Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubricants

This European standard specifies the requirements when applying lubricant to the interface between the wheel flange and the rail (active interface) either directly or indirectly to the wheel flange or to the rail and includes both trainborne and trackside solutions.
This standard only covers the equipment and application of lubricant to the active interface.
This document defines:
- the characteristics that systems of lubrication of the wheel-rail interface shall achieve, together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;
- all relevant terminology which is specific to the lubrication of the wheel-rail interface.
This document only applies to the mainline railway
NOTE   This document can also be used for other railways, e. g urban rail.

Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-1: Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Spurkranzschmierung

Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen für Vorrichtungen zum Auftragen von Schmierstoff auf die Kontaktfläche zwischen Spurkranz und Schienenflanke sowie die Kontaktfläche zwischen Radlenker und Rückseite des Rades (aktive Kontaktfläche), entweder direkt oder indirekt auf den Spurkranz oder die Schiene, fest und umfasst sowohl fahrzeugseitige als auch gleisseitige Lösungen.
Dieses Dokument legt Folgendes fest:
—   die Merkmale, die Schmierungssysteme der aktiven Kontaktfläche erfüllen sollten, zusammen mit geeigneten Inspektions- und Prüfverfahren, die zur Wirksamkeitsprüfung durchzuführen sind,
—   alle relevanten Begriffe, die spezifisch für die Spurkranzschmierung der aktiven Kontaktfläche sind.
Dieses Dokument ist für Vollbahnen anzuwenden.
ANMERKUNG   Dieses Dokument kann auch für andere Schienennetze verwendet werden, z. B. städtische Schienenbahnen.

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion des frottements roue/rail - Partie 1-1 : Équipement et application - Lubrification des boudins de roues

Le présent document se limite à spécifier les exigences relatives à l'application des lubrifiants sur l'interface boudin de roue/rail (interface active), directement ou indirectement sur le boudin de roue ou sur le rail. Deux types de solutions sont suggérées : les systèmes embarqués et les systèmes de voie. Le présent document couvre exclusivement l'équipement et l'application des lubrifiants sur l'interface active.
Le présent document définit :
- les caractéristiques que doivent posséder les systèmes de lubrification de l'interface roue/rail, ainsi que les examens nécessaires et les méthodes d'essai à exécuter aux fins de vérification ;
- l'ensemble de la terminologie relative à la lubrification de l'interface roue/rail.
Le présent document s'applique exclusivement au réseau ferroviaire grandes lignes.
NOTE Le présent document peut également être utilisé pour d'autres réseaux ferroviaires, notamment les réseaux ferrés urbains.

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-1. del: Oprema in uporaba - Maziva za prirobnice

Ta evropski standard določa zahteve za mazanje vmesnika med kolesno prirobnico in tirnico (aktivni vmesnik), pri čemer se mazivo nanese neposredno ali posredno na kolesno prirobnico ali na tirnico, ter vključuje rešitve tako na vlaku kot ob progi.
Ta standard zajema le opremo in uporabo maziva na aktivnem vmesniku.
Ta dokument določa:
– značilnosti, ki jih morajo doseči mazalni sistemi vmesnika med kolesom in tirnico, ter ustrezne metode za pregled in preskušanje, ki jih je treba izvesti za preverjanje;
– vso ustrezno terminologijo v zvezi z mazanjem vmesnika med kolesom in tirnico.
Ta dokument se uporablja le za glavne železniške proge.
OPOMBA:   Ta dokument je mogoče uporabiti tudi za druge železniške proge (npr. mestna železnica).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Dec-2020
Publication Date
17-Mar-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
17-Mar-2022
Due Date
22-May-2022
Completion Date
18-Mar-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
01-maj-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15427:2008+A1:2011

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-1. del: Oprema in uporaba -

Maziva za prirobnice
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-1: Equipment and
Application - Flange Lubricants
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-1:
Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Spurkranzschmierung

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion des frottements roue/rail - Partie 1-1 : Équipement et

application - Lubrification des boudins de roues
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 15427-1-1:2022
ICS:
21.260 Mazalni sistemi Lubrication systems
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 21.260; 45.040 Supersedes EN 15427:2008+A1:2010
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubricants

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion des frottements Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

roue/rail - Partie 1-1 : Équipement et application - Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-1: Vorrichtungen und

Lubrification des boudins de roues Anwendung - Spurkranzschmierstoffe
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 January 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 15427-1-1:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword .................................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................. 6

4 General ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Purpose of equipment .............................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Application of lubricant ........................................................................................................... 8

5 Requirements for trainborne equipment .......................................................................... 8

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Design of trainborne equipment .......................................................................................... 9

5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment .............................................................................. 10

5.4 Operations, inspection and maintenance ....................................................................... 10

5.5 Application ................................................................................................................................. 10

5.6 Verification ................................................................................................................................ 11

6 Requirements for trackside equipment .......................................................................... 12

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 12

6.2 Design of trackside equipment........................................................................................... 12

6.3 Installation of trackside equipment ................................................................................. 13

6.4 Operations, inspection and maintenance ....................................................................... 13

6.5 Application ................................................................................................................................. 13

6.6 Verification ................................................................................................................................ 15

Annex A (informative) Types of trainborne and trackside equipment ............................ 16

A.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 16

A.2 Trainborne equipment .......................................................................................................... 16

A.2.1 Fluid lubricant application to the active interface ...................................................... 16

A.2.2 Solid lubricant application to the wheel ......................................................................... 16

A.3 Trackside equipment ............................................................................................................. 16

A.3.1 Mechanically activated .......................................................................................................... 16

A.3.2 Hydraulically activated ......................................................................................................... 16

A.3.3 Electrically activated .............................................................................................................. 16

Annex B (informative) Guidance on approvals testing and verification .......................... 17

B.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 17

B.2 Process for system verification .......................................................................................... 18

B.2.1 Baselining ................................................................................................................................... 18

B.2.2 Approvals testing..................................................................................................................... 18

B.2.3 Measuring effectiveness........................................................................................................ 18

Annex C (informative) Lubricant product performance - Field assessment ................... 19

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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)

C.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 19

C.2 Product performance assessment .................................................................................... 19

C.3 Monitoring ................................................................................................................................. 20

C.4 Outcome of trial ....................................................................................................................... 20

Annex D (informative) Guidance on verification and optimization of the application

system ......................................................................................................................................... 21

D.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 21

D.2 Trainborne equipment.......................................................................................................... 21

D.3 Trackside equipment ............................................................................................................. 21

D.4 Assessing the lubrication condition of rail or wheel (adhesive tape impression)

........................................................................................................................................................ 22

Annex E (informative) Installation and maintenance good practice for trainborne

equipment .................................................................................................................................. 25

E.1 Reasons for installing trainborne equipment .............................................................. 25

E.2 Positioning of applicator ...................................................................................................... 25

E.3 Information for maintenance of spray nozzles ............................................................ 27

E.4 Information for maintenance of sticks ............................................................................ 28

Annex F (informative) Installation and maintenance good practice for trackside

equipment .................................................................................................................................. 30

F.1 Selecting locations for trackside equipment ................................................................. 30

F.2 Determination of applicator position .............................................................................. 30

F.3 Inspection and maintenance ............................................................................................... 31

F.4 Records ....................................................................................................................................... 31

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 32

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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 15427-1-1:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2022, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 15427:2008+A1:2010.
This document is part of the following series:

— EN 15427-1-1, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-1: Equipment

and Application – Flange lubrication

— CEN/TS 15427-1-2, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-2:

Equipment and Application – Top of Rail materials

— CEN/TS 15427-1-3, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-3:

Equipment and Application – Adhesion materials

— EN 15427-2-1, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-1: Properties and

Characteristics – Flange lubricants

— CEN/TS 15427-2-2, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-2:

Properties and Characteristics – Top of Rail materials

— CEN/TS 15427-2-3, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-3:

Properties and Characteristics – Adhesion materials

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc) substances at the wheel-rail interface is

a complex subject and includes:

— lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange

or rail lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface, commonly referred to as “check rail

lubrication”;

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread,

commonly referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— applying materials to the wheel rail contact to increase (improve/ enhance/ recover) adhesion.

This document sets out requirements for the lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner and

back of flange/ check rail interface. It describes systems fitted on board trains and on the track, as

both systems may need to be employed to achieve effective lubrication of the wheel-rail interface.

Managing the wheel-rail interface effectively will reduce wear of both wheel and rail. When friction

is managed effectively, noise levels, wear levels and the risk of flange climbing are reduced.

Conversely, where not managed effectively, assets may require replacement prematurely before

reaching their full economic potential.
There needs to be control in the application of lubrication such that there is:
— no loss of traction or braking performance;
— no adverse effect on signalling systems or track circuits;
— understanding of the increased risk of fire;
— no harmful environmental effect;

— no incompatibility between the different lubricants/ materials in use, particularly, between

solid and fluid systems.
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for equipment used to apply lubricant to the interface

between the wheel flange and the gauge face of the rail, and contact area between the check rail

face and the back of the wheel (active interface), either directly or indirectly to the wheel flange or

to the rail, and includes both trainborne and trackside solutions.
This document specifies:

— the characteristics that systems of lubrication of the active interface should achieve, together

with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;

— all relevant terminology which is specific to the lubrication of the active interface.

This document applies to the mainline railway.
NOTE This document can also be used for other railways, e.g urban rail.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

EN 15427-2-1:2022, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-1: Properties

and Characteristics - Flange lubricants
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
active interface

contact area between wheel flange and the gauge face of the rail and contact area between the check

rail face and the back of the wheel
NOTE See Figures 1, 2 and 3.
3.2
applicator

part of trackside/trainborne equipment that delivers the lubricant to the active interface

EXAMPLE Nozzles or sticks.
3.3
trainborne equipment

system carried on the train that consists of one or more applicators, a storage unit and a means of

control
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
3.4
trackside equipment

system installed on or adjacent to the track that consists of one or more applicators, storage

containers and a means of control
3.5
railway undertaking
authority responsible for operating the train or their authorised representative
3.6
infrastructure manager
authority responsible for the infrastructure or their authorised representative
3.7
supplier
organisation responsible for supplying the equipment/ lubricant
3.8
lubricant
substance designed to alter friction at the active interface
3.9
technical specification
document defining other or additional requirements not defined in this standard

Note 1 to entry: Usually this is produced by and agreed between the customer and/or the manufacturer

(sometimes called the supplier) or even a railway undertaking or an infrastructure manager and can be an

accompaniment to contractual requirements.
3.10
top of rail material
substance that changes the coefficient of friction of the active interface
4 General
4.1 Purpose of equipment

The aim of the equipment is to apply the lubricant to the active interface to achieve wheel/rail

friction conditions that optimize asset life, as part of a wider wheel/rail management strategy,

without compromising the safe operation of the railway.
Wheel flange/ rail friction management may be used to reduce:
— noise and vibration;
— the rate of wear of the wheel and rail;
— number of wheel and rail defects.

The specific purpose for the use of trainborne/ trackside equipment and lubricants shall be

understood before deployment in order to achieve the desired outcome (e.g reduction in wear).

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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
4.2 Application of lubricant

The trainborne/trackside equipment shall apply lubricant to take effect in the active interface as

set out in Clauses 5 and 6.

The trainborne/trackside lubrication equipment shall be designed to limit contamination of any

other part of the train or infrastructure.

The trainborne/ trackside lubrication system shall not compromise the performance of the train

(i.e braking and traction), see Annex B.

The application of the trainborne/trackside equipment shall be considered where both could be in

use at the same location.

Compatibility between different lubricants (such as flange lubricant and top of rail material/

adhesion material) in use shall be taken into account. Lubricant properties and characteristics shall

comply with the requirements set out in EN 15427-2-1:2022.

The applicator shall be adjustable such that it can be returned to its correct working position (see

Annex E) following wheel or rail reprofiling or other maintenance changes.
A method to determine when refilling is required shall be provided.

A method by which the equipment can be checked to ensure its functional status shall be provided.

The lubricant being applied to the active interface shall be approved for use by the relevant

authorizing bodies (see Annex B).

NOTE It is good practice for all affected parties (infrastructure manager/ railway undertaking/

suppliers) to discuss the final use as early as possible to ensure a smooth approval process.

Where there is any change to the approved design of the equipment, all affected parties shall be

informed. Such changes may lead to equipment requiring reapproval.
5 Requirements for trainborne equipment
5.1 General

The following general requirements shall be considered when designing and using the equipment:

— method of braking (e.g. tread, disk or other);
— position and number of applicator(s) on the vehicle;
— direction of travel;
— proximity of applicator to the wheel and the rail;
— speed of the train;
— frequency and amount of application.
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
The position and alignment of each applicator shall take into account:

— suspension movements to ensure application of the lubricant to the active interface in all

conditions;
— the need to gain access for maintenance.

The trainborne equipment shall comply with the vehicle gauge as set out in the technical

specification of the system.
5.2 Design of trainborne equipment

General considerations when designing and installing trainborne equipment shall include:

— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1);

— equipment positioning – the design and location of the equipment shall factor in the

consideration for quick and easy refilling capability;
— space constraints, (static and dynamic);
— availability of necessary supplies, (e.g. electrical, air, hydraulic, etc.);
— options for system control and lubricant regulation;
— interface with other on-board systems, (e.g. braking);
— the type of lubricant to be applied and its intended function;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
— length/ type of train and vehicle architecture;
— interface with infrastructure systems;
— intended design life and sustainability;
— safety and reliability requirements;

— compliance with vibration and shock loads requirements of EN 61373 and EN 13749 relevant

to the position on the vehicle;
— protection of the equipment from flying objects eg track ballast;
— electromagnetic compatibility (see EN 50121-1);

— cross-wind effects (e.g. wind turbulence can affect the performance of a spray system which

could be optimized by use of a windbreak);
— electronic equipment used on rolling stock (EN 62621);

— compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems (see EN 50238-1);

— noise emissions;

— the type of lubricant to be applied, its characteristics and its intended function.

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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment

The supplier of the trainborne equipment shall produce instructions for the installation and use of

the equipment.

Trainborne equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

The installation shall be checked after a short period of service to ensure that the lubricant is being

applied correctly to the active interface, see Annex B.
5.4 Operations, inspection and maintenance

Maintenance instructions for the trainborne equipment shall be provided. These shall include a

method for fault diagnosis to check that the trainborne equipment is not partially or fully blocked

or misaligned, and that all components are securely attached to their mountings (see Annex D for

some examples).

A train maintenance plan shall also include a check of the trainborne equipment to be carried out

at pre-defined intervals, taking into account the equipment supplier’s instructions. This

maintenance plan shall include monitoring of lubricant usage and application alignment as a

method of checking effective delivery.
5.5 Application

The equipment shall be designed so that the rate of application of the lubricant is consistent during

the agreed service conditions in the technical specification.

Where lubricants are manually applied by the driver, consideration shall be given to record this

action.

Any trainborne equipment using a spray applicator shall have a low speed cut out.

A high speed cut out should be considered for trainborne equipment design.

The lubricant shall be applied to areas “2” and “3” for lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge

corner interface and to “6” for lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface as shown in

Figure 1.
Migration of lubricant to other zones is not desirable.
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
Key
1 tread
2 flange root
3 flange face
4 flange toe
5 flange tip
6 back of wheel
Figure 1 — Areas of a wheel tread
5.6 Verification

Verification of the trainborne equipment shall be undertaken to establish the effective application

of the lubricant. The method chosen shall depend on the type of equipment and shall be relevant to

the application.

The method of verification shall be agreed in the technical specification, see Annex B.

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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
6 Requirements for trackside equipment
6.1 General

When applying trackside equipment to the active interface, the following shall be considered:

— length of site to be treated;
— number of applicators to be installed;
— direction of train travel (e.g single directional or bi-directional running);
— application and position at switches and crossings;
— frequency of traffic;
— speed of traffic;
— approach to signals;
— use in stations.
The position of the trackside equipment shall take into account:
— the need to gain access for maintenance;

— any hazards associated with localized contamination, e.g. if equipment is placed adjacent to

platforms, pedestrian/vehicle crossings, water courses, or other areas where local regulations

prohibit use of equipment.

The trackside equipment shall be designed, installed and maintained to limit contamination of any

other part of the train or infrastructure. Build-up of excess lubricant on the equipment, trackbed or

trains shall be avoided.
6.2 Design of trackside equipment

The trackside equipment shall meet the specified requirements for application over the full range

of operating conditions. These shall include local conditions relating to:
— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions;
— equipment positioning for access and space constraints;
— availability of power supplies;
— options for system adjustment, control and lubricant regulation;
— the type of lubricant;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
— type of trains operating on the infrastructure, including on track machines;
— speed limit;
— train frequency;
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SIST EN 15427-1-1:2022
EN 15427-1-1:2022 (E)
— track form and rail profile (e.g. EN 13674-1);
— installation of the equipment.

Electrically powered equipment shall not compromise the signalling and telecommunications

integrity.

Trackside equipment shall be capable of being fitted without the need for welding to rails or drilling

of rails, unless defined in the technical specification.

When selecting trackside equipment, the operation of on-track machines shall be considered.

The means of adjusting the height of the applicator shall be separate from the means of attaching

to the rail. The range of adjustment shall accommodate permitted rail wear, wheel profiles, axle

loads and speeds of all train types using the route.
The trackside equipment shall not infringe the infrastructure gauge.

Where the location of application may change, leading to the equipment being required to move,

consideration shall be given to the type of equipment being used.

Metallic armoured pipes and cables may be prohibited; unless defined in the technical specification.

6.3 Installation of trackside equipment

The installation of the trackside equipment shall take into account the intended length of the site

to which the lubricant should be applied.

The supplier of the trackside equipment shall provide instructions for the installation of the

equipment.

Trackside equipment shall be installed and tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s

instructions. The installation shall be checked after a short period of service (e.g. after an agreed

amount of train or axle passes) to ensure that the lubricant is being applied correctly.

NOTE Further guidance on the positioning of trackside equipment is contained in Annex D.

6.4 Operations, inspection and maintenance

The maintenance instructions of the trackside equipment shall be provided. These shall include

inspection and a method for fault diagnosis to check that the equipment is not partiall

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 15427-1-1:2020
01-december-2020

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-1. del: Oprema in uporaba -

Maziva za prirobnice
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-1: Equipment and
Application - Flange Lubricants
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-1:
Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Spurkranzschmierung

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion des frottements roue/rail - Partie 1-1 : Équipement et

application - Lubrification des boudins de roues
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 15427-1-1
ICS:
21.260 Mazalni sistemi Lubrication systems
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
oSIST prEN 15427-1-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 15427-1-1:2020
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oSIST prEN 15427-1-1:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 15427-1-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2020
ICS 21.260; 45.040 Will supersede EN 15427:2008+A1:2010
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubricants

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion des frottements Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

roue/rail - Partie 1-1 : Équipement et application - Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-1: Vorrichtungen und

Lubrification des boudins de roues Anwendung - Spurkranzschmierung

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 256.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 15427-1-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword .................................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................. 6

4 General ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Purpose of equipment .............................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Application of lubricant ........................................................................................................... 7

5 Requirements for trainborne equipment .......................................................................... 8

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Design of trainborne equipment .......................................................................................... 8

5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment ................................................................................. 9

5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance .......................................................................... 9

5.5 Application ................................................................................................................................. 10

5.6 Verification ................................................................................................................................ 10

6 Requirements for trackside equipment .......................................................................... 11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 11

6.2 Design of trackside equipment........................................................................................... 11

6.3 Installation of trackside equipment ................................................................................. 12

6.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance ....................................................................... 12

6.5 Application ................................................................................................................................. 12

6.6 Verification ................................................................................................................................ 13

Annex A (informative) Types of trainborne and trackside equipment ............................ 14

A.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 14

A.2 Trainborne Equipment.......................................................................................................... 14

A.3 Trackside Equipment ............................................................................................................. 14

Annex B (informative) Guidance on approvals testing and verification .......................... 15

B.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 15

B.2 System – Equipment and lubricants ................................................................................. 16

Annex C (informative) Lubricant product performance - Field assessment ................... 17

C.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 17

C.2 Product performance assessment ..................................................................................... 17

C.3 Monitoring ................................................................................................................................. 18

C.4 Outcome of trial ....................................................................................................................... 18

Annex D (informative) Guidance on verification and optimization of the application

system .......................................................................................................................................... 19

D.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 19

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D.2 Trainborne equipment.......................................................................................................... 19

D.3 Trackside equipment ............................................................................................................. 19

D.4 Assessing the lubrication condition of rail or wheel (adhesive tape

impression) ............................................................................................................................... 20

Annex E (informative) Installation and maintenance good practice for trainborne

equipment .................................................................................................................................. 23

E.1 Reasons for installing trainborne equipment .............................................................. 23

E.2 Positioning of Applicator ...................................................................................................... 23

E.3 Information for maintenance of spray nozzles ............................................................ 25

E.4 Information for maintenance of spray nozzles ............................................................ 25

Annex F (informative) Installation and maintenance good practice for trackside

equipment .................................................................................................................................. 27

F.1 Selecting locations for trackside equipment ................................................................. 27

F.2 Determination of Lubricant Application Unit position ............................................. 27

F.3 Inspection and maintenance ............................................................................................... 27

F.4 Records ....................................................................................................................................... 29

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 30

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European foreword

This document (prEN 15427-1-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

This document is part of the series EN 15427, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction

management, which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1-1: Equipment and Application – Flange Lubrication
— Part 1-2: Equipment and Application – Top of Rail materials
— Part 1-3: Equipment and Application – Adhesion materials
— Part 2-1: Properties and Characteristics – Flange lubricants
— Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics – Top of Rail materials
— Part 2-3: Properties and Characteristics – Adhesion materials
— Part 3: Rationale for requirements and further background information
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Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc) substances at the wheel-rail interface is

a complex subject and includes:

— lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange

or rail lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface, commonly referred to as “check rail

lubrication”;

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread,

commonly referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— applying materials to the wheel rail contact to increase (improve/ enhance/ recover) adhesion.

This document sets out requirements for the lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner and

back of flange/ check rail interface. It describes systems fitted on board trains and on the track, as

both systems may need to be employed to achieve effective lubrication of the wheel-rail interface.

Managing the wheel-rail interface effectively will reduce wear of both wheel and rail. When friction

is managed effectively, noise levels, wear levels and the risk of flange climbing are reduced.

Conversely, where not managed effectively, assets may require replacement prematurely before

reaching their full economic potential.
There needs to be control in the application of lubrication such that there is:
— no loss of traction or braking performance;
— no adverse effect on signalling systems or track circuits;
— understanding of the increased risk of fire;
— no harmful environmental effect;

— no incompatibility between the different lubricants/ materials in use, particularly, between

solid and fluid systems.
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1 Scope

This document is limited to specifying the requirements when applying lubricant to the interface

between the wheel flange and the rail (active interface), either directly or indirectly to the wheel

flange or to the rail and includes both trainborne and trackside solutions.

This document only covers the equipment and application of lubricant to the active interface.

This document defines:

— the characteristics that systems of lubrication of the wheel-rail interface shall achieve, together

with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;

— all relevant terminology which is specific to the lubrication of the wheel-rail interface.

This document only applies to the mainline railway.
NOTE This document can also be used for other railways, e.g urban rail.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

prEN 15427-2-1:2020, Railway applications — Wheel/Rail friction management — Part 2-1:

Properties and Characteristics — Flange lubricants
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
active interface

contact area between wheel flange and the gauge face of the rail and contact area between the check

rail face and the back of the wheel
3.2
applicator

part of trackside/trainborne equipment that delivers the lubricant to the active interface

EXAMPLE Nozzles or sticks
3.3
trainborne equipment

system carried on the train that consists of one or more applicators, a storage unit and a means of

control
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3.4
trackside equipment

system installed on or adjacent to the track that consists of one or more applicators, storage

containers and a means of control
3.5
train operator
authority responsible for operating the train or their authorised representative
3.6
infrastructure manager
authority responsible for the infrastructure or their authorised representative
3.7
supplier
organisation responsible for supplying the equipment/ lubricant
3.8
lubricant
substance designed to alter friction at the wheel/rail active interface
3.9
technical specification
document outlining agreement between the client and the supplier
3.10
top of rail material
substance that changes the rheology of the third layer body to lower friction
4 General
4.1 Purpose of equipment

The aim of the equipment is to apply the lubricant to the active interface to reduce the risk of flange

climb derailment and achieve wheel/rail friction conditions that optimises asset life, as part of a

wider wheel/rail management strategy without compromising the safe operation of the railway.

Wheel flange/ rail friction management may be used to:
— reduce noise and vibration;
— reduce the rate of wear;
— reduce number of wheel and rail defects.

The specific purpose for the use of lubrication equipment and lubricants shall be understood before

deployment in order to achieve the desired outcome (e.g reduction in wear).
4.2 Application of lubricant

The trainborne/trackside lubrication equipment shall apply lubricant to take effect in the active

interface as set out in chapters 5 and 6 of this document.

The trainborne/trackside lubrication equipment shall be designed to limit contamination of any

other part of the train or infrastructure.
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The trainborne/ trackside lubrication system shall not compromise the performance of the train

(i.e braking and traction), see Annex B.

The application of the trainborne/trackside equipment shall be considered where both can be in

use at the same location.

Compatibility between different lubricants (such as flange lubricant and top of rail material/

adhesion material) in use shall be taken into account. Lubricant properties and characteristics shall

comply with the requirements set out in prEN 15427-2-1:2020.

The applicator shall be adjustable such that it can be returned to its correct working position (refer

to 5.4) following wheel or rail reprofiling or other maintenance changes.
A method to determine when refilling is required shall be provided.

A method by which the equipment can be checked to ensure its functional status shall be provided.

NOTE 1 Ensure the lubricant being applied to the active interface has been approved for use by the

relevant authorizing bodies (see Annex B).

NOTE 2 It is good practice for all affected parties (infrastructure manger/ train operator/ suppliers) to

discuss the final use as early as possible to ensure a smooth approval process.

Where there is any change to the approved design of the equipment, the customer shall be

informed. Such changes may lead to equipment requiring reapproval,
5 Requirements for trainborne equipment
5.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— method of braking (e.g. tread, disk or other);
— position and number of applicator(s) on the vehicle;
— direction of travel;
— proximity of applicator to the wheel and the rail;
— speed of train;
— frequency and amount of application.
The position and alignment of each applicator shall take into account:

— suspension movements to ensure application of the lubricant to the active interface in all

conditions;
— the need to gain access for maintenance.
The trainborne equipment shall comply with the vehicle gauge.
5.2 Design of trainborne equipment

General consideration when designing and installing trainborne equipment shall include:

— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1);
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— equipment positioning – The design and location of the equipment shall factor in the

consideration for quick and easy refilling capability;
— space constraints (e.g. static and dynamic);
— availability of necessary supplies (e.g. electrical, air, hydraulic, etc...);
— options for system control and lubricant regulation;
— interface with other on-board systems (e.g. braking);
— the type of lubricant to be applied and its intended function;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
— length/ type of train;
— interface with infrastructure systems;
— intended design life and sustainability;
— safety and reliability requirements;

— compliance with vibration and shock loads requirements of EN 61373 and EN 13749 relevant

to the position on the vehicle;
— protection of the equipment from flying objects eg track ballast;
— EMC standard (EN 50121-1);

— aerodynamic effects (e.g. Wind turbulence can affect the performance of a spray system which

may be optimized by use of a windbreak);
— Electronic equipment used on rolling stock (EN 62621);

— EN 50238-1:2003 Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems – General;

— noise emissions.
5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment

The supplier of the trainborne equipment shall produce instructions for the installation and use of

the equipment.

Trainborne equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

The installation shall be checked after a short period of service to ensure that the lubricant is being

applied correctly to the active interface, see Annex B.
5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance

Maintenance instructions for the trainborne equipment shall be provided. These shall include a

method for fault diagnosis to check that the trainborne equipment is not partially or fully blocked

or misaligned and that all components are securely attached to their mountings (see Annex D for

some examples).
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A train maintenance plan shall include a check of the trainborne equipment to be carried out at pre-

defined intervals taking into account the equipment supplier’s instructions. This maintenance plan

shall include monitoring of lubricant usage and application alignment as a method of checking

effective delivery.

Before any lubricant is used, it shall be verified if it is compatible with the equipment, as specified

in prEN 15427-2-1:2020, Annex F.
5.5 Application

The equipment shall be designed so that the rate of application of the lubricant is consistent during

the agreed service conditions.

Where lubricants are manually applied by the driver, consideration shall be given to record this

action.

Any trainborne equipment using a spray applicator shall have a low speed cut out.

High speed cut out should be considered for trainborne equipment design.
The lubricant shall be applied to area “2, 3” or “6” as shown in Figure 1.
Migration of lubricant to other zones is not desirable.
Key
1 tread
2 flange root
3 flange face
4 flange toe
5 flange tip
6 back of wheel
Figure 1 — Areas of a wheel tread
5.6 Verification

Verification of the trainborne equipment shall be undertaken to establish effective application of

the lubricant. The method chosen shall depend on the type of equipment and shall be relevant to

the application.

The method of verification shall be determined between the client and supplier, see Annex B.

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6 Requirements for trackside equipment
6.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— length of site to be treated;
— the number of applicators to be installed;
— direction of travel (e.g bi-directional);
— application and position at switches and crossings;
— the frequency of traffic;
— speed of traffic;
— approach to signals;
— use in terminal stations.
The position of the trackside equipment shall take into account:
— the need to gain access for maintenance;

— any hazards associated with localized contamination, e.g. if equipment placed adjacent to

platforms, pedestrian/vehicle crossings, water courses, areas where local regulations prohibit

use of equipment.

The trackside equipment shall be designed, installed and maintained to limit contamination of any

other part of the train or infrastructure. Build-up of excess lubricant on the equipment, trackbed or

trains shall be avoided.
6.2 Design of trackside equipment

The trackside equipment shall meet the specified requirements for application over the full range

of operating conditions. These shall include local conditions relating to:
— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions;
— equipment positioning for access and space constraints;
— availability of power supplies;
— options for system adjustment, control and lubricant regulation;
— the type of lubricant;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
— type of trains operating on the infrastructure, including on track machines;
— speed limit;
— train frequency;
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— track form and rail profile (e.g. EN 13674-1);
— installation of the equipment.

Electrically powered equipment shall not compromise with signalling and telecommunications

integrity.

Trackside equipment shall be capable of being fitted without the need for welding to rails or drilling

of rails, unless defined in the technical specification.

When selecting trackside equipment, the operation of on-track machines shall be considered.

The means of adjusting the height of the applicator shall be separate from the means of attaching

to the rail. The range of adjustment shall accommodate permitted rail wear, wheel profiles, axle

loads and speeds of all train types using the route.
The trackside equipment shall not infringe the infrastructure gauge.

Where the location of application changes periodically, consideration shall be given to the type of

equipment being used.

Metallic armoured pipes and cables may be prohibited, the infrastructure manager shall be

consulted.
6.3 Installation of trackside equipment

The installation of the trackside equipment shall take in to account the intended length of the site

to which the lubricant should be applied.

The supplier of the trackside equipment shall produce instructions for the installation of the

equipment.

Trackside equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The

installation shall be checked after a short period of service (typically after the passage of no more

than five trains) to ensure that the lubricant is being applied correctly.

NOTE Further guidance on the positioning of trackside equipment is contained in Annex D.

6.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance

The maintenance instruction of the trackside equipment shall be provided. These shall include an

inspection and a method for fault diagnosis to check that the equipment is not partially or fully

blocked or misaligned and all components are securely attached to their mountings.

A maintenance plan shall be produced that includes a check of the trackside equipment to be

carried out at pre-defined intervals taking into account, the equipment supplier’s instructions. This

maintenance plan should include monitoring of lubricant usage.

The condition of the rail served by the equipment shall be inspected to ensure effective application

is taking place.

After refilling or adjustment, the trackside equipment shall be inspected for correct application of

the lubricant from the equipment.

NOTE Annex D sets out recommendations for the inspection and maintenance arrangements.

6.5 Application

The equipment shall be designed so that the rate of application of the lubricant is consistent during

the agreed service conditions.

The lubricant shall be applied to area “4 and 5” as shown in Figure 2, or “9” as shown in Figure 3:

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Key
1 field shoulder
2 crown
3 gauge shoulder
4 gauge corner
5 gauge face
6 inside of running rail (gauge face)
7 outside of running rail (field side)
8 web
Figure 2 — Areas of a rail
Key
1 check rail interface
Figure 3 — Areas of a check rail
Migration of lubricant to other zones is not desirable.
6.6 Verification

Verification of the trackside equipment shall be undertaken to establish effective application of the

lubricant. The method chosen shall depend on the type of equipment and shall be relevant to the

application.

Lubricant will take time to become established on new or clean rails or wheels and can require

more than one train passage. This should be taken into consideration.
NOTE Annex B sets out typical methods for verification.
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Annex A
(informative)
Types of trainborne and trackside equipment
A.1 Introduction

This annex describes flange lubrication systems currently available for trainborne and trackside

equipment.
A.2 Trainborne Equipment
A.2.1 Fluid lubricant application to the active interface

The fluid lubricant is applied on to the active interface either as an air/fluid mixture or as a fluid

only. Control of the duration and/or interval of the application can be either by a timer, location,

distance counter or curve sensing or a combination.
A.2.2 Solid lubricant application to the wheel
The solid lubricant is pressed against the running wheel.
A.3 Trackside Equipment
A.3.1 Mechanically activated

Mechanical trackside equipment requires physical contact or pressure from the passage of trains

to directly activate a pump, which then applies the material, through the applicator to

...

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