Earth-moving machinery - Safety - Part 3: Requirements for loaders

This document, together with part 1, deals with all significant hazards for earth-moving machinery - loaders when they are used as intended and under the conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer associated with the whole life time of the machine (see Clause 4).
The requirements of this part are complementary to the common requirements formulated in
prEN 474-1. This document does not repeat the requirements from prEN 474-1, but adds or replaces the requirements for application for earth moving machinery - loaders.
This part also deals with fork application, single heavy object handling application, object handling application and log handling.
This European Standard is not applicable to hydraulic excavators manufactured before the date of publication of this European Standard by CEN.

Erdbaumaschinen - Sicherheit - Teil 3: Anforderungen für Lader

Dieses Dokument behandelt zusammen mit Teil 1 alle signifikanten Gefährdungen für Erdbaumaschinen — Lader, wenn sie bestimmungsgemäß verwendet werden sowie unter den vernünftigerweise vom Hersteller vorhersehbaren Fehlanwendungen für die gesamte Lebensdauer der Maschine (siehe Abschnitt 4).
Die Anforderungen gelten ergänzend zu den allgemeinen Anforderungen der prEN 474 1. Dieser Teil wiederholt nicht die Anforderungen der prEN 474 1, sondern ergänzt oder ersetzt diese für den Einsatz von Erdbaumaschinen — Ladern.
Dieser Teil behandelt auch den Einsatz mit Gabelzinken, den Einsatz mit schweren Einzellasten, den Hebebetrieb und den Einsatz mit Baumklammer.
Diese Europäische Norm ist nicht anzuwenden für Lader, die vor der Veröffentlichung dieser Europäischen Norm durch CEN hergestellt wurden.

Engins de terrassement - Sécurité - Partie 3 : Prescriptions applicables aux chargeuses

Le présent document associé à l’EN 474-1:2022 traite de tous les phénomènes dangereux significatifs, situations dangereuses et événements se rapportant aux chargeuses, lorsqu'elles sont utilisées normalement et dans les conditions prévues, mais en tenant également compte des mauvais usages raisonnablement prévisibles (voir Annexe A), associés à toute la durée de vie de l'engin, comme décrit dans l'EN ISO 12100:2010, 5.4.
Les prescriptions du présent document viennent en complément des prescriptions communes présentées dans l’EN 474 1:2022. Le présent document ne répète pas les prescriptions de l’EN 474 1:2022 mais complète ou modifie les prescriptions pour les chargeuses.
Le présent document ne spécifie aucune prescription relative aux circuits électriques principaux et aux commandes des engins lorsque la principale source d'énergie est une alimentation électrique externe.
Le présent document ne spécifie aucune prescription de performance relative aux fonctions de sécurité du (des) système(s) de commande.
Les phénomènes dangereux significatifs et pertinents suivants ne sont pas couverts par le présent document :
—   laser ;
—   foudre.
Le présent document ne traite pas des remorques attelées à un véhicule.
Le présent document ne traite pas des engins de démolition.
La présente partie traite également de l'utilisation avec fourches, en manutention de grumes, en manutention d'objets unitaires lourds et en opérations de levage.
Le présent document n'est pas applicable aux chargeuses fabriquées avant la date de publication du présent document par le CEN.
NOTE   Pour la circulation sur les voies publiques, les codes de la route nationaux s'appliquent (par exemple, freinage, conduite, éclairage, attelage) tant que des prescriptions harmonisées ne sont pas disponibles.

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Varnost - 3. del: Zahteve za nakladalnike

Ta dokument skupaj s 1. delom obravnava vsa večja tveganja za stroje za zemeljska dela – nakladalnike, kadar se uporabljajo v skladu s predvidenim namenom in pod pogoji pričakovane nepravilne uporabe, ki jih določa proizvajalec, v zvezi s celotno življenjsko dobo stroja (glej točko 4).
Zahteve iz tega dela dopolnjujejo splošne zahteve iz standarda
prEN 474-1. Ta dokument ne navaja ponovno zahtev iz standarda prEN 474-1, temveč dodaja ali nadomešča zahteve za uporabo strojev za zemeljska dela – nakladalnikov.
Ta del obravnava tudi uporabo vilic, rokovanje s težkim predmetom ter rokovanje s predmeti in hlodi.
Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za hidravlične bagre, izdelane pred datumom izdaje tega evropskega standarda s strani Evropskega odbora za standardizacijo (CEN).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Jun-2017
Publication Date
11-Apr-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Apr-2022
Due Date
11-Jun-2022
Completion Date
12-Apr-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 474-3:2022
01-maj-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 474-3:2007+A1:2009
Stroji za zemeljska dela - Varnost - 3. del: Zahteve za nakladalnike
Earth-moving machinery - Safety - Part 3: Requirements for loaders
Erdbaumaschinen - Sicherheit - Teil 3: Anforderungen für Lader

Engins de terrassement - Sécurité - Partie 3 : Prescriptions applicables aux chargeuses

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 474-3:2022
ICS:
53.100 Stroji za zemeljska dela Earth-moving machinery
SIST EN 474-3:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 474-3:2022
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.100 Supersedes EN 474-3:2006+A1:2009
English Version
Earth-moving machinery - Safety - Part 3: Requirements
for loaders

Engins de terrassement - Sécurité - Partie 3 : Erdbaumaschinen - Sicherheit - Teil 3: Anforderungen

Prescriptions applicables aux chargeuses für Lader
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 February 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 474-3:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures ............................................... 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2 Operator’s station ........................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Seat ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4 Operator’s controls and indicators ........................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Protectives measures and devices ......................................................................................................... 10

4.6 Stability ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.7 Lifting operation ........................................................................................................................................... 13

5 Verification of the safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures ....... 13

6 Information for use ..................................................................................................................................... 14

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

6.2 Machine safety labels .................................................................................................................................. 14

6.3 Operator's manual ....................................................................................................................................... 15

Annex A (informative) List of significant hazards ......................................................................................... 16

Annex B (normative) Telescopic loaders .......................................................................................................... 21

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

B.2 Stability ............................................................................................................................................................ 21

B.3 Limitation of stroke ..................................................................................................................................... 25

B.4 Verification of LLMI and LLMC................................................................................................................. 25

B.5 Information for use ..................................................................................................................................... 25

B.6 Verification of safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures .............. 27

Annex C (informative) Illustrations .................................................................................................................... 29

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending Directive

95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered ..................................................................... 32

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 37

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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 474-3:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 151 “Construction

equipment and building material machines - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2024.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 474-3:2006+A1:2009.

This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association and supports essential requirements of

EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.
For bibliographic references, see EN 474-1:2022.
EN 474 “Earth-moving machinery — Safety” comprises the following parts:
— Part 1: General requirements
— Part 2: Requirements for tractor-dozers
— Part 3: Requirements for loaders
— Part 4: Requirements for backhoe-loaders
— Part 5: Requirements for hydraulic excavators
— Part 6: Requirements for dumpers
— Part 7: Requirements for scrapers
— Part 8: Requirements for graders
— Part 9: Requirements for pipelayers
— Part 10: Requirements for trenchers
— Part 11: Requirements for earth and landfill compactors
— Part 12: Requirements for cable excavators
— Part 13: Requirements for rollers
This document is intended for use in combination with part 1 of the series.
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)

The main differences between this document and EN 474-3:2006+A1:2009 are as follows:

a) safety-related functions of control systems (excluded);
b) normative references (updated);

c) safety requirements and information for use for telescopic loaders (Annex B) (added);

d) verification methods table (Clause 5) (added);
e) list of significant hazards (Annex A) (updated);
f) Annex ZA (updated).

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
Introduction
This document is a type-C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the market

players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organizations, market surveillance, etc.).

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e.g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises);
— consumers (in case of machinery intended for use by consumers).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events are

covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or type-B

standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of the other

standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of this type-C

standard.
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
1 Scope

This document together with EN 474-1:2022 deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and

events relevant to loaders when used as intended and under the conditions of misuse which are

reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Annex A) associated with the whole lifetime of the

machine as described in EN ISO 12100:2010, 5.4.

The requirements of this document are complementary to the common requirements formulated in

EN 474-1:2022. This document does not repeat the requirements of EN 474-1:2022 but supplements or

modifies the requirements for loaders.

This document does not provide requirements for main electrical circuits and drives of machinery when

the primary source of energy is an external electrical supply.

This document does not provide performance requirements for safety related functions of control

system(s).
The following significant and relevant hazards are not covered in this document:
— Laser;
— Lightning.
This document does not deal with towing of trailers.
This document does not deal with demolition machinery.

This part also deals with fork application, log handling application, single heavy object handling

application and lifting operation application.

This document is not applicable to loaders which are manufactured before the date of publication of this

document by CEN.

NOTE For travelling on public roads, national traffic regulations apply (e.g. braking, steering, lighting, towing,

etc.) until harmonized requirements are available.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 474-1:2022, Earth-moving machinery — Safety — Part 1: General requirements

EN 1459-1:2017+A1:2020, Rough-terrain trucks — Safety requirements and verification — Part 1:

Variable reach trucks

EN ISO 3449:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Falling-object protective structures — Laboratory tests

and performance requirements (ISO 3449:2005)

EN ISO 3457:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Guards — Definitions and requirements (ISO 3457:2003)

EN ISO 7096:2020, Earth-moving machinery — Laboratory evaluation of operator seat vibration

(ISO 7096:2020)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk

reduction (ISO 12100:2010)
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)

EN ISO 13851:2019, Safety of machinery — Two-hand control devices — Principles for design and

selection (ISO 13851:2019)

ISO 2330:2002, Fork-lift trucks — Fork arms — Technical characteristics and testing

ISO 7546:1983, Earth-moving machinery — Loader and front loading excavator buckets — Volumetric

ratings

ISO 14397-1:2007, Earth-moving machinery — Loaders and backhoe loaders — Part 1: Calculation of

rated operating capacity and test method for verifying calculated tipping load
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 474-1:2022, EN ISO 12100:2010

and the definitions below apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp

NOTE Terminology for loaders is specified in ISO 7131:2009 and the most common loaders are illustrated in

Annex C of this document.
3.1
loader

self-propelled crawler or wheeled machine having a front-mounted equipment, primarily designed for

loading operation (bucket use), which loads or excavates through forward motion of the machine

Note 1 to entry: A loader work cycle normally comprises filling and elevating, and the transporting and

discharging of material.
3.2
swing loader

loader (3.1) having a swing-type lift arm which can rotate to the left and the right of the straight position

Note 1 to entry: A swing-loader work cycle is similar to a loader cycle, but additional work can be done with the

equipment offset from the longitudinal axis of the machine.
3.3
skid steer loader

loader (3.1) normally having an operator station between or to the side of the attachment-supporting

structure(s) and steered by using variation of speed, and/or direction of rotation between traction drives

on the opposite sides of a machine having fixed axles on wheels or tracks
3.4
compact loader

loader (3.1) having an operating mass (see ISO 6016:2008, 3.2.1) of 4 500 kg or less for wheeled loaders

and 6 000 kg or less for crawler loaders, designed to work in areas with limited space, with the associated

need for greater manoeuvrability
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
3.5
telescopic loader

loader (3.1) having a centre mounted telescopic boom with the pivot point in front of the operator’s

station
3.6
Longitudinal Load Moment

moment produced by the load, the attachment and the lifting means of the telescopic loader which acts

at the load centre of gravity from the tipping line in the forward direction
[SOURCE: EN 15000:2008, 3.1; modified]
3.7
Longitudinal Load Moment Indicator
LLMI

device that warns the operator of a change to the load handling geometry which would increase the

longitudinal load moment, beyond pre-determined limit(s)
[SOURCE: EN 15000:2008, 3.2]
3.8
Longitudinal Load Moment Control
LLMC

device that prevents the operator changing the load handling geometry in direction(s) which would

increase the longitudinal load moment, beyond the allowable limit(s)
[SOURCE: EN 15000:2008, 3.3]
3.9
load handling geometry

relationship of points, lines and angles, described by the position of the load centre of gravity (the position

of the boom, carriage and attachment) and tipping line
[SOURCE: EN 15000:2008, 3.4; modified]
3.10
boom float

operating mode that uses gravity to allow an attachment at the end of the boom to follow a contour (e.g.

the ground)
[SOURCE: EN 1459-1:2017+A1:2020, 3.17]
3.11
rated operating capacity of telescopic loader

load in kg, permitted by the manufacturer, that the telescopic loader is capable of transporting or lifting

under normal operations

Note 1 to entry: The permitted load changes depended on the angle und extension of the boom as defined in the

load chart
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
4 Safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures
4.1 General
4.1.1 Context

Loaders shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures of this

clause. In addition, the machines shall be designed according to the principles of EN ISO 12100:2010 for

relevant but not significant hazards which are not dealt with by this document.
4.1.2 Specific relation to EN 474-1

Loaders shall comply with the requirements of EN 474-1:2022, as far as not modified or replaced by the

requirements of this part.

There are general requirements specified in EN 474-1:2022 that are not applicable because the risk

assessment has shown that for loaders the corresponding hazard does not exist. For loaders 4.22.5 in

EN 474-1:2022, is not applicable.
4.2 Operator’s station
4.2.1 General
EN 474-1:2022, 4.3 applies as modified in 4.2.2 and 4.2.3.
4.2.2 Doors and windows
EN 474-1:2022, 4.3.2.5 applies with the following addition:

No motorized wiper(s) and washers are required for loaders with a cab width less than or equal to

750 mm measured outside of the cab in the height of SIP.
4.2.3 Falling object protective structures (FOPS)
EN 474-1:2022, 4.3.4 applies with the following modifications:

— loaders, except compact loaders, shall be fitted with FOPS, meeting the requirements of

EN ISO 3449:2008 Level II;

— compact loaders shall be fitted with FOPS, meeting the requirements of EN ISO 3449:2008 Level I.

4.3 Seat
EN 474-1:2022, 4.4 applies with the following addition:
The seat shall meet the input spectral according to EN ISO 7096:2020:
— EM3 for wheel loaders greater than 4 500 kg;
— EM6 for crawler loaders;
— EM8 for compact wheel loaders less or equal than 4 500 kg;
— EM9 for skid steer loaders.
4.4 Operator’s controls and indicators

EN 474-1:2022, 4.5.3 applies with the following exception for compact loaders with front access:

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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)

Controls for lifting and lowering the loader linkage, machine movement and hydraulically controlled

attachments (e.g. multi-purpose bucket) shall be either automatically mechanically secured or

automatically deactivated when the operator leaves/enters the operator's compartment.

4.5 Protectives measures and devices
4.5.1 General
EN 474-1:2022, 4.14 applies as modified in 4.5.2 and 4.5.3.
4.5.2 Fenders
EN 474-1:2022, 4.14.4 does not apply to compact loaders with front access.
4.5.3 Guarding for front access loaders

Loaders shall be fitted with side and front guarding in accorcance with EN ISO 3457:2008 that prevents

the operator from reaching the trapping parts between the side lift arms and fixed parts of the machine

when the operator is seated in the operator's position.
Opening in the side guards shall comply with EN ISO 3457:2008, Table 4.

Front guarding shall be provided for the operator’s lower limbs if the lift arm componentry passes within

1,5 m in front and horizontal line to the SIP. This front guarding shall have a minimum height of 200 mm

from the floor plate.
4.6 Stability
4.6.1 General
EN 474-1:2022, 4.11 applies with the additions given in 4.6.2 to 4.6.5 below.

All rated operating capacities as defined hereafter are based on tests, calculations, or both, of machines

on a level and firm supporting surface.

The mass of the load, its density and the location of its centre of gravity as well as the mass of the

attachment and the quick coupler, if fitted, shall be included in the determination of the rated operating

capacity and the size/capacity of the attachment.

To provide a sufficient stability the rated operating capacity in intended operations shall be determined

as specified in 4.6.2 to 4.6.5.
4.6.2 Bucket application
The rated operating capacity shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007.
The volumetric rating of bucket shall be determined according to ISO 7546:1983.

The mass, volumetric rating of bucket and density of the material have to be taken into account when the

bucket capacity is selected for a specific application.
4.6.3 Fork application
4.6.3.1 General

The rated operating capacity is based on the use of forks and shall be determined according to

ISO 14397-1:2007 (except for the stability factor (k) stated in ISO 14397-1:2007, 5.1, Table 1) and with

the fork in a horizontal position. Stability factors (k) specified in Table 1 shall apply.

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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
Table 1 — Stability factors in fork application
Crawler loader
Ground condition Wheel loader Wheel skid steer loader
crawler skid steer loader
Rough terrain 0,60 - -
Firm and level ground 0,80 - -
All - 0,35 0,50
4.6.3.2 Fork load centre of gravity

The load centre of gravity distance, D, is determined as a point on the longitudinal centreline of the

machine at half the distance from the most rearward point of the load opening to the tip of the fork, as

shown in Figure 1.
Key
D distance in millimetres (see Tables 2 and 4)
F load in Newton
G load centre of gravity
Figure 1 — Load centre of gravity distance with fork arms
4.6.3.3 Fork size
Fork arms shall meet the performance requirements stated in ISO 2330:2002.

To select the fork arm size and to determine the load centre of gravity distance (D) as shown in Figure 1,

the specifications in Table 2 shall be followed.
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)
Table 2 — Typical load centre of gravity distance
Load F in N Load centre of gravity distance D in mm
400 500 600 900 1 200
F < 10 000 X
10 000 ≤ F < 50 000 X
50 000 ≤ F < 100 000 X
100 000 ≤ F < 200 000 X X X
200 000 ≤ F < 250 000 X X
F ≥ 250 000 X
4.6.4 Log handling application

The rated operating capacity is based on a log grapple application and shall be determined according to

ISO 14397-1:2007 (except for stability factor (k) stated in ISO 14397-1:2007, 5.1, Table 1) with the log

grapple fitted. Stability factors (k) specified in Table 3 shall apply.
Table 3 — Stability factors in log handling
Ground condition Wheel loaders Crawler loaders
Rough terrain 0,75 0,50
Firm and level ground 0,85 0,60
4.6.5 Single heavy object (non-palletised single heavy object) application
4.6.5.1 General

The rated operating capacity is based on the use of a single heavy object handling device (for a non-

palletized load), and shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007, Annex A.

4.6.5.2 Handling attachment

The load centre of gravity distance, D, of the attachment is as shown in Figure 1.

For indicating the rated operating capacity for a single heavy object handling attachment, a transversal

square cross-section of the load shall be considered.
The specifications in Table 4 shall be selected.
Table 4 — Load centre of gravity distance
Load centre of gravity distance
Load F in N
D in mm
F ≤ 100 000 600
100 000 < F ≤ 200 000 900
F > 200 000 1 200
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)

Tipping load shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007 (except for stability factor stated in

ISO 14397-1:2007, 5.1, Table 1), with the block handling attachment (e.g. stone fork) in a fully roll back

and carry position.

The stability factors in Table 5 are only valid for speeds less than or equal to 10 km/h.

The rated operating capacity according to this mode, as percentage of tipping load, shall not exceed the

applicable value specified in Table 5 when operating on a flat, hard surface.
Table 5 —Stability factors in single heavy object handling in transport mode
Ground condition Wheel Crawler
loaders loaders
Firm and level ground 0,80 0,60
4.7 Lifting operation

EN 474-1:2022, 4.12 shall apply, with the exception of 4.12.2, 4.12.3, 4.12.4, 4.12.5 and 4.12.6.

The rated operating capacity is based on use of a lifting accessory or accessories and the attachment and

shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007.
Telescopic loaders shall meet the requirements of Annex B.
5 Verification of the safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction
measures

Safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures of Clause 4 of this document shall be

verified according to Table 6.

Table 6 sets out verification methods which shall be applied for each safety requirement in this document.

Where X(s) is indicated in the table, the corresponding verification method(s) shall be applied.

Table 6 shall be read in conjunction with the corresponding clauses.
Table 6 includes the following verification methods:

a) calculation: to establish that the requirements of this document have been met;

b) visual verification: to establish that something is present (e.g. a guard, a marking, a document);

c) measurement: to show that the required numerical values have been met (e.g. geometric dimensions,

safety distances, resistance of insulation of the electric circuits, results of physical tests);

d) functional tests: to show that the adequate signals intended to be forwarded to the main control

system of the complete machine are available and comply with the requirements and with the

technical documentation;

e) special verification: by reference to a standard which is mentioned in the corresponding clause.

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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)

Table 6 — Verification of safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures

4.1 General X
4.2.2 Doors and windows X
4.2.3 Falling object protective structures (FOPS) X
4.3 Seat X
4.4 Operator’s controls and indicators X
4.5.2 Fenders X
4.5.3 Guarding for front access loaders X
4.6.1 Stability, General X
4.6.2 Bucket application X
4.6.3 Fork application X
4.6.4 Log handling application X
Single heavy object (non-palletised single heavy
4.6.5 X
object) application
4.6.5.1 General X
4.6.5.2 Handling attachment X
4.7 Lifting operation X
6 Information for use
6.1 General
Information for use shall be provided in accordance with EN ISO 12100:2010, 6.4.
6.2 Machine safety labels
EN 474-1:2022, 6.2 shall apply with the following addition:

Loaders shall at least be equipped with a safety label forbidding entry into the danger zone of the

machine, see Figure 2.
Clause number
Title
a) Calculation
b) Visual verification
c) Measurement
d) Functional test
e) Special verification
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SIST EN 474-3:2022
EN 474-3:2022 (E)

Figure 2 — Example of safety label for loaders [SOURCE ISO 9244:2008, A.17 and B.4]

6.3 Operator's manual
EN 474-1:2022, 6.3 shall apply with the following additions:

The manufacturer shall provide information of the rated operating capacity as well as the corresponding

operating conditions:
— bucket application according to 4.6.2;
— fork application according to 4.6.3;
— log handling according to 4.6.4;
— si
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
01-junij-2017
Stroji za zemeljska dela - Varnost - 3. del: Zahteve za nakladalnike
Earth-moving machinery - Safety - Part 3: Requirements for loaders

Engins de terrassement - Sécurité - Partie 3: Prescriptions applicables aux chargeuses

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 474-3
ICS:
53.100 Stroji za zemeljska dela Earth-moving machinery
oSIST prEN 474-3:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 474-3
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2017
ICS Will supersede EN 474-3:2006+A1:2009
English Version
Earth-moving machinery - Safety - Part 3: Requirements
for loaders
Engins de terrassement - Sécurité - Partie 3:
Prescriptions applicables aux chargeuses

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 151.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 474-3:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 List of additional significant hazards ....................................................................................................... 8

5 Safety requirements and/or measures ................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Loaders with front access ............................................................................................................................. 8

5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2.2 Primary access opening ................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3 Operator’s seat ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4 Rear window(s) ............................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Protection .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5.1 Falling object protective structures (FOPS) .......................................................................................... 9

5.5.2 Fenders ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5.3 Operator’s controls and indicators ........................................................................................................... 9

5.5.4 Guarding for loaders ...................................................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Stability ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

5.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.6.2 Bucket application ....................................................................................................................................... 10

5.6.3 Fork application ........................................................................................................................................... 10

5.6.4 Log handling application ........................................................................................................................... 12

5.6.5 Single heavy object (non-palletised single heavy object) application ...................................... 13

5.6.6 Lifting operation application ................................................................................................................... 14

5.6.7 Other applications ....................................................................................................................................... 15

6 Verification of the safety requirements and/or protective measures ...................................... 15

7 Information for use ..................................................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (normative) List of significant additional hazards – Loaders .................................................... 18

Annex B (normative) Telescopic loaders ........................................................................................................... 20

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20

B.2 Stability ............................................................................................................................................................ 20

B.2.1 Longitudinal load moment indicator (LLMI) ..................................................................................... 20

B.2.1.1 Warning ........................................................................................................................................................... 20

B.2.1.2 Displays ............................................................................................................................................................ 20

B.2.2 Longitudinal load Moment Control (LLMC) ........................................................................................ 21

B.2.2.1 Prevention of movement ........................................................................................................................... 21

B.2.2.2 Override of the LLMC .................................................................................................................................. 21

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prEN 474-3:2017 (E)

B.2.3 Calibration setting ........................................................................................................................................ 21

B.2.4 Boom lowering control device ................................................................................................................. 21

B.3 Limitation of stroke ..................................................................................................................................... 21

B.4 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 21

B.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

B.4.2 Verification of LLMI...................................................................................................................................... 22

B.4.3 Verification of LLMC ..................................................................................................................................... 22

B.5 Information for use ...................................................................................................................................... 22

B.5.1 Load chart ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

B.5.2 Information on LLMI/LLMC ...................................................................................................................... 23

Annex C (informative) Illustrations ...................................................................................................................... 25

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC machinery, and amending

Directive 95/16/EC (recast) [2006 L157] aimed to be covered .................................................. 28

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 29

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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 474-3:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 151

“Construction equipment and building material machines - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by

DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede 474-3:2006+A1:2009.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.
For bibliographic references, see prEN 474-1:2017.
prEN 474 ”Earth-moving machinery — Safety” comprises the following parts:
— Part 1: General requirements
— Part 2: Requirements for tractor-dozers
— Part 3: Requirements for loaders
— Part 4: Requirements for backhoe-loaders
— Part 5: Requirements for hydraulic excavators
— Part 6: Requirements for dumpers
— Part 7: Requirements for scrapers
— Part 8: Requirements for graders
— Part 9: Requirements for pipelayers
— Part 10: Requirements for trenchers
— Part 11: Requirements for earth and landfill compactors
— Part 12: Requirements for cable excavators
— Part 13: Requirements for rollers

This European Standard is intended for use in combination with part 1 of the series.

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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
Introduction
This part of prEN 474 is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100:2010.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and events are covered

are indicated in the scope of this European Standard.

When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B

standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other

standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C

standard.
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
1 Scope

This document, together with part 1, deals with all significant hazards for earth-moving machinery –

loaders when they are used as intended and under the conditions of misuse which are reasonably

foreseeable by the manufacturer associated with the whole life time of the machine (see Clause 4).

The requirements of this part are complementary to the common requirements formulated in

prEN 474-1. This document does not repeat the requirements from prEN 474-1, but adds or replaces the

requirements for application for earth moving machinery – loaders.

This part also deals with fork application, single heavy object handling application, object handling

application and log handling.

This European Standard is not applicable to hydraulic excavators manufactured before the date of

publication of this European Standard by CEN.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

prEN 474-1:2017, Earth-moving machinery — Safety — Part 1: General requirements
EN ISO 2867:2011, Earth-moving machinery — Access systems (ISO 2867:2011)

EN ISO 6165:2012, Earth-moving machinery — Basic types — Identification and terms and definitions (ISO

6165:2012)

EN ISO 3449:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Falling-object protective structures — Laboratory tests and

performance requirements (ISO 3449:2005)

EN ISO 3457:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Guards — Definitions and requirements (ISO 3457:2003)

EN ISO 7096:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Laboratory evaluation of operator seat vibration (ISO

7096:2000)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk

reduction (ISO 12100:2010)

ISO 2330:2002, Fork-lift trucks — Fork arms — Technical characteristics and testing

ISO 6016:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Methods of measuring the masses of whole machines, their

equipment and components

ISO 7546:1983, Earth-moving machinery — Loader and front loading excavator buckets — Volumetric

ratings

ISO 14397-1:2007, Earth-moving machinery — Loaders and backhoe loaders — Part 1: Calculation of

rated operating capacity and test method for verifying calculated tipping load
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in prEN 474-1:2017,

EN ISO 12100:2010 and the following apply.

Note 1 to entry: Terminology for loaders is specified in ISO 7131:2009 and the most common loaders are

illustrated in Annex B of this European Standard.

Note 2 to entry: Definitions used in EN and ISO standards referred to in this European Standard are also valid for

this document.
3.1
loader

self-propelled crawler or wheeled machine, having a front-mounted equipment primarily designed for

loading operation (bucket use), which loads or excavates through forward motion of the machine

Note 1 to entry: A loader work cycle normally comprises filling, elevating, transporting and discharging material.

Note 2 to entry: Derivative machinery; loaders can also be used for derivative application (see prEN 474–1:2017,

3.1.2)
3.2
compact loader

wheeled loader with an operating mass (see ISO 6016:2008) of ≤ 4 500 kg or less, or crawler loaders with

an operating mass of ≤ 6 000 kg
3.3
skid steer loader

loader normally having an operator's station between attachment-supporting structures and steered by

using variation of speed and/or direction of rotation between traction drives on opposite sides of a

machine with fixed axles
3.4
swing loader

loader having a swing type lift arm with a swinging angle to the left and right from a straight position

Note 1 to entry: A swing loader work cycle is normally similar to a loader cycle but additionally work can be done

offset of the machine track.
3.5
telescopic loader

loader having a centre mounted telescopic type lift arm with the pivot point in front of the operator’s

station
3.6
Longitudinal Load Moment

moment produced by the load, the attachment and the lifting means of the telescopic loader which acts

at the load centre of gravity from the tipping line in the forward direction
[EN 15000:2008, 3.1; modified]
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
3.7
Longitudinal Load Moment Indicator
LLMI

device that warns the operator of a change to the load handling geometry which would increase the

longitudinal load moment, beyond pre-determined limit(s)
[EN 15000:2008, 3.2]
3.8
Longitudinal Load Moment Control
LLMC

device that prevents the operator changing the load handling geometry in direction(s) which would

increase the longitudinal load moment, beyond the allowable limit(s)
[EN 15000:2008, 3.3]
3.9
load handling geometry

relationship of points, lines and angles, described by the position of the load centre of gravity (the position

of the boom, carriage and attachment) and tipping line
[EN 15000:2008, 3.4; modified]
3.10
boom float

operating mode that uses gravity to allow an attachment at the end of the boom to follow a contour (e.g.

the ground)
[prEN 1459-1:2014, 3.17]
4 List of additional significant hazards
See Annex A.

NOTE Annex A (normative) contains all the significant hazards, hazardous situations and events, as far as they

are dealt with in this European Standard, identified by risk assessment as significant for this type of machinery and

which require action to eliminate or reduce the risk.
5 Safety requirements and/or measures
5.1 General

Loaders shall comply with the requirements of prEN 474-1:2017, as far as not modified or replaced by

the requirements of this part.
5.2 Loaders with front access
5.2.1 General

For loaders with front access the reference to EN ISO 2867:2011 applies with the deviations given in 5.2.2

and 5.2.3.
5.2.2 Primary access opening
The primary opening shall not be less than:
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
— opening height 875 mm;
— opening width 550 mm.
5.3 Operator’s seat
prEN 474-1:2017, 5.4.1.4 applies with the following modifications:
The seat shall meet the input spectral according to EN ISO 7096:2008:
— EM3 for wheel loaders greater than 4 500 kg;
— EM6 for crawler loaders;
— EM8 for compact wheel loaders less or equal than 4 500 kg;
— EM9 for skid steer loaders.
5.4 Rear window(s)

prEN 474-1:2017, 5.3.2.1.3 and 5.3.2.5 for the rear window(s) apply with the following modifications:

No motorized wiper(s) and washers are required for loaders with a cab width less than or equal to

750 mm measured outside of the cab in the height of SIP.
5.5 Protection
5.5.1 Falling object protective structures (FOPS)
prEN 474-1:2017, 5.3.4 applies with the following modifications:

— loaders, except compact loaders according to EN ISO 6165:2012 shall be fitted with FOPS, meeting

the requirements of EN ISO 3449:2008 Level II;

— compact loaders according to EN ISO 6165:2012 shall be fitted with FOPS, meeting the requirements

of EN ISO 3449:2008 Level I.

— compact loaders, if used in demolition application shall be fitted with FOPS, meeting the

requirements of EN ISO 3449:2008 Level II.
5.5.2 Fenders
prEN 474-1:2017, 5.14.5 does not apply to compact loaders with front access.
5.5.3 Operator’s controls and indicators

prEN 474-1:2017, 5.5 applies with the following modifications for compact loaders with front access:

Controls for lifting and lowering the loader linkage, machine movement and hydraulically controlled

attachments (e.g. multi-purpose bucket) shall be either automatically mechanically secured, e.g. by a

safety bar; or automatically deactivated when the operator leaves/enters the operator's compartment.

5.5.4 Guarding for loaders

Loaders shall be fitted with side and front protection protective structure that prevents the operator from

reaching the trapping parts between the side lift arms and fixed parts of the machine when the operator

is seated in the operator's position.
Opening in the side guards shall comply with EN ISO 3457:2008.
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)

Front protection shall be provided for the operator’s lower limbs if the lift arm componentry passes

within 1,5 m in front of the SIP. The front protective structure shall have a minimum height of 200 mm

from the floor plate. Restraint systems for machines with front access.

prEN 474-1:2017, 5.4.1.5 applies with the exception that the safety bar, see 5.5.4 of this European

Standard, can be used as a restraint system provided that the test criteria of EN ISO 6683:2008 are met.

5.6 Stability
5.6.1 General
prEN 474-1:2017, 5.11 applies with the additions given in 5.6.2 to 5.6.7 below.

All rated capacities as defined hereafter are based on tests and/or calculations of machines being on level

and firm supporting surface.

The mass of the load, its density and the location of its centre of gravity as well as the mass of the

attachment and the attachment bracket, if fitted, shall be included in the determination of the rated

operating capacity and the size/capacity of the attachment.

Loaders do not need to meet prEN 474-1:2017, 5.12.3, 5.12.4, 5.12.5, 5.12.6 and 5.12.7.

Telescopic loaders need to meet the requirements of Annex B.

To provide a sufficient stability the rated operating capacity in intended operations shall be determined

as specified in 5.6.2 to 5.6.7
5.6.2 Bucket application
The rated operating capacity shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007.
The volumetric rating of bucket shall be determined according to ISO 7546:1983.

The mass, volumetric rating of bucket and density of the material have to be taken into account when the

bucket capacity is selected for a specific application.
5.6.3 Fork application
5.6.3.1 General

The rated operating capacity is based on the use of forks and shall be determined by the criteria specified

in 5.6.3.2 to 5.6.3.4.
5.6.3.2 Rated load

The tipping load shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007 (except for stability factor stated in

5.1) and with the fork in a horizontal position. The rated load as a percentage of tipping load shall not

exceed the applicable value specified in Table 1.
Table 1 — Stability factors in fork application
Rated load as a percentage of tipping load
Ground condition Wheel loader
Rough terrain 60
Firm and level ground 80

Stability factors to determine rated load of wheel loaders with skid steering shall not exceed 50 % and

crawler loaders, or skid steer track loaders, shall not exceed 35 % of the tipping load.

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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
5.6.3.3 Hydraulic lift capacity

It shall be possible to control the rated load in all positions foreseen by the manufacturer, considering all

relevant hydraulic circuits involved.

NOTE The hydraulic lift capacity is the maximum mass that can be lifted in any arm position with the fork in

horizontal position limited by the hydraulic circuit working pressure according to ISO 14397-1:2007.

5.6.3.4 Rated operating capacity
The rated operating capacity shall be determined either by:
— the rated load specified in 5.6.3.2 or
— the hydraulic lift capacity specified in 5.6.3.3,
whichever is less.
5.6.3.5 Fork size

To select the fork arm size and to determine the load centre gravity distance (D) as shown in Figure 1,

the specifications in Table 2 shall be followed.
Table 2 — Load centre distance
Load F Distance D
(N) (mm)
F ≤ 10 000 400
10 000 < F ≤ 50 000 500
50 000 < F ≤ 100 000 600
100 000 < F ≤ 200 000 900
F > 200 000 1 200
Fork arms shall meet the performance requirements stated in ISO 2330:2002.
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
Key
D distance in millimetres (see Tables 2 and 4)
F load in Newton
G centre of gravity
Figure 1 — Load centre distance with fork arms
5.6.4 Log handling application
5.6.4.1 General

The rated operating capacity is based on a log grapple application and shall be determined by the criteria

specified in 5.6.4.2 to 5.6.4.4.
5.6.4.2 Rated load

Tipping load shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007 (except for stability factor stated in 5.1)

with the log grapple fitted. The rated load as percentage of tipping load shall not exceed the applicable

value specified in Table 3.
Table 3 — Stability factors in log handling
Rated load as a percentage of tipping load
Ground condition wheel loaders crawler loaders
Rough terrain 75 50
Firm and level ground 85 60
5.6.4.3 Hydraulic lift capacity

It shall be possible to control the rated load in all positions foreseen by the manufacturer, considering all

relevant hydraulic circuits involved.

NOTE Hydraulic lift capacity is the maximum mass that can be lifted in any arm position with the log grapple

fitted limited by the hydraulic circuit working pressure according to ISO 14397-1:2007.

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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
5.6.4.4 Rated operating capacity
The rated operating capacity shall be determined either by:
— the rated load specified in 5.6.4.2 or
— the hydraulic lift capacity specified in 5.6.4.3,
whichever is less.
5.6.5 Single heavy object (non-palletised single heavy object) application
5.6.5.1 General

The rated operating capacity is based on the use of a single heavy object handling device (for a non-

palletised load) and shall be determined by the criteria specified in 5.6.5.2 to 5.6.5.4.

5.6.5.2 Rated load – Transport mode

Tipping load shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007 (except for stability factor stated in 5.1),

with the block handling attachment (e.g. stone fork) in a fully roll back and carry position;

— the rated load in Table 4 is only valid for speeds less than or equal to 10 km/h;

— the rated load according to this mode, as percentage of tipping load, shall not exceed the applicable

value specified in Table 4 when operating on a flat, hard surface.
Table 4 — Stability factors in single heavy object handling in transport mode
Rated load as a percentage of tipping load
Ground condition wheel loaders crawler loaders
Firm and level ground 80 60
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oSIST prEN 474-3:2017
prEN 474-3:2017 (E)
5.6.5.3 Hydraulic lift capacity

It shall be possible to control the rated load in all positions foreseen by the manufacturer, considering all

relevant hydraulic circuits involved.

NOTE Hydraulic lift capacity is the maximum mass that can be lifted in any arm position with the fork in

horizontal position limited by the hydraulic circuit working pressure according to ISO 14397-1:2007.

5.6.5.4 Rated operating capacity
The rated operating capacity shall be determined either by:
— the rated load as specified in 5.6.5.2 or
— the hydraulic lift capacity specified in 5.6.5.3,
whichever is less.
5.6.5.5 Handling attachment
The centre of gravity distance (D) of the attachment is shown in Figure 1.
Table 5 — Load centre distance
Load F Distance D
(N) (mm)
F ≤ 100 000 600
100 000 < F ≤ 200 000 900
F > 200 000 1 200

To indicate the rated operating load for a single heavy object handling attachment a transversal, square

cross section of the load should be considered.
The specifications in Table 5 should preferably be selected.
5.6.6 Lifting operation application
5.6.6.1 General

The rated operating capacity is based on use of (a) lifting accessory(ies) and the attachment and shall be

determined by criteria given in 5.6.6.2 to 5.6.6.4.
5.6.6.2 Rated load

Tipping load shall be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007, and with the load attached to the actual

load hooking points as specified by the manufacturer. The rated load, as a percentage of tipping load, shall

be determined according to ISO 14397-1:2007, Clause 5.
5.6.6.3 Hydraulic lift capacity
It shall be possib
...

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