Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test - Part 2: Verification of testing machines (ISO 148-2:2016)

This part of ISO 148 covers the verification of pendulum-type impact testing machines, in terms of their
constructional elements, their overall performance and the accuracy of the results they produce. It is
applicable to machines with 2 mm or 8 mm strikers used for pendulum impact tests carried out, for
instance, in accordance with ISO 148-1.
It can be applied to pendulum impact testing machines of various capacities and of different design.
Impact machines used for industrial, general or research laboratory testing of metallic materials in
accordance with this part of ISO 148 are referred to as industrial machines. Those with more stringent
requirements are referred to as reference machines. Specifications for the verification of reference
machines are found in ISO 148-3.
This part of ISO 148 describes two methods of verification.
a) The direct method, which is static in nature, involves measurement of the critical parts of the
machine to ensure that it meets the requirements of this part of ISO 148. Instruments used for the
verification and calibration are traceable to national or international standards.
b) The indirect method, which is dynamic in nature, uses reference test pieces to verify points on the
measuring scale for absorbed energy. The requirements for the reference test pieces are found in
ISO 148-3.
A pendulum impact testing machine is not in compliance with this part of ISO 148 until it has been
verified by both the direct and indirect methods and meets the requirements of Clause 6 and Clause 7.
This part of ISO 148 describes how to assess the different components of the total energy absorbed in
fracturing a test piece. This total absorbed energy consists of
— the energy needed to fracture the test piece itself, and
— the internal energy losses of the pendulum impact testing machine performing the first half-cycle
swing from the initial position.
NOTE Internal energy losses are due to the following:
— air resistance, friction of the bearings of the rotation axis and of the indicating pointer of the pendulum which
can be determined by the direct method (see 6.4.5);
— shock of the foundation, vibration of the frame and pendulum for which no suitable measuring methods and
apparatus have been developed.

Metallische Werkstoffe - Kerbschlagbiegeversuch nach Charpy - Teil 2: Prüfung der Prüfmaschinen (Pendelschlagwerke) (ISO 148-2:2016)

In diesem Teil von ISO 148 werden die Überprüfung eines Pendelschlagwerks hinsichtlich seiner einzelnen Teile, seiner gesamten Schlagarbeit und der Genauigkeit der erhaltenen Ergebnisse festgelegt. Er gilt für Pendelschlagwerke mit 2 mm Hämmern oder mit 8 mm Hämmern, die z. B. für Kerbschlagbiegeversuche nach ISO 148-1 angewendet werden.
Dieser Teil von ISO 148 kann auf Pendelschlagwerke anderer Bauarten angewendet werden, die auch ein anderes Arbeitsvermögen haben können.
Pendelschlagwerke, die für die Prüfung metallischer Werkstoffe nach dem vorliegenden Teil von ISO 148 für betriebliche, für allgemeine und für Forschungszwecke vorgesehen sind, werden als Betriebs Pendelschlag-werke bezeichnet. Pendelschlagwerke, für die strengere Anforderungen gelten, werden als Referenz-Pendel-schlagwerke bezeichnet. Festlegungen für die Überprüfung von Referenz Pendelschlagwerken sind in ISO 148-3 enthalten.
In diesem Teil von ISO 148 werden zwei Verfahren zur Überprüfung der Prüfmaschinen beschrieben:
1)   Das direkte Verfahren, bei dem eine statische Einzelprüfung der kritischen Teile des Pendelschlagwerks unter Einbeziehung von Messungen durchgeführt wird um sicherzustellen, dass die Anforderungen dieses Teils von ISO 148 erfüllt werden. Die für Überprüfung und Kalibrierung eingesetzten Geräte sind auf nationale Normale rückführbar.
2)   Das indirekte Verfahren, welches prinzipiell dynamisch ist und an Referenzproben durchgeführt wird, um den Anzeigebereich an verschiedenen Stellen der Skala zu überprüfen.
Ein Pendelschlagwerk entspricht erst dann diesem Teil von ISO 148, wenn Überprüfungen sowohl nach dem direkten als auch nach dem indirekten Verfahren durchgeführt wurden und das Pendelschlagwerk den in den Abschnitten 6 und 7 festgelegten Anforderungen entspricht. Die Anforderungen an die Referenzproben werden in ISO 148-3 festgelegt.
Dieser Teil von ISO 148 beschreibt, wie die verschiedenen Komponenten der gesamten verbrauchten (absorbierten) Energie zum Brechen der Probe bewertet werden. Die gesamte verbrauchte Schlag¬energie besteht
   aus der zum Bruch der Probe benötigten Energie und
   aus den internen Energieverlusten des Pendelschlagwerks, nachdem das aus seiner Ausgangsstellung ausgeklinkte Pendel die erste Halbschwingung durchlaufen hat.
ANMERKUNG   Die internen Energieverluste sind zurückzuführen auf
   Luftwiderstand, Reibung in der Lagerung für die Drehachse und des Zeigers des Pendels, die nach dem direkten Verfahren bestimmt werden können (siehe 6.4.5) und
Erschütterungen des Fundaments, Schwingungen des Maschinengestells und des Pendels, für die keine geeigneten Messverfahren und Messgeräte entwickelt wurden.

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de flexion par choc sur éprouvette Charpy - Partie 2: Vérification des machines d'essai (mouton-pendule) (ISO 148-2:2016)

ISO 148-2:2016 traite de la vérification des éléments des machines d'essai de flexion par choc (moutons-pendules) concernant leurs éléments de construction, leur performance globale et la précision des résultats qu'ils produisent. Elle s'applique aux machines ayant des couteaux de 2 mm ou de 8 mm utilisées pour les essais de flexion par choc effectués par exemple conformément à l'ISO 148‑1.
Elle peut s'appliquer de manière analogue aux moutons-pendules de capacités ou de conceptions différentes.
Les machines de choc utilisées pour les essais des matériaux métalliques par des laboratoires industriels, généralistes ou de recherche conformément à la présente partie de l'ISO 148 sont qualifiées de machines industrielles. Celles répondant à des exigences plus contraignantes sont qualifiées de machines de référence. Les exigences relatives à la vérification des machines de référence sont fixées dans l'ISO 148‑3.
ISO 148-2:2016 décrit deux méthodes de vérification.
a) La méthode directe, qui est de nature statique, comprend des mesurages sur les parties critiques de la machine pour s'assurer qu'elle satisfait aux exigences de la présente partie de l'ISO 148. Les instruments utilisés pour la vérification et l'étalonnage ont une traçabilité aux étalons nationaux. Les méthodes directes sont utilisées lors de l'installation ou de la réparation de la machine ou lorsque la méthode indirecte donne un résultat non conforme.
b) La méthode indirecte, qui est de nature dynamique, utilise des éprouvettes de référence afin de vérifier des points sur l'échelle de mesure.
Un mouton-pendule n'est pas conforme à la présente partie de l'ISO 148 tant qu'il n'a pas été vérifié par les deux méthodes, directe et indirecte, et satisfait aux exigences des Articles 6 et 7.
ISO 148-2:2016 décrit comment prendre en compte les différentes composantes de l'énergie totale absorbée par la rupture de l'éprouvette au moyen d'une méthode indirecte. Cette énergie totale absorbée consiste en
- l'énergie nécessaire pour rompre l'éprouvette elle-même, et
- les pertes internes d'énergie du mouton-pendule effectuant la première demi-oscillation depuis sa position initiale.
NOTE Les pertes internes d'énergie sont dues:
- à la résistance de l'air, aux frottements des paliers de l'axe de rotation et de l'indicateur du mouton-pendule et peuvent être déterminées par la méthode directe (voir 6.4.5), et
- au choc sur les fondations, aux vibrations du bâti et du pendule, pour lesquelles aucune méthode de mesure et aucun appareillage appropriés n'ont été développés.

Kovinski materiali - Udarni preskus po Charpyju - 2. del: Preverjanje preskusnih naprav (ISO 148-2:2016)

Ta del standarda ISO 148 zajema preverjanje preskusnih naprav za udarno preskušanje na podlagi njihovih konstrukcijskih elementov, splošne učinkovitosti in točnosti rezultatov. Uporablja se za naprave z 2-mm ali 8-mm udarnimi kladivi pri udarnih preskusih, izvedenih na primer v skladu s standardom ISO 148-1.
Lahko se uporablja za naprave za udarno preskušanje različnih zmogljivosti in oblik.
Udarne naprave, ki se uporabljajo za industrijsko, splošno ali laboratorijsko preskušanje kovinskih materialov v
skladu s tem delom standarda ISO 148, se imenujejo industrijske naprave. Naprave s strožjimi zahtevami se imenujejo referenčne naprave. Specifikacije za preverjanje referenčnih naprav so navedene v standardu ISO 148-3.
Ta del standarda ISO 148 opisuje dve metodi preverjanja.
a) Neposredna metoda, ki je po naravi statična, vključuje merjenje kritičnih delov
naprave, da se zagotovi skladnost z zahtevami tega dela standarda ISO 148. Instrumenti, ki se uporabljajo za
preverjanje in umerjanje, so sledljivi do nacionalnih ali mednarodnih standardov.
b) Posredna metoda, ki je po naravi dinamična, z referenčnimi preskušanci preveri točke na merilu za absorbirano energijo. Zahteve za referenčne preskušance so navedene v standardu ISO 148-3.
Naprava za udarno preskušanje ni v skladu s tem delom standarda ISO 148, dokler ni
preverjena z neposredno in posredno metodo ter ne izpolnjuje zahtev iz točk 6 in 7.
Ta del standarda ISO 148 opisuje način za oceno različnih sestavnih delov skupne količine absorbirane energije pri prelomu preskušanca. Skupna količina absorbirane energije je sestavljena iz
– energije, ki je potrebna za prelom preskušanca, in
– notranjih izgub energije naprave za udarno preskušanje pri izvajanju prvega polkrožnega zamaha od začetnega položaja.
OPOMBA: Do notranjih izgub energije pride zaradi:
– zračnega upora, trenja ležajev vrtilne osi in kazalca nihala, ki jih je mogoče ugotoviti z neposredno metodo (glej 6.4.5);
– udara podlage, vibracije okvirja in nihala, za kar ni bila razvita nobena ustrezna merilna metoda ali naprava.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Nov-2015
Publication Date
18-Dec-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
13-Dec-2016
Due Date
17-Feb-2017
Completion Date
19-Dec-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
01-februar-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 148-2:2009
Kovinski materiali - Udarni preskus po Charpyju - 2. del: Preverjanje preskusnih
naprav (ISO 148-2:2016)

Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test - Part 2: Verification of testing

machines (ISO 148-2:2016)

Metallische Werkstoffe - Kerbschlagbiegeversuch nach Charpy - Teil 2: Prüfung der

Prüfmaschinen (Pendelschlagwerke) (ISO 148-2:2016)

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de flexion par choc sur éprouvette Charpy - Partie 2:

Vérification des machines d'essai (mouton-pendule) (ISO 148-2:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 148-2:2016
ICS:
77.040.10 Mehansko preskušanje kovin Mechanical testing of metals
SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
EN ISO 148-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.040.10 Supersedes EN ISO 148-2:2008
English Version
Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test - Part 2:
Verification of testing machines (ISO 148-2:2016)

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de flexion par choc sur Metallische Werkstoffe - Kerbschlagbiegeversuch nach

éprouvette Charpy - Partie 2: Vérification des machines Charpy - Teil 2: Überprüfung der Prüfmaschinen

d'essai (mouton-pendule) (ISO 148-2:2016) (Pendelschlagwerke) (ISO 148-2:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 August 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 148-2:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
EN ISO 148-2:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
EN ISO 148-2:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 148-2:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 164

“Mechanical testing of metals” in collaboration with Technical Committee ECISS/TC 101 “Test methods

for steel (other than chemical analysis)” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 148-2:2008.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 148-2:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 148-2:2016 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 148-2
Third edition
2016-10-15
Metallic materials — Charpy
pendulum impact test —
Part 2:
Verification of testing machines
Matériaux métalliques — Essai de flexion par choc sur éprouvette
Charpy —
Partie 2: Vérification des machines d’essai (mouton-pendule)
Reference number
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Definitions pertaining to the machine ................................................................................................................................ 2

3.2 Definitions pertaining to energy .............................................................................................................................................. 3

3.3 Definitions pertaining to test pieces .................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Testing machine .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Direct verification ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Foundation/installation .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.3 Machine framework ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.4 Pendulum ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.5 Anvil and supports ............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6 Indicating equipment .....................................................................................................................................................................12

7 Indirect verification by use of reference test pieces ....................................................................................................13

7.1 Reference test pieces used .........................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Absorbed energy levels.................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Requirements for reference test pieces ..........................................................................................................................13

7.4 Limited direct verification .........................................................................................................................................................13

7.5 Bias and repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5.1 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5.2 Bias ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

8 Frequency of verification ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

9 Verification report ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.2 Direct verification ..............................................................................................................................................................................15

9.3 Indirect verification .........................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Uncertainty ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Measurement uncertainty of the result of the indirect verification of

a Charpy pendulum impact machine ............................................................................................................................................21

Annex B (informative) Measurement uncertainty of the results of the direct verification of

a Charpy pendulum impact testing machine ........................................................................................................................25

Annex C (informative) Direct method of verifying the geometric properties of pendulum

impact testing machines using a jig ...............................................................................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 164, Mechanical testing of metals, Subcommittee

SC 4, Toughness testing — Fracture (F), Pendulum (P), Tear (T).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 148-2:2008), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 148 consists of the following parts, under the general title Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum

impact test:
— Part 1: Test method
— Part 2: Verification of testing machines

— Part 3: Preparation and characterization of Charpy V-notch test pieces for indirect verification of

pendulum impact machines
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
Introduction

The suitability of a pendulum impact testing machine for acceptance testing of metallic materials has

usually been based on a calibration of its scale and verification of compliance with specified dimensions,

such as the shape and spacing of the anvils supporting the specimen. The scale calibration is commonly

verified by measuring the mass of the pendulum and its elevation at various scale readings. This

procedure for evaluation of machines had the distinct advantage of requiring only measurements

of quantities that could be traced to national standards. The objective nature of these traceable

measurements minimized the necessity for arbitration regarding the suitability of the machines for

material acceptance tests.

However, sometimes two machines that had been evaluated by the direct-verification procedures

described above, and which met all dimensional requirements, were found to give significantly different

impact values when testing test pieces of the same material.

This difference was commercially important when values obtained using one machine met the material

specification, while the values obtained using the other machine did not. To avoid such disagreements,

some purchasers of materials added the requirement that all pendulum impact testing machines used

for acceptance testing of material sold to them are to be indirectly verified by testing reference test

pieces supplied by them. A machine was considered acceptable only if the values obtained using the

machine agreed, within specified limits, with the value furnished with the reference test pieces.

This part of ISO 148 describes both the original direct verification and the indirect verification

procedures.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 148-2:2016(E)
Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test —
Part 2:
Verification of testing machines
1 Scope

This part of ISO 148 covers the verification of pendulum-type impact testing machines, in terms of their

constructional elements, their overall performance and the accuracy of the results they produce. It is

applicable to machines with 2 mm or 8 mm strikers used for pendulum impact tests carried out, for

instance, in accordance with ISO 148-1.

It can be applied to pendulum impact testing machines of various capacities and of different design.

Impact machines used for industrial, general or research laboratory testing of metallic materials in

accordance with this part of ISO 148 are referred to as industrial machines. Those with more stringent

requirements are referred to as reference machines. Specifications for the verification of reference

machines are found in ISO 148-3.
This part of ISO 148 describes two methods of verification.

a) The direct method, which is static in nature, involves measurement of the critical parts of the

machine to ensure that it meets the requirements of this part of ISO 148. Instruments used for the

verification and calibration are traceable to national or international standards.

b) The indirect method, which is dynamic in nature, uses reference test pieces to verify points on the

measuring scale for absorbed energy. The requirements for the reference test pieces are found in

ISO 148-3.

A pendulum impact testing machine is not in compliance with this part of ISO 148 until it has been

verified by both the direct and indirect methods and meets the requirements of Clause 6 and Clause 7.

This part of ISO 148 describes how to assess the different components of the total energy absorbed in

fracturing a test piece. This total absorbed energy consists of
— the energy needed to fracture the test piece itself, and

— the internal energy losses of the pendulum impact testing machine performing the first half-cycle

swing from the initial position.
NOTE Internal energy losses are due to the following:

— air resistance, friction of the bearings of the rotation axis and of the indicating pointer of the pendulum which

can be determined by the direct method (see 6.4.5);

— shock of the foundation, vibration of the frame and pendulum for which no suitable measuring methods and

apparatus have been developed.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 148-1, Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 1: Test method

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)

ISO 148-3, Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 3: Preparation and characterization

of Charpy V-notch test pieces for indirect verification of pendulum impact machines

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 Definitions pertaining to the machine
3.1.1
anvil

portion of the machine that serves to properly position the test piece for impact with respect to the

striker and the test piece supports, and supports the test piece under the force of the strike

3.1.2
base

part of the framework of the machine located below the horizontal plane of the supports

3.1.3
centre of percussion

point in a body at which, on striking a blow, the percussive action is the same as if the whole mass of the

body were concentrated at the point

Note 1 to entry: When a simple pendulum delivers a blow along a horizontal line passing through the centre of

percussion, there is no resulting horizontal reaction at the axis of rotation.
Note 2 to entry: See Figure 4.
3.1.4
centre of strike

point on the striking edge of the pendulum at which, in the free hanging position of the pendulum, the

vertical edge of the striker meets the upper horizontal plane of a test piece of half standard thickness

(i.e. 5 mm) or equivalent gauge bar resting on the test piece supports
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
3.1.5
industrial machine

pendulum impact machine used for industrial, general or most research-laboratory testing of metallic

materials

Note 1 to entry: Industrial machines are not used to establish reference values, unless they also meet the

requirements of a reference pendulum (see ISO 148-3).

Note 2 to entry: Industrial machines are verified using the procedures described in this part of ISO 148.

3.1.6
reference machine

pendulum impact testing machine used to determine certified values for batches of reference test

pieces (3.3.4)

Note 1 to entry: Reference machines are verified using the procedures described in ISO 148-3.

3.1.7
striker
portion of the pendulum that contacts the test piece

Note 1 to entry: The edge that actually contacts the test piece has a radius of 2 mm (the 2 mm striker) or a radius

of 8 mm (the 8 mm striker).
Note 2 to entry: See Figure 2.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
3.1.8
test piece supports

portion of the machine that serves to properly position the test piece for impact with respect to the

centre of percussion (3.1.3) of the pendulum, the striker (3.1.7) and the anvils (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2 and Figure 3.
3.2 Definitions pertaining to energy
3.2.1
total absorbed energy

total absorbed energy required to break a test piece with a pendulum impact testing machine, which is

not corrected for any losses of energy

Note 1 to entry: It is equal to the difference in the potential energy (3.2.2) from the starting position of the

pendulum to the end of the first half swing during which the test piece is broken (see 6.3).

3.2.2
initial potential energy
potential energy

potential energy of the pendulum hammer prior to its release for the impact test, as determined by

direct verification
Note 1 to entry: See 6.4.2.
3.2.3
absorbed energy

energy required to break a test piece with a pendulum impact testing machine, after correction for

friction as defined in 6.4.5

Note 1 to entry: The letter V or U is used to indicate the notch geometry, which is KV or KU. The number 2 or 8 is

used as a subscript to indicate striker radius, for example KV .
3.2.4
calculated energy
calc

energy calculated from values of angle, length and force measured during direct verification

3.2.5
nominal initial potential energy
nominal energy
energy assigned by the manufacturer of the pendulum impact testing machine
3.2.6
indicated absorbed energy

energy indicated by the display/dial of the testing machine, which may or may not need to be corrected

for friction and air resistance to determine the absorbed energy, K (3.2.3)
3.2.7
reference absorbed energy

certified value of absorbed energy (3.2.3) assigned to the reference test pieces (3.3.4) used to verify the

performance of pendulum impact machines
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
3.3 Definitions pertaining to test pieces
3.3.1
width
distance between the notched face and the opposite face

Note 1 to entry: In previous versions of the ISO 148 series (prior to 2016), the distance between the notched face

and the opposite face was specified as “height”. Changing this dimension to “width” makes ISO 148-2 consistent

with the terminology used in other ISO fracture standards.
3.3.2
thickness
dimension perpendicular to the width (3.3.1) and parallel to the notch

Note 1 to entry: In previous versions of the ISO 148 series (prior to 2016), the dimension perpendicular to

the width that is parallel to the notch was specified as “width”. Changing this dimension to “thickness” makes

ISO 148-2 consistent with the terminology used in other ISO fracture standards.
3.3.3
length
largest dimension perpendicular to the notch
3.3.4
reference test piece

impact test piece used to verify the suitability of a pendulum impact testing machine by comparing the

indicated absorbed energy (3.2.3) measured by that machine with the reference absorbed energy (3.2.7)

associated with the test pieces

Note 1 to entry: Reference test pieces are prepared in accordance with ISO 148-3.

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
Table 1 — Symbols/abbreviated terms and their designations and units
Symbol/
abbreviated Unit Designation
term
Bias of the pendulum impact machine as determined through indirect veri-
B J
fication
b J Repeatability
F N Force exerted by the pendulum when measured at a distance l
F N Force exerted by the pendulum due to gravity
g m/s Acceleration due to gravity
[1]
GUM — Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement
h m Height of fall of pendulum
H m Height of rise of pendulum
Absorbed energy (expressed as KV , KV , KU , KU , to identify specific notch
2 8 2 8
K J
geometries and the radius of the striking edge)
K J Total absorbed energy
K J Indicated absorbed energy
K J Calculated energy
calc

KV J Certified KV value of the reference material used in the indirect verification

See Figure 4.
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 148-2:2017
ISO 148-2:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbol/
abbreviated Unit Designation
term
J Mean KV value of the reference test pieces tested for indirect verification
KV
K J Nominal initial potential energy (nominal energy)
K J Initial potential energy (potential energy)
K J Reference absorbed energy of a set of Charpy reference test pieces
Indicated absorbed energy or angle of rise when the machine is operated in
K or β J or °
1 1
the normal manner without a test piece in position
Indicated absorbed energy or angle of rise when the machine is operated in

K or β J or ° the normal manner without a test piece in position and without resetting the

2 2
indication mechanism
Indicated absorbed energy or angle of rise after 11 half swings when the

K or β J or ° machine is operated in the normal manner without a test piece in position and

3 3
without resetting the indication mechanism
Distance to centre of test piece (centre of strike) from the axis of rotation
l m
(length of pendulum)
l m Distance to the centre of percussion from the axis of rotation

l m Distance to the point of application of the force F from the axis of rotation

M N·m Moment equal to the product F·l
Number of reference samples tested for the indirect verification of a pendulum
n —
impact testing machine
p J Absorbed energy loss caused by pointer friction
p’ J Absorbed energy loss caused by bearing friction and air resistance
p J Correction of absorbed energy losses for an angle of rise β
r J Resolution of the pendulum scale
RM — Reference material
s J Standard deviation of the KV values obtained on n reference samples
V V
S J Bias in the scale mechanism
t s Period of the pendulum
T s Total time for 100 swings of the pendulum
T s Maximum value of T
max
T s Minimum value of T
min
u — Standard uncertainty
uKV
( Standard uncertainty of KV
V V
u(B ) J Standard uncertainty contribution from bias
u(F) J Standard uncertainty of the measured force, F
u(F ) J Standard uncertainty of the force transducer
ftd
u(r) J Standard uncertainty contribution from resolution
Standard uncertainty of the certified value of the reference material used for
u J
the indirect verification
u J Standard uncertainty of the indirect verification result
...

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