Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013)

This Technical Specification gives terms and definitions related to nanomanufacturing processes in the
field of nanotechnologies. It forms one part of multi-part terminology and definitions documentation
covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.
All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing. Many of the listed processes
are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes may
result in material features at the nanoscale or, alternatively, larger scales.
There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or
metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document.

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 8: Industrieller Nanoherstellungsprozess (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013)

Diese Technische Spezifikation enthält Begriffe und Definitionen, die sich auf Prozesse der Nanoherstellung im Bereich der Nanotechnologien beziehen. Sie stellt einen Teil einer mehrteiligen Dokumentation zur Terminologie und zu Festlegungen dar, die die verschiedenen Aspekte von Nanotechnologien behandelt.
Alle Begriffe bezüglich Prozessen in diesem Dokument sind für die Nanoherstellung maßgebend. Viele der aufgeführten Prozesse sind nicht ausschließlich nur für den Nanomaßstab maßgebend. In Abhängigkeit von regelbaren Bedingungen können derartige Prozesse zu Materialeigenschaften im Nanomaßstab, oder alternativ auch in größeren Maßstäben führen.
Es gibt im Zusammenhang mit der Nanoherstellung viele weitere Begriffe, die Werkzeuge, Teile, Werkstoffe, Verfahren zur Systemkontrolle oder Messtechnik-Verfahren bezeichnen, die aber nicht Gegenstand des Anwendungsbereiches dieses Dokumentes sind.

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013)

L'ISO/TS 80004-8:2013 donne les termes et définitions concernant les processus de nanofabrication dans le domaine des nanotechnologies. Elle ne constitue qu'une partie d'une documentation de terminologie et de définitions, en plusieurs parties, couvrant les différents aspects des nanotechnologies.

Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 8. del: Procesi nanoproizvodnje (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Mar-2015
Publication Date
16-Jun-2015
Withdrawal Date
09-Dec-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Dec-2020
Due Date
02-Jan-2021
Completion Date
10-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015
01-julij-2015
Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 8. del: Procesi nanoproizvodnje (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes (ISO/TS 80004-

8:2013)
Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 8: Industrieller
Nanoherstellungsprozess (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication (ISO/TS 80004

-8:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN ISO/TS 80004-8
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
May 2015
ICS 07.030; 01.040.07
English Version
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 8: Nanomanufacturing
processes (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus de Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 8:

nanofabrication (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013) Industrieller Nanoherstellungsprozess (ISO/TS 80004-

8:2013)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 16 May 2015 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015 (E)
Contents
Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO/TS 80004-8:2013 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229

“Nanotechnologies” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as

CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 352 “Nanotechnologies” the secretariat of which

is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TS 80004-8:2013 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015 without any

modification.
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-8
First edition
2013-12-15
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-8:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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ISO/TS 80004-8:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions from other parts of ISO/TS 80004 ........................................................................................ 1

3 General terms .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Directed assembly ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Self-assembly processes ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Synthesis ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Gas process phase — Physical methods ........................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Gas process phase — Chemical methods ......................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Liquid process phase — Physical methods .................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Liquid process phase — Chemical methods .................................................................................................................. 8

6.5 Solid process phase — Physical methods ........................................................................................................................ 8

6.6 Solid process phase — Chemical methods ..................................................................................................................10

7 Fabrication ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.1 Nanopatterning lithography .....................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Deposition processes ......................................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Etching processes ..............................................................................................................................................................................16

7.4 Printing and coating ........................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Identification of output resulting from defined synthesis processes ................19

Annex B (informative) Index ......................................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO/TS 80004-8 was prepared jointly by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, and Technical

Committee IEC/TC 113, Nanotechnology standardization for electrical and electronic products and systems.

Documents in the 80000 to 89999 range of reference numbers are developed by collaboration

between ISO and IEC.

ISO/TS 80004 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary:

— Part 1: Core terms
— Part 3: Carbon nano-objects
— Part 4: Nanostructured materials
— Part 5: Nano/bio interface
— Part 6: Nano-object characterization
— Part 7: Diagnostics and therapeutics for healthcare
— Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes
The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 2: Nano-objects: Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate
— Part 9: Nano-enabled electrotechnical products and systems
— Part 10: Nano-enabled photonic components and systems
— Part 11: Nanolayer, nanocoating, nanofilm, and related terms
— Part 12: Quantum phenomena in nanotechnology
[5]
1) Revises and replaces ISO/TS 27687 .
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Graphene and other two-dimensional materials is to form the subject of a future part 13.

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Introduction

Nanomanufacturing is the essential bridge between the discoveries of the nanosciences and real-world

nanotechnology products.

Advancing nanotechnology from the laboratory into volume production ultimately requires careful

study of manufacturing process issues including product design, reliability and quality, process design

and control, shop floor operations, supply chain management, workplace safety and health practices

during the production, use, and handling of nanomaterials. Nanomanufacturing encompasses directed

self assembly and assembly techniques, synthetic methodologies, and fabrication processes such as

lithography and biological processes. Nanomanufacturing also includes bottom-up directed assembly,

top-down high resolution processing, molecular systems engineering, and hierarchical integration with

larger scale systems. As dimensional scales of materials and molecular systems approach the nanoscale,

the conventional rules governing their behaviour may change significantly. As such, the behaviour of a

final product is enabled by the collective performance of its nanoscale building blocks.

Biological process terms are not included in this first edition of the nanomanufacturing vocabulary, but

considering the rapid development of the field, it is expected that terms in this important area will be

added in a future update to this Technical Specification or in companion documents in the 80004 series.

This could include both the processing of biological nanomaterials and the use of biological processes to

manufacture materials at the nanoscale.

Similarly, additional terms from other developing areas of nanomanufacturing, including composite

manufacturing, roll-to-roll manufacturing, and others, will be included in future documents.

There is a distinction between the terms nanomanufacturing and nanofabrication. Nanomanufacturing

encompasses a broader range of processes than does nanofabrication. Nanomanufacturing

encompasses all nanofabrication techniques and also techniques associated with materials processing

and chemical synthesis.

This document provides an introduction to processes used in the early stages of the nanomanufacturing

value chain, namely the intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials, including

fabrication steps in the nanoscale. The nanomaterials that result from these manufacturing processes

are distributed in commerce where, for example, they may be further purified, be compatabilized to

be dispersed in mixtures or composite matrices, or serve as integrated components of systems and

devices. The nanomanufacturing value chain is, in actuality, a large and diverse group of commercial

value chains that stretch across these sectors:

— the semiconductor industry (where the push to create smaller, faster, and more efficient

microprocessors heralded the creation of circuitry less than 100 nm in size);
— electronics and telecommunications;
— aerospace, defence, and national security;
— energy and automotive;
— plastics and ceramics;
— forest and paper products;
— food and food packaging;
— pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, and biotechnology;
— environmental remediation;
— clothing and personal care.

There are thousands of tonnes of nanomaterials on the market with end use applications in several of

these sectors, such as carbon black and fumed silica. Nanomaterials which are rationally designed with

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specific purpose are expected to radically change the landscape in areas such as biotechnology, water

purification, and energy development.

The majority of sections in this document are organized by process type. In the case of section 6, the logic

of placement is as follows: in the step before the particle is made, the material itself is in a gas/liquid/

solid phase. The phase of the substrate or carrier in the process does not drive the categorization of

the process. As an example, consider iron particles that are catalysts in a process by which you seed oil

with iron particles, the oil vaporizes and condenses forming carbon particles on the iron particles. What

vaporizes is the oil, and therefore it is a gas phase process. Nanotubes grown from the gas phase, starting

with catalyst particles that react with the gas phase to grow the nanotubes, thus this is characterized

as a gas process. Indication of whether synthesis processes are used to manufacture nano-objects,

nanoparticles, or both, is provided in Annex A.

A common understanding of the terminology used in practical applications will enable communities of

practice in nanomanufacturing and will advance nanomanufacturing strength worldwide. Extending

the understanding of terms across the existing manufacturing infrastructure will serve to bridge

the transition between the innovations of the research laboratory and the economic viability of

nanotechnologies.

For informational terms supportive of nanomanufacturing terminology, see Reference [1].

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-8:2013(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
1 Scope

This Technical Specification gives terms and definitions related to nanomanufacturing processes in the

field of nanotechnologies. It forms one part of multi-part terminology and definitions documentation

covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.

All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing. Many of the listed processes

are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes may

result in material features at the nanoscale or, alternatively, larger scales.

There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or

metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document.

2 Terms and definitions from other parts of ISO/TS 80004

The terms and definitions in this clause are given in other parts of ISO/TS 80004. They are reproduced

here for context and better understanding.
2.1
carbon nanotube
CNT
nanotube (2.9) composed of carbon

Note 1 to entry: carbon nanotubes usually consist of curved graphene layers, including single-wall carbon

nanotubes and multiwall carbon nanotubes.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 4.3.]
2.2
nanocomposite

solid comprising a mixture of two or more phase-separated materials, one or more being nanophase

Note 1 to entry: Gaseous nanophases are excluded (they are covered by nanoporous material).

Note 2 to entry: Materials with nanoscale (2.7) phases formed by precipitation alone are not considered to be

nanocomposite materials.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4:2011, 3.2.]
2.3
nanofibre

nano-object with two similar external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.7) and the third dimension

significantly larger
Note 1 to entry: A nanofibre can be flexible or rigid.

Note 2 to entry: The two similar external dimensions are considered to differ in size by less than three times and

the significantly larger external dimension is considered to differ from the other two by more than three times.

Note 3 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale (2.7).

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, 4.3.]
2.4
nanomaterial

material with any external dimension in the nanoscale (2.7) or having internal structure or surface

structure in the nanoscale

Note 1 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of nano-object (2.5) and nanostructured material (2.9).

Note 2 to entry: See also engineered nanomaterial, manufactured nanomaterial and incidental nanomaterial

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.4.]
2.5
nano-object
material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.7)
Note 1 to entry: Generic term for all discrete nano-objects.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.5.]
2.6
nanoparticle
nano-object (2.5) with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.7)

Note 1 to entry: if the lengths of the longest to the shortest axes of the nano-object (2.5) differ significantly

(typically by more than three times), the terms nanofibre (2.3) or nanoplate are intended to be used instead of the

term nanoparticle.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, 4.1.]
2.7
nanoscale
size range from approximately 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size will typically, but not exclusively, be

exhibited in this size range. For such properties the size limits are considered approximate.

Note 2 to entry: The lower limit in this definition (approximately 1 nm) is introduced to avoid single and small

groups of atoms from being designated as nano-objects (2.5) or elements of nanostructures, which might be

implied by the absence of a lower limit.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.1.]
2.8
nanostructured material
material having internal or surface structure in the nanoscale (2.7)

Note 1 to entry: If external dimensions are in the nanoscale, the term nano-object (2.4) is recommended.

Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, definition 2.7.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4, 2.11.]
2.9
nanotube
hollow nanofibre (2.3)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, 4.4]
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3 General terms
3.1
bottom up nanomanufacturing

processes that use small fundamental units in the nanoscale (2.7) to create larger functionally rich

structures or assemblies
3.2
co-deposition
simultaneous deposition of two or more source materials

Note 1 to entry: Common methods include vacuum, thermal spray, electrodeposition and liquid suspension

deposition techniques.
3.3
communition
crushing or grinding for particle size reduction
3.4
directed assembly

formation of a structure guided by external intervention using components at the

nanoscale (2.7) that can, in principle, have any defined pattern
3.5
directed self-assembly

self-assembly (3.11) influenced by external intervention to produce a preferred structure, orientation or

pattern

Note 1 to entry: Examples of external intervention include an applied field, a chemical or structural template,

chemical gradient, and fluidic flow.
3.6
lithography
reproducible creation of a pattern

Note 1 to entry: The pattern can be formed in a radiation sensitive material or by transfer of material onto a

substrate either by transfer, by printing or by direct writing.
3.7
multilayer deposition

alternating deposition of two or more source materials to produce a composite layer structure

3.8
nanofabrication

ensemble of activities, to intentionally manufacture devices in the nanoscale (2.7), for commercial purpose

3.9
nanomanufacturing

intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials, or fabrication steps in the nanoscale (2.7),

for commercial purpose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, definition 2.11.]
3.10
nanomanufacturing process

ensemble of activities to intentionally synthesize, generate or control nanomaterials (2.4), or fabrication

steps in the nanoscale (2.7), for commercial purpose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.12.]
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3.11
self-assembly

autonomous action by which components organize themselves into patterns or structures

3.12
surface functionalization

chemical process that acts upon a surface to impart a selected chemical or physical functionality

3.13
top-down nanomanufacturing
processes that create structures at the nanoscale (2.7) from macroscopic objects
4 Directed assembly
4.1
electrostatic driven assembly

use of electrostatic force to orient or place nanoscale (2.7) elements in a device or

material
4.2
fluidic alignment

use of fluid flow to orient nanoscale (2.7) elements in a device or material

4.3
hierarchical assembly

use of more than one type of nanomanufacturing (3.9) process to control structure

at multiple length scales
4.4
magnetic driven assembly

use of magnetic force to assemble at the nanoscale (2.7) in a desired pattern or

configuration
4.5
shape-based assembly

use of geometric shapes of nanoparticles (2.6) to achieve a desired pattern or

configuration
4.6
supramolecular assembly

use of non-covalent chemical bonding to assemble molecules or nanoparticles (2.6) with surface ligands

4.7
surface-to-surface transfer

transfer of nanoparticles (2.6) or structures from the surface of one substrate, on

which they have been deposited, grown or assembled, onto another substrate
5 Self-assembly processes
5.1
colloidal crystallization

sedimentation of nanoparticles (2.6) from a solution to form a solid which consists

of a close-packed, ordered array of repeating units
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5.2
graphioepitaxy

directed self-assembly (3.5) using nanoscale (2.7) topographical features

Note 1 to entry: Includes the growth of a thin layer on the surface and growth of an additional layer on top of a

substrate which has the same or different structure as the underlying crystal.
5.3
ion beam surface reconstruction

use of an accelerated ion beam to cause surface modification which may be at the

nanoscale (2.7)
5.4
Langmuir-Blodgett film formation

creation of a molecular monolayer at an air-liquid interface using a Langmuir-Blodgett trough

5.5
Langmuir-Blodgett film transfer

transfer of a Langmuir-Blodgett molecular monolayer formed at an air-liquid interface onto a solid

surface by dipping a solid substrate into the supporting liquid
5.6
layer-by-layer deposition
LbL deposition

electrostatic process of depositing polyelectrolytes with opposite charges laid over or under another

5.7
modulated elemental reactant method

use of vapour deposited precursors with regions of controlled composition as a template for the

formation of interleaved layers of two or more structures
5.8
self-assembled monolayer formation
SAM formation

spontaneous formation of an organized molecular layer on a solid surface from solution or the vapour

phase, driven by molecule-to-surface bonding and weak intermolecular interaction
5.9
Stranski-Krastanow growth

mode of thin film growth in which both layer and island formation mechanisms are present

6 Synthesis
6.1 Gas process phase — Physical methods
6.1.1
cold gas dynamic spraying

to fluidize either nanoscale (2.7) crystalline powders or conventional powders that are then consolidated

onto a surface coating in a high velocity inert gas
6.1.2
electron-beam evaporation

process in which a material is vaporized by incidence of high energy electrons in high or ultra-high

vacuum conditions for subsequent deposition onto a substrate
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6.1.3 Electro-spark deposition processes
6.1.3.1
electro-spark deposition

pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an

electrode material on a substrate
6.1.4 Spray drying processes
6.1.4.1
freeze drying

dehydration or solvent removal by rapid cooling immediately followed by vacuum sublimation

6.1.4.2
spray drying

producing a dry powder from a liquid or slurry by rapid removal of liquid droplets via contact with a hot gas

6.1.5
supercritical expansion

precipitation of nano-objects (2.5) resulting from an expansion of a solution above its critical temperature

(T ) and critical pressure (P ) through a spray device
C C
6.1.6
suspension combustion thermal spray

thermal spray (7.2.16) in which the precursor is introduced to a plasma jet in the form of a liquid suspension

6.1
...

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