Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Antennas and test sites for radiated disturbance measurements

This part of CISPR 16 specifies the characteristics and performance of equipment for the measurement of radiated disturbances in the frequency range 9 kHz to 18 GHz. Specifications for antennas and test sites are included.
NOTE In accordance with IEC Guide 107, CISPR 16-1-4 is a basic EMC publication for use by  product committees of the IEC. As stated in Guide 107, product committees are responsible for determining the applicability of the EMC standard. CISPR and its sub-committees are prepared to co-operate with product committees in the evaluation of the value of particular EMC tests for specific products.
The requirements of this publication apply at all frequencies and for all levels of radiated disturbances within the CISPR indicating range of the measuring equipment. Methods of measurement are covered in Part 2-3, and further information on radio disturbance is given in Part 3 of CISPR 16. Uncertainties, statistics and limit modelling are covered in Part 4 of CISPR 16.

Anforderungen an Geräte und Einrichtungen sowie Festlegung der Verfahren zur Messung der hochfrequenten Störaussendung (Funkstörungen) und Störfestigkeit - Teil 1-4: Geräte und Einrichtungen zur Messung der hochfrequenten Störaussendung (Funkstörungen) und Störfestigkeit - Zusatz-/Hilfseinrichtungen - Gestrahlte Störaussendung

Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Partie 1-4: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Antennes et emplacements d'essai pour les mesures des perturbations rayonnées

La CISPR 16-1-4:2010 spécifie les caractéristiques et les performances des appareils de mesure de perturbations rayonnées dans la gamme de fréquences de 9 kHz à 18 GHz. Elle comprend les spécifications pour les antennes et les emplacements d'essai. Les exigences de cette publication s'appliquent à toutes les fréquences et à tous niveaux de perturbation rayonnée, dans les limites de la plage de lecture des appareils de mesure du CISPR. Les méthodes de mesure sont traitées dans la Partie 2-3, et des informations supplémentaires sur les perturbations radioélectriques sont données dans la Partie 3 de la CISPR 16. Les incertitudes, les statistiques et la modélisation des limites sont couvertes par la Partie 4 de la CISPR 16. Cette troisième édition de la CISPR 16-1-4 annule et remplace la deuxième édition publiée en 2007 et ses Amendements 1 (2007) et 2 (2008). Elle en constitue une révision technique. La présente édition contient les modifications techniques significatives suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: des dispositions sont ajoutées pour traiter l'évaluation d'une table d'essai dans la gamme des fréquences supérieures à 1 GHz. La CISPR 16-1-4:2010 a le statut de publication fondamentale en CEM en accord avec le Guide 107 de la CEI, Compatibilité électromagnétique - Guide pour la rédaction des publications sur la compatibilité électromagnétique.

Specifikacija merilnih naprav in metod za merjenje radiofrekvenčnih motenj in odpornosti - 1-4. del: Merilne naprave za merjenje radiofrekvenčnih motenj in odpornosti - Antene in preskuševališča za meritve sevanih motenj (CISPR 16-1-4:2010)

Ta del CISPR 16 opredeljuje značilnosti in zmogljivost opreme za merjenje radijskih motenj v frekvenčnem razponu od 9 kHz do 18 GHz. Vključene so specifikacije za antene in preskuševališča.
OPOMBA: V skladu z Vodilom IEC 107 je CISPR 16-1-4 osnovna objava EMC, ki jo uporabljajo odbori za proizvode IEC. Kot je navedeno v Vodilu 107, so odbori za proizvode odgovorni za določevanje uporabe tega standarda EMC. CISPR in njegovi pododbori so pripravljeni sodelovati z odbori za proizvode pri ocenjevanju vrednosti posameznih preskusov EMC za določene proizvode.
Zahteve te objave veljajo za vse frekvence in za vse ravni radijskih motenj v okviru CISPR z navedbo razpona merilne opreme. Metode merjenja so zajete v 2. in 3. delu, nadaljnje informacije o radijskih motnjah pa so podane v 3. delu CISPR 16. Nezanesljivost, statistika in modeliranje mejnih vrednosti so zajeti v 4. delu CISPR 16.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Apr-2011
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Mar-2011
Due Date
02-Jun-2011
Completion Date
12-Apr-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
01-maj-2011
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Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Antennas and test sites

for radiated disturbance measurements
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Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations

radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Partie 1-4:

Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux

perturbations radioélectriques - Antennes et emplacements d'essai pour les mesures des

perturbations rayonnées
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 55016-1-4:2010
ICS:
33.100.20 Imunost Immunity
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 55016-1-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2010
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 Supersedes EN 55016-1-4:2007 + A1:2008 + A2:2009
English version
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus
and methods -
Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus -
Antennas and test sites for radiated disturbance measurements
(CISPR 16-1-4:2010)
Spécifications des méthodes Anforderungen an Geräte
et des appareils de mesure und Einrichtungen sowie Festlegung
des perturbations radioélectriques der Verfahren zur Messung
et de l'immunité aux perturbations der hochfrequenten Störaussendung
radioélectriques - (Funkstörungen) und Störfestigkeit -
Partie 1-4: Appareils de mesure Teil 1-4: Geräte und Einrichtungen
des perturbations radioélectriques zur Messung der hochfrequenten
et de l'immunité aux perturbations Störaussendung (Funkstörungen)
radioélectriques - und Störfestigkeit -
Antennes et emplacements d'essai Zusatz-/Hilfseinrichtungen -
pour les mesures des perturbations Gestrahlte Störaussendung
rayonnées (CISPR 16-1-4:2010)
(CISPR 16-1-4:2010)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2010-06-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2010 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 55016-1-4:2010 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
EN 55016-1-4:2010 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document CISPR/A/885/FDIS, future edition 3 of CISPR 16-1-4, prepared by CISPR SC A,

Radio-interference measurements and statistical methods, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel

vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 55016-1-4 on 2010-06-01.
This European Standard supersedes EN 55016-1-4:2007 + A1:2008 + A2:2009.

This EN 55016-1-4:2010 includes the following significant technical change with respect to

EN 55016-1-4:2007 + A1:2008 + A2:2009: provisions are added to address evaluation of a set-up table in

the frequency range above 1 GHz.

It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC Guide 107, Electromagnetic

compatibility – Guide to the drafting of electromagnetic compatibility publications.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN and CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
(dop) 2011-03-01
national standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
(dow) 2013-06-01
with the EN have to be withdrawn
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard CISPR 16-1-4:2010 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated:

[1] IEC 61169-8 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61169-8.
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
- 3 - EN 55016-1-4:2010
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
CISPR 16-1-1 - Specification for radio disturbance and EN 55016-1-1 -
immunity measuring apparatus and methods -
Part 1-1: Radio disturbance and immunity
measuring apparatus - Measuring apparatus
CISPR 16-1-5 2003 Specification for radio disturbance and EN 55016-1-5 2004
immunity measuring apparatus and methods -
Part 1-5: Radio disturbance and immunity
measuring apparatus - Antenna calibration
test sites for 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz
CISPR 16-2-3 - Specification for radio disturbance and EN 55016-2-3 -
immunity measuring apparatus and methods -
Part 2-3: Methods of measurement of
disturbances and immunity - Radiated
disturbance measurements
CISPR/TR 16-3 2003 Specification for radio disturbance and - -
+ A1 2005 immunity measuring apparatus
+ A2 2006 and methods -
Part 3: CISPR technical reports
CISPR 16-4-2 - Specification for radio disturbance and EN 55016-4-2 -
immunity measuring apparatus and methods -
Part 4-2: Uncertainties, statistics and limit
modelling - Uncertainty in EMC
measurements
IEC 60050-161 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) -
Chapter 161: Electromagnetic compatibility
IEC 61000-4-20 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN 61000-4-20 -
Part 4-20: Testing and measurement
techniques - Emission and immunity testing in
transverse electromagnetic (TEM)
waveguides
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
CISPR 16-1-4
Edition 3.0 2010-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and
methods –
Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Antennas
and test sites for radiated disturbance measurements
Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –
Partie 1-4: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de
l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques – Antennes et emplacements
d’essai pour les mesures des perturbations rayonnées
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-88910-011-8
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
– 2 – CISPR 16-1-4 © IEC:2010
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................6

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................8

2 Normative references........................................................................................................8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations .................................................................................9

3.1 Terms and definitions ..............................................................................................9

3.2 Abbreviations.........................................................................................................12

4 Antennas for measurement of radiated radio disturbance ................................................12

4.1 General .................................................................................................................12

4.2 Physical parameter for radiated emission measurements .......................................12

4.3 Frequency range 9 kHz to 150 kHz ........................................................................13

4.3.1 General .....................................................................................................13

4.3.2 Magnetic antenna ......................................................................................13

4.3.3 Shielding of loop antenna...........................................................................13

4.4 Frequency range 150 kHz to 30 MHz......................................................................13

4.4.1 Electric antenna.........................................................................................13

4.4.2 Magnetic antenna ......................................................................................14

4.4.3 Balance/cross-polar performance of antennas............................................14

4.5 Frequency range 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz..................................................................14

4.5.1 General .....................................................................................................14

4.5.2 Low-uncertainty antenna for use if there is an alleged non-compliance

to the E-field limit.......................................................................................14

4.5.3 Antenna characteristics..............................................................................14

4.5.4 Balance of antenna ....................................................................................16

4.5.5 Cross-polar response of antenna ...............................................................18

4.6 Frequency range 1 GHz to 18 GHz.........................................................................18

4.7 Special antenna arrangements – Loop antenna system ..........................................19

5 Test sites for measurement of radio disturbance field strength for the frequency

range of 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz........................................................................................19

5.1 General .................................................................................................................19

5.2 OATS ....................................................................................................................19

5.2.1 General .....................................................................................................19

5.2.2 Weather protection enclosure ....................................................................20

5.2.3 Obstruction-free area.................................................................................20

5.2.4 Ambient radio frequency environment of a test site.....................................21

5.2.5 Ground plane.............................................................................................22

5.2.6 OATS validation procedure ........................................................................22

5.3 Test site suitability for other ground-plane test sites ...............................................26

5.3.1 General .....................................................................................................26

5.3.2 Normalized site attenuation for alternative test sites ...................................26

5.3.3 Site attenuation..........................................................................................30

5.3.4 Conducting ground plane ...........................................................................30

5.4 Test site suitability without ground plane ................................................................31

5.4.1 Measurement considerations for free space test sites, as realized by

fully-absorber-lined shielded enclosures.....................................................31

5.4.2 Site performance .......................................................................................32

5.4.3 Site validation criteria.................................................................................40

5.5 Evaluation of set-up table and antenna tower .........................................................40

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SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
CISPR 16-1-4 © IEC:2010 – 3 –

5.5.1 General .....................................................................................................40

5.5.2 Evaluation procedure for set-up table influences ........................................40

6 Reverberating chamber for total radiated power measurement ........................................42

6.1 General .................................................................................................................42

6.2 Chamber ...............................................................................................................42

6.2.1 Chamber size and shape............................................................................42

6.2.2 Door, openings in walls, and mounting brackets .........................................42

6.2.3 Stirrers ......................................................................................................43

6.2.4 Test for the efficiency of the stirrers ...........................................................43

6.2.5 Coupling attenuation ..................................................................................44

7 TEM cells for immunity to radiated disturbance measurement..........................................45

8 Test sites for measurement of radio disturbance field strength for the frequency

range 1 GHz to 18 GHz...................................................................................................45

8.1 General .................................................................................................................45

8.2 Reference test site ................................................................................................45

8.3 Validation of the test site........................................................................................45

8.3.1 General .....................................................................................................45

8.3.2 Acceptance criterion for site validation .......................................................46

8.3.3 Site validation procedures – evaluation of S .......................................47

VSWR

8.4 Alternative test sites ..............................................................................................59

9 Common mode absorption devices..................................................................................59

9.1 General .................................................................................................................59

9.2 CMAD S-parameter measurements ........................................................................59

9.3 CMAD test jig ........................................................................................................59

9.4 Measurement method using the TRL calibration .....................................................61

9.5 Specification of ferrite clamp-type CMAD ...............................................................63

9.6 CMAD performance (degradation) check using spectrum analyzer and

tracking generator .................................................................................................

Annex A (normative) Parameters of antennas.......................................................................66

Annex B (normative) Monopole (1 m rod) antenna performance equations and

characterization of the associated antenna matching network ................................................73

Annex C (normative) Loop antenna system for magnetic field induced-current

measurements in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 30 MHz.....................................................78

Annex D (normative) Construction details for open area test sites in the frequency

range of 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz (see Clause 5).......................................................................87

Annex E (normative) Validation procedure of the open area test site for the frequency

range of 30 MHz to 1 000 MHz (see Clause 5).......................................................................91

Annex F (informative) Basis for 4 dB site acceptability criterion (see Clause 5) .....................99

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 101

Figure 1 – Schematic of radiation from EUT reaching an LPDA antenna directly and via

ground reflections on a 3 m site, showing the half beamwidth, ϕ, at the reflected ray..............15

Figure 2 – Obstruction-free area of a test site with a turntable (see 5.2.3)..............................21

Figure 3 – Obstruction-free area with stationary EUT (see 5.2.3) ...........................................21

Figure 4 – Configuration of equipment for measuring site attenuation in horizontal

polarization (see 5.2.6 and Annex E) .....................................................................................23

Figure 5 – Configuration of equipment for measuring site attenuation in vertical

polarization using tuned dipoles (see 5.2.6 and Annex E).......................................................24

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
– 4 – CISPR 16-1-4 © IEC:2010

Figure 6 – Typical antenna positions for alternative test site – Vertical polarization NSA

measurements ......................................................................................................................28

Figure 7 – Typical antenna positions for alternative test site – Horizontal polarization

NSA measurements ..............................................................................................................28

Figure 8 – Typical antenna positions for alternative test site – Vertical polarization NSA

measurements for a smaller EUT ..........................................................................................29

Figure 9 – Typical antenna positions for alternative test site – Horizontal polarization

NSA measurements for a smaller EUT ..................................................................................29

Figure 10 – Graph of theoretical free-space NSA as a function of the frequency for

different measurement distances (see Equation (10)) ............................................................33

Figure 11 – Measurement positions for the site validation procedure......................................35

Figure 12 – Example of one measurement position and antenna tilt for the site validation

procedure .............................................................................................................................36

Figure 13 – Typical free-space reference site attenuation measurement set-up......................39

Figure 14 – Position of the antenna relative to the edge above a rectangle set-up table

(top view)..............................................................................................................................42

Figure 15 – Antenna position above the set-up table (side view) ...........................................42

Figure 16 – Example of a typical paddle stirrer ......................................................................43

Figure 17 – Range of coupling attenuation as a function of frequency for a chamber

using the stirrer shown in Figure 16.......................................................................................44

Figure 18 – Transmit antenna E-plane radiation pattern example (this example is for

informative purposes only) ....................................................................................................48

Figure 19 – Transmit antenna H-plane radiation pattern (this example is for informative

purposes only) ......................................................................................................................49

Figure 20 – S measurement positions in a horizontal plane (see 8.3.3.2.2 for
VSWR

description) ...........................................................................................................................50

Figure 21 – S positions (height requirements) ................................................................52

VSWR

Figure 22 – Conditional test position requirements.................................................................58

Figure 23 – Definition of the reference planes inside the test jig.............................................60

Figure 24 – The four configurations for the TRL calibration ....................................................62

Figure 25 – Limits for the magnitude of S , measured according to provisions of 9.1 to 9.3 ...63

Figure 26 – Example of a 50 Ω adaptor construction in the vertical flange of the jig................64

Figure 27 – Example of a matching adaptor with balun or transformer....................................65

Figure 28 – Example of a matching adaptor with resistive matching network ..........................65

Figure A.1 – Short dipole antenna factors for R = 50 Ω .........................................................69

Figure B.1 – Method using network analyzer..........................................................................75

Figure B.2 – Method using measuring receiver and signal generator ......................................76

Figure B.3 – Example of capacitor mounting in dummy antenna.............................................76

Figure C.1 – The loop-antenna system, consisting of three mutually perpendicular large-

loop antennas .......................................................................................................................79

Figure C.2 – A large-loop antenna containing two opposite slits, positioned

symmetrically with respect to the current probe C ..................................................................80

Figure C.3 – Construction of the antenna slit .........................................................................81

Figure C.4 – Example of antenna-slit construction using a strap of printed circuit board

to obtain a rigid construction .................................................................................................81

Figure C.5 – Construction for the metal box containing the current probe...............................82

Figure C.6 – Example showing the routing of several cables from an EUT to ensure that

there is no capacitive coupling from the leads to the loop.......................................................82

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SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
CISPR 16-1-4 © IEC:2010 – 5 –

Figure C.7 – The eight positions of the balun-dipole during validation of the large-loop

antenna ................................................................................................................................83

Figure C.8 – Validation factor for a large loop-antenna of 2 m diameter .................................83

Figure C.9 – Construction of the balun-dipole ........................................................................84

Figure C.10 – Conversion factors C [for conversion into dB(μA/m)] and C (for
dA dV

conversion into dB(μV/m)) for two standardized measuring distances d..................................85

Figure C.11 – Sensitivity S of a large-loop antenna with diameter D relative to a large-

loop antenna having a diameter of 2 m ..................................................................................85

Figure D.1 – The Rayleigh criterion for roughness in the ground plane...................................88

Table 1 – Normalized site attenuation (recommended geometries for tuned half-wave

dipoles with horizontal polarization) .......................................................................................30

Table 2 – Normalized site attenuation* (recommended geometries for broadband

antennas)..............................................................................................................................31

Table 3 – Maximum dimensions of test volume versus test distance ......................................34

Table 4 – Frequency ranges and step sizes ...........................................................................36

Table 5 – S test position designations............................................................................53

VSWR

Table 6 – S reporting requirements................................................................................58

VSWR
Table E.1 – Normalized site attenuation – Recommended geometries for broadband

antennas...............................................................................................................................95

Table E.2 – Normalized site attenuation – Recommended geometries for tuned half-

wave dipoles, horizontal polarization......................................................................................96

Table E.3 – Normalized site attenuation – Recommended geometries for tuned half-

wave dipoles – vertical polarization........................................................................................97

Table E.4 – Mutual coupling correction factors for geometry using resonant tunable

dipoles spaced 3 m apart ......................................................................................................98

Table F.1 – Error budget .......................................................................................................99

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-4:2011
– 6 – CISPR 16-1-4 © IEC:2010
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
___________
SPECIFICATION FOR RADIO DISTURBANCE AND IMMUNITY
MEASURING APPARATUS AND METHODS –
Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus –
Antennas and test sites for radiated disturbance measurements
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.
2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express,
...

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