušanje - Elektronski linearni pospeševalnik (IEC 62976:2017)

Ta dokument vsebuje pravila o poimenovanju, tehnične zahteve, preskusne metode, podatke o pregledu, označevanju, pakiranju, prevozu in skladiščenju ter spremne dokumente za elektronski linearni pospeševalnik, ki se uporablja za neporušitveno preskušanje (NDT).
Dokument se uporablja za elektronski linearni pospeševalnik za neporušitveno preskušanje v energijskem območju od 1 MeV do 15 MeV, vključno s pospeševalno opremo za radiografski film, računalniško radiografijo s slikovnimi ploščami, sprotno slikanje, digitalnimi detektorskimi nizi in industrijsko računalniško tomografijo.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Mar-2019
Publication Date
11-Aug-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Jul-2019
Due Date
06-Sep-2019
Completion Date
12-Aug-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 62976:2019
01-september-2019
Oprema za industrijsko neporušitveno preskušanje - Elektronski linearni
pospeševalnik (IEC 62976:2017)
Industrial non-destructive testing equipment - Electron linear accelerator (IEC
62976:2017)

Industrielle Ausrüstung für die zerstörungsfreie Prüfung - Elektronenlinearbeschleuniger

(IEC 62976:2017)

Appareils destinés aux essais non destructifs pour le secteur industriel - Accélérateur

électronique linéaire (IEC 62976:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 62976:2019
ICS:
19.100 Neporušitveno preskušanje Non-destructive testing
27.120.01 Jedrska energija na splošno Nuclear energy in general
SIST EN IEC 62976:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 62976:2019
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SIST EN IEC 62976:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 62976
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2019
ICS 27.120.01
English Version
Industrial non-destructive testing equipment - Electron linear
accelerator
(IEC 62976:2017)

Appareils destinés aux essais non destructifs pour le Industrielle Ausrüstung für die zerstörungsfreie Prüfung -

secteur industriel - Accélérateur électronique linéaire Elektronenlinearbeschleuniger

(IEC 62976:2017) (IEC 62976:2017)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2019-05-22. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 62976:2019 E
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SIST EN IEC 62976:2019
EN IEC 62976:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN IEC 62976:2019) consists of the text of IEC 62976:2017 prepared by IEC/TC 45

"Nuclear instrumentation".
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2020-05-22

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2022-05-22

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62976:2017 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
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SIST EN IEC 62976:2019
EN IEC 62976:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
ISO 780 2015 Packaging – Distribution packaging – EN ISO 780 2015
Graphical symbols for handling and
storage of packages
ISO 19232-1 2013 Non-destructive testing – Image quality of EN ISO 19232-1 2013
radiographs – Part 1: Determination of the
image quality value using wire-type image
quality indicators
ISO/IEC Guide 37 2012 Instructions for use of products by - -
consumers
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SIST EN IEC 62976:2019
IEC 62976
Edition 1.0 2017-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Industrial non-destructive testing equipment – Electron linear accelerator
Appareils destinés aux essais non destructifs pour le secteur industriel –
Accélérateur électronique linéaire
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.120.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-4128-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Equipment sets, names and work conditions .................................................................... 8

4.1 Equipment sets ....................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Name convention .................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Operating conditions ............................................................................................... 9

4.3.1 Environmental requirement .............................................................................. 9

4.3.2 Power supply ................................................................................................... 9

5 Technical requirements ................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Appearance ............................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Control system ........................................................................................................ 9

5.2.1 Design principle ............................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Operation of start and stop .............................................................................. 9

5.2.3 Functions of control system ............................................................................. 9

5.3 Performance ......................................................................................................... 10

5.3.1 X-ray beam energy ........................................................................................ 10

5.3.2 X-ray homogeneity ......................................................................................... 10

5.3.3 X-ray beam air kerma rate ............................................................................. 10

5.3.4 X-ray beam focal spot .................................................................................... 11

5.3.5 X-ray beam asymmetry .................................................................................. 11

5.3.6 X-ray sensitivity ............................................................................................. 11

5.3.7 Dose leakage ................................................................................................ 12

5.4 Electrical safety .................................................................................................... 12

5.4.1 Protective grounding ...................................................................................... 12

5.4.2 Insulation resistance ...................................................................................... 12

5.4.3 Dielectric strength .......................................................................................... 12

5.4.4 Protection against electric shock ................................................................... 12

5.5 Reliability .............................................................................................................. 12

5.5.1 Continuous operation ..................................................................................... 12

5.5.2 Recovery ....................................................................................................... 12

5.5.3 Restart .......................................................................................................... 12

6 Test methods ................................................................................................................. 12

6.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 12

6.1.1 Testing conditions ......................................................................................... 12

6.1.2 Instruments and devices ................................................................................ 13

6.2 Visual inspection ................................................................................................... 14

6.3 Control system test ............................................................................................... 14

6.4 Performance test .................................................................................................. 14

6.4.1 X-ray beam energy ........................................................................................ 14

6.4.2 X-ray homogeneity ......................................................................................... 15

6.4.3 X-ray beam air kerma rate ............................................................................. 16

6.4.4 X-ray beam focal spot .................................................................................... 16

6.4.5 X-ray beam asymmetry .................................................................................. 18

6.4.6 X-ray sensitivity ............................................................................................. 18

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6.4.7 Leakage dose rate ......................................................................................... 18

6.5 Electrical safety testing ......................................................................................... 19

6.5.1 Protective grounding ...................................................................................... 19

6.5.2 Insulation resistance ...................................................................................... 19

6.5.3 Dielectric strength .......................................................................................... 19

6.5.4 Protection against electric shock ................................................................... 19

6.6 Reliability test ....................................................................................................... 19

6.6.1 Continuous operation ..................................................................................... 19

6.6.2 Recovery ....................................................................................................... 19

6.6.3 Restart .......................................................................................................... 19

7 Inspection rules ............................................................................................................. 20

7.1 Inspection classification ........................................................................................ 20

7.2 Inspection items .................................................................................................... 20

7.3 Criterion rule ......................................................................................................... 20

8 Marking, packaging, transportation, storage and accompanying documents ................... 20

8.1 Marking ................................................................................................................. 20

8.1.1 Accelerator signs ........................................................................................... 20

8.1.2 Component nameplates ................................................................................. 21

8.1.3 Labels ........................................................................................................... 21

8.1.4 Warning signs ................................................................................................ 21

8.2 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 21

8.3 Transportation ...................................................................................................... 21

8.4 Storage ................................................................................................................. 21

8.5 Accompanying documents .................................................................................... 22

8.5.1 Instructions .................................................................................................... 22

8.5.2 Product certification ....................................................................................... 22

8.5.3 Other documents ........................................................................................... 22

Figure 1 – Naming convention ................................................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – Sketch map of the test module ............................................................................. 13

Figure 3 – Sketch map of the copper block with a swivelling edge......................................... 14

Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of X ray beam radial uniformity measurement ........................ 15

Figure 5 – Schematic diagram of the testing module in front of the detector .......................... 16

Figure 6 – Schematic diagram of the “Sandwich” test module placement .............................. 17

Figure 7 – Schematic diagram of the copper block test module placement ............................ 17

Figure 8 – Diagram of leakage dose measurement points ..................................................... 19

Table 1 – Specifications of several commonly used accelerator models ................................. 9

Table 2 – Half value layer of materials corresponding to commonly used X-ray beam

energies................................................................................................................................ 10

Table 3 – X-ray homogeneity of commonly used X-ray beam energies .................................. 10

Table 4 – X-ray beam air kerma rate of different models ....................................................... 11

Table 5 – Detection range of equivalent steel thickness corresponding to commonly

used X-ray beam energies .................................................................................................... 11

Table 6 – Testing conditions ................................................................................................. 13

Table 7 – Inspection items of the accelerator ........................................................................ 20

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INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
INDUSTRIAL NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT –
ELECTRON LINEAR ACCELERATOR
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62976 has been prepared by technical committee 45: Nuclear

instrumentation.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
45/821/FDIS 45/824/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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IEC 62976:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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INDUSTRIAL NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT –
ELECTRON LINEAR ACCELERATOR
1 Scope

This document gives the rules of naming, technical requirements, test methods, inspection,

marking, packaging, transportation, storage and accompanying documents for electron linear

accelerator equipment for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT).

This document applies to NDT electron linear accelerator equipment in the X-ray energy

range of 1 MeV to 15 MeV, including the accelerator equipment for radiographic film,

computed radiography with imaging plates, real-time imaging, digital detector array and

industrial computerized tomography.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
ISO/IEC Guide 37:2012, Instructions for use of products by consumers

ISO 780:2015, Packaging – Distribution packaging – Graphical symbols for handling and

storage of packages

ISO 19232-1:2013, Non-destructive testing – Image quality of radiographs – Part 1:

Determination of the image quality value using wire-type image quality indicators

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
target

area on the surface of accelerating tube outlet on which the electron beam impinges and from

which the primary beam of X-rays is emitted
3.2
linear electron accelerator
LINAC

apparatus for producing high energy electrons by accelerating them along a waveguide. The

electrons strike a target to produce X-rays

Note 1 to entry: NDT electron linear accelerator, hereinafter referred to as the accelerator.

[SOURCE: ISO 5576:1997, 2.84]
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IEC 62976:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
3.3
X-rays

penetrating electromagnetic radiation, within the approximate wavelength range of 1 nm to

0,0001 nm, produced when high velocity electrons impinge on a metal target
[SOURCE: ISO 5576:1997, 2.129]
3.4
X-ray beam energy

maximum X-ray energy in the continuous emission spectrum, equal to the product of the

electron charge and the accelerating voltage
Note 1 to entry: E is expressed in megaelectronvolts (MeV).
3.5
wedge X-ray field

X-radiation field with a dose distribution that changes approximately linearly with distance

from the beam edge along a line perpendicular to and passing through the radiation beam

axis
[SOURCE: IEC 60976, 2007, 3.32]
3.6
half-value layer

thickness of a specified material, which attenuates under narrow beam conditions X- radiation

with a particular spectrum to an extent such that the air kerma rate, exposure rate or

absorbed dose rate is reduced to one half of the value that is measured without the material.

The half-value layer (HVL) is expressed in suitable submultiples of the metre together with the

material
[SOURCE: IEC 60601-1-3, 2008, 3.27]
3.7
X-ray beam focal spot

dimension across the focal spot of an accelerating tube, measured perpendicular to the

central beam axis
Note 1 to entry: d is expressed in millimetres (mm).
3.8
X-ray beam homogeneity

ratio, expressed as a percent, of the dose rate in a plane 1 m from the target and normal to

the beam central axis, and acquired at a specified angle from the central axis, to the dose

rate in the plane and on the beam axis
3.9
X-ray beam air kerma rate

volume of ionization caused by the x-ray beam in air per unit time at 1 m away from target

Note 1 to entry: K is expressed in centigrays per minute (cGy/min).
3.10
X-ray beam asymmetry

ratio of the difference to the average values of the dose rates measured at equal distances

from the central beam axis and in a vertical plane normal to the x-ray beam
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Note 1 to entry: This ratio is expressed as a percentage.
3.11
X-ray sensitivity

ratio of the minimum defect size that can be observed in the detector to the thickness of the

penetrated material
Note 1 to entry: This ratio is expressed as a percentage.
3.12
X-ray head
part of an X-ray installation that contains the accelerating tube and its shield
4 Equipment sets, names and work conditions
4.1 Equipment sets
Generally, the equipment consists of the following components:
a) X-ray head,
b) modulator,
c) temperature control unit (TCU),
d) control system,
e) power distribution cabinet,
f) safety interlock system,

g) interconnecting cables (X-ray head to modulator, modulator to console) and hoses (TCU to

X-ray head).
4.2 Name convention
The naming rules of the equipment are shown in Figure 1.
XX XX XXX
- /
Maximum X-ray dose-rate, cGy/min
X-ray energy, MeV
Model
IEC
Figure 1 – Naming convention

The specifications of several commonly used accelerator models are shown in Table 1.

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Table 1 – Specifications of several
commonly used accelerator models
Specification
Model No. X-ray beam energy Maximum X-ray dose rate
MeV cGy/min
XX-2/200 2 200
XX-4/500 4 500
XX-6/1000 6 1 000
XX-9/3000 9 3 000
XX-12/5000 12 5 000
XX-15/12000 15 12 000
4.3 Operating conditions
4.3.1 Environmental requirement
• environment temperature: (5 to 40) °C;
• relative humidity: ≤90 %.
4.3.2 Power supply
• voltage: 380 V ±10 % three-phase four-wire AC system;
• frequency: 50 Hz ±2 % / 60 Hz ±2 %;

• power supply: it is put forward in the product manual according to the accelerator model;

• grounding resistance: special grounding resistance of modulator is less than 4 Ω.

5 Technical requirements
5.1 Appearance

The surface shall be smooth, uniform color, no obvious scratches, bumps or holes.

5.2 Control system
5.2.1 Design principle

The design of the control system shall ensure the safety of the operator, the device and the

delivered dose.
5.2.2 Operation of start and stop

Operation of X-ray source start and stop shall be executed in the control console.

5.2.3 Functions of control system
The basic functions of the control system shall include:
• normal start-up and shut-down,
• display of the status of normal, fault, alarm and auto-stop,
• display of the main operational parameters,
• safety interlock,
• emergency stop.
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5.3 Performance
5.3.1 X-ray beam energy
Commonly used X-ray beam energies of accelerators are shown in Table 2 and the
corresponding half value layer should not be less than the value in Table 2.
Table 2 – Half value layer of materials corresponding
to commonly used X-ray beam energies
X-ray beam energy Steel Plexiglas
3 3 3 3
(Material density: 7,8 × 10 kg/m ) (Material density:1,7 × 10 kg/m )
MeV mm mm
1 16 ± 0,5 61 ± 2
2 20 ± 0,5 84 ± 2
4 25 ± 0,5 116 ± 2
6 28 ± 0,5 138 ± 2
9 30 ± 0,5 149 ± 2
12 32 ± 0,5 178 ± 2
15 33 ± 0,5 204 ± 2
5.3.2 X-ray homogeneity

X-ray homogeneity shall not be less than the value in Table 3 by using a beam flattening filter.

Table 3 – X-ray homogeneity of commonly used X-ray beam energies
Subtended angle A between beam central axis and axis connecting the
X-ray beam X-ray
centre of focal spot with the point of measurement located on the
energy homogeneity
circumference
MeV (°) %
1 7,5 80
2 7,5 78
4 7,5 75
6 7,5 62
9 7,5 55
12 6,0 50
15 6,0 45
5.3.3 X-ray beam air kerma rate

X-ray beam air kerma rate shall achieve the value shown in Table 4 (can be reduced based

on purpose).
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Table 4 – X-ray beam air kerma rate of different models
X-ray
...

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