Road marking materials - Road marking performance for road users and test methods

This European Standard specifies the performance for road users of white and yellow road markings, as expressed by their reflection in daylight or under road lighting, retroreflection in vehicle headlamp illumination, colour and skid resistance. Furthermore the standard describes test methods and conditions.

Straßenmarkierungsmaterialien - Anforderungen an Markierungen auf Straßen und Messmethoden

Diese Europäische Norm legt die straßenbenutzerbezogenen Anforderungen an weiße und gelbe Straßenmarkierungen im Hinblick auf deren Reflexion bei Tageslicht oder bei Straßenbeleuchtung, auf deren Retroreflexion bei Anleuchtung durch Fahrzeugscheinwerfer und auf deren Farbe und Griffigkeit fest. Darüber hinaus beschreibt die Norm Prüfverfahren und Bedingungen.

Produits de marque routier - Performances des marquages appliqués sur la route

La présente Norme européenne définit les performances, pour les usagers de la route, des marquages routiers blancs et jaunes quant à leur réflexion à la lumière du jour ou sous un éclairage public, à leur rétroréflexion lorsqu’ils sont éclairés par des projecteurs automobiles, à leur couleur et à leur adhérence. Elle décrit en outre les méthodes et conditions d'essai.

Materiali za označevanje vozišča - Lastnosti označb in preskusne metode

Ta evropski standard določa lastnosti belih in rumenih cestnih označb za cestne uporabnike, kot so izražene s svojim odsevom pri dnevni svetlobi ali pod cestnimi lučmi, retrorefleksijo v žarometih vozila, barvo in torno sposobnostjo. Standard nadalje opisuje preskusne metode in pogoje.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Jul-2016
Publication Date
12-Feb-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2018
Due Date
09-Apr-2018
Completion Date
13-Feb-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.PHWRGHStraßenmarkierungsmaterialien - Anforderungen an Markierungen auf Straßen und MessmethodenProduits de marque routier - Performances des marquages appliqués sur la routeRoad marking materials - Road marking performance for road users and test methods93.080.30Cestna oprema in pomožne napraveRoad equipment and installationsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1436:2018SIST EN 1436:2018en,fr,de01-marec-2018SIST EN 1436:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1436:2007+A1:20091DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1436:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1436
January
t r s z ICS
{ uä r z rä u r Supersedes EN
s v u xã t r r y ªA sã t r r zEnglish Version

Road marking materials æ Road marking performance for road users and test methods Produits de marque routier æ Performances des marquages appliqußs sur la route

Straßenmarkierungsmaterialien æ Anforderungen an Markierungen auf Straßen und Messmethoden This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t t October
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s v u xã t r s z ESIST EN 1436:2018
EN 1436:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7 4 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 4.2 Reflection in daylight or under road lighting ....................................................................................... 9 4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 4.2.2 Luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd ....................................................................... 9 4.2.3

...................................................................................................................................... 10 4.3 Retroreflection under vehicle headlamp illumination .................................................................. 10 4.4 Colour ............................................................................................................................................................... 12 4.4.1 Chromaticity in daylight ............................................................................................................................ 12 4.4.2 Chromaticity of retroreflected light ...................................................................................................... 13 4.5 Skid resistance .............................................................................................................................................. 14 Annex A (normative)

Measurement method for the luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd ............................................................................................................................................. 15 A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 15 A.2 Spectral match ............................................................................................................................................... 16 A.3 Standard measuring condition of measuring equipment ............................................................. 16 A.4 Practical applications of measuring equipment ............................................................................... 17 A.5 Calibration of measuring equipment .................................................................................................... 18 A.6 Uncertainty of measurement ................................................................................................................... 18 Annex B (normative)

Measurement method for the coefficient of retroreflected luminance RL ........................................................................................................................................................................ 20 B.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 20 B.2 Spectral match of measuring equipment ............................................................................................. 21 B.3 Standard measuring condition of measuring equipment ............................................................. 21 B.4 Practical applications of measuring equipment ............................................................................... 22 B.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 22 B.4.2 Portable instruments .................................................................................................................................. 22 B.4.3 Vehicle mounted instruments ................................................................................................................. 23 B.5 Calibration of measuring equipment .................................................................................................... 25 B.6 Condition of wetness ................................................................................................................................... 25 B.7 Condition of rain ........................................................................................................................................... 26 B.8 Uncertainty of measurement ................................................................................................................... 26 SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 3 Annex C (normative)

-ordinates x and y ........................................................................................................................................... 28 C.1 the chromaticity co-ordinates x and y in daylight ............................................................................ 28 C.2 Standard measuring condition for the measurement of the chromaticity co-ordinates x and y of retroreflected light .............................................................................................. 28 C.3 Measuring equipment ................................................................................................................................. 28 C.4 Uncertainty of measurement .................................................................................................................... 28 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 29

SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 1436:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 226 “Road equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2018 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 1436:2007+A1:2008. The main changes in this revision to EN 1436 are as follows: — the title is extended with “and test methods” in order to stress that test methods are provided; — in the Scope, the sentence “Furthermore the standard specifies test methods” is added in order to stress that test methods are provided; — in the Introduction, two paragraphs are added at the end to clarify a few issues; — in the Normative references, EN 13036-4 is inserted, while references to ISO 48 and ISO 4662 are deleted.

Additionally, the normative reference to ISO 10526 is replaced by a normative reference to ISO 11664-2; — in 3.6, the definition of structured road marking

is simplified; — in 3.7, the definition of type I and II road markings is split into two separate definitions in 3.7 and 3.8; — in 3.9, a definition of chromaticity coordinates x,y is inserted as 3.9; — in Table 1, an option for class Q5 is added for white road markings on asphaltic road surfaces; — in Table 3, an option for class R5 is added for permanent yellow road markings; — in 4.2.1 General, the reference to 3.6 is deleted in view of the simplification of this definition; — in 4.4 Colour, this clause is split into subclause 4.4.1 with existing classes for chromaticity in daylight and a new subclause 4.4.2 with classes for chromaticity of retroreflected light of yellow road markings; — in 4.5 Skid resistance, the reference to 3.6 is deleted in view of the simplification of this definition and precautions for when this test is valid are added; — in A.3 Standard measuring condition of measuring equipment, a new paragraph is inserted at the end regarding permissible side angles; — in A.4 Practical applications of measuring equipment, the words “For fixed aim instruments” in the 7th paragraph are deleted as all instruments available on the market have fixed aim. Additionally, a paragraph regarding allowances for vehicle mounted equipment is added at the end; — in B.2 Spectral match of measuring equipment, a new paragraph is inserted after the 6th paragraph describing an alternative and more simple test of the spectral match for vehicle mounted instruments; — in B.3 Standard measuring condition of measuring equipment, a new paragraph is inserted after the 6th paragraph regarding permissible side angles; SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 5 — in B.4 Practical applications of measuring equipment, subclauses B.4.1, B.4.2 and B.4.3 are introduced for respectively general considerations, portable instruments and vehicle mounted instruments in order to provide additional information on vehicle mounted instruments. Further, for clarity, B.4.2 and B.4.3 are themselves split into subclauses; — in C.1, the title is changed to “Standard measuring condition for the measurement of the luminance factor and the chromaticity co-ordinates x and y in daylight” in order to make the content clear.

Further, the reference to ISO 10526 is replaced by a reference to ISO 11664-2; — in C.2 Standard measuring condition for the measurement of the chromaticity coordinates x and y of retroreflected light, this new clause is inserted in view of the new subclause 4.4.2. The clauses thereafter are renumbered accordingly; — in C.3 Measuring equipment (previously C.2), the words “of the luminance factor and the chromaticity co-ordinates x, y” at the end of the 1st paragraph are deleted. Additionally, a Note 2 regarding equipment for the measurement of the x, y chromaticity co-ordinates of retroreflected light has been inserted; — the Annex D (normative) Measuring method for skid resistance has been deleted, being essentially replaced by a reference to EN 13036-4 in subclause 4.5. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 6 Introduction Road markings together with road studs form the means for horizontal signalization. Road markings include longitudinal markings, arrows, transverse markings, text and symbols on the surface of the highway, etc. Longitudinal road markings serve among else to delineate the roads, to separate opposing traffic streams and to divide the total road area into sub-areas for different road users. Other road markings serve a range of purposes, among else to indicate the use of driving lanes, full stop and give way, to mark pedestrian crossings and to provide information. Road markings can be provided by the application of paint, thermoplastic materials or reactive materials, pre-formed lines and symbols or by other means. Most road markings are white or yellow, but in special cases other colours are used. Road markings are either permanent or temporary. The functional life of temporary road markings is limited by the duration of the road works. For permanent road markings it is best for reasons of safety to have a functional life that is as long as possible, as limited by the gradual deterioration of performance and the level of service to be provided for the road users. Road markings can be applied with or without the addition of glass beads/anti-skid materials. With glass beads the retroreflection of the marking is achieved when the marking is illuminated by vehicle headlamps. Anti-skid material improves the skid resistance of the marking. The retroreflection of a marking, in wet or rainy conditions, can also be enhanced by special properties. The properties can be produced by surface texture (as with structured markings), large glass beads or other means. In the case of surface texture, the passage of wheels can produce acoustic or vibration effects. The value of a parameter for a particular road marking location is dependant of the surface condition of the road marking, which is influenced by the local conditions, time of the year, traffic 'history', weather and other factors. It should be taken into account that the value measured on a particular occasion is not necessarily the average or typical value of that road marking. This standard cannot be used directly as tender specifications nor test instructions, but needs to be supported by additional papers for such applications. Acceptance criteria in view of measuring uncertainty should be part of such additional papers. A newly applied road marking may not show its true performance because of excess drop-on materials, an oily water repelling surface or other causes. Measurements of the performance should not take place until the actual performance has been developed, which may take from a couple of days to a couple of weeks depending on the type of road surface, the performance characteristics to be measured and the conditions regarding traffic and weather. SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 7 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the performance for road users of white and yellow road markings, as expressed by their reflection in daylight or under road lighting, retroreflection in vehicle headlamp illumination, colour and skid resistance. Furthermore, the standard specifies test methods and conditions. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 13036-4, Road and airfield surface characteristics - Test methods - Part 4: Method for measurement of slip/skid resistance of a surface: The pendulum test IEC 60050-845:1987, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Chapter 845: Lighting1) ISO 11664-2:2007, Colorimetry - Part 2: CIE standard illuminants 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-845:1987 and the following apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/

ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp 3.1 luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd quotient of the luminance of a field of the road marking in a given direction by the illuminance on the -2blx-1) 3.2 luminance factor

ratio of the luminance of a field of the road marking in a given direction to that of a perfect reflecting diffuser identically illuminated 3.3 coefficient of retroreflected luminance RL quotient of the luminance L of a field of the road marking in a direction of observation by the illuminance Ec at the field perpendicular to the direction of the incident light (unit: mcdbm-2blx-1)

1) CIE Publication 17.4 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary is identical to IEC 60050-845. SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 8 3.4 skid resistance tester value SRT skid resistance quality of a wet surface measured by the friction at low speed of a rubber slider upon this surface 3.5 functional life period during which the road marking fulfils all the performance requirements of the classes initially specified by the road authority 3.6 structured road marking road marking with a structured surface that does not have areas of road marking of regular dimensions and planeness Note 1 to entry: Structures may be formed by patterns, profiles, random texture or other features. 3.7 type I road marking road marking that do not necessarily have special properties intended to enhance the retroreflection in wet or rainy conditions 3.8 type II road marking road marking with special properties intended to enhance the retroreflection in wet or rainy conditions 3.9 Chromaticity coordinates x,y coordinates in the CIE 1931 color space chromaticity diagram 4 Requirements 4.1 General The requirements specified relate to the performance of road markings during their functional life. The requirements are expressed by several parameters representing different aspects of the performance of road markings and for some of these in terms of classes of increasing performance. NOTE 1 The length of the functional life depends on whether the road marking is of short or long durability, on whether the road marking is run on by traffic (e.g. symbols on the carriageway compared to continuous edge lines), on the traffic density, on the roughness of the road surface and on matters relating to local conditions like the use of studded tyres in some countries. NOTE 2 The classes enable different priorities to be given to the different aspects of performance of road markings depending on particular circumstances. Classes of high performance cannot always be achieved for two or more of these parameters simultaneously. As an example, a road marking may have drop-on glass beads or drop-on anti-skid aggregates, aiming at high classes of either retroreflection (RL) or skid resistance (SRT). In general, high classes of retroreflection and slip/skid resistance cannot be obtained together. Furthermore, the selection of performance classes implies a compromise between the needs of the drivers and the cost of supplying the performance. The needs of drivers have been studied in COST Action 331, ‘Requirements for horizontal road markings’. SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 9 For skid resistance, emphasis is sometimes placed on those road markings, which occupy a large percentage of the trafficked areas such as zebra crossings, arrows, transverse markings, text and symbols. Therefore, the choice of performance classes should be fixed in national tender specifications or other national provisions after due consideration of all aspects. In some countries the performance classes cannot be maintained during a limited time period of the year during which the probability of lower performance of the road markings is high, due to the presence of water, dust, mud, etc. 4.2 Reflection in daylight or under road lighting 4.2.1 General Reflection in daylight or under road lighting is measured either — by the luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd measured in accordance with Annex A in the direction of traffic and expressed in mcdbm-2blx-1, or — by the luminance factor

measured in accordance with Annex C. NOTE Both of the above-mentioned parameters measure the brightness of a road marking as seen in typical or average daylight or under road lighting. The main difference lies in the viewing directions, which for the luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd corresponds to a fairly long viewing distance and for the

To assess the visibility in daylight or under road lighting for such road markings, the measurement of Qd may be a more suitable method of test. 4.2.2 Luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd The luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd shall conform to Table 1 for road markings in dry conditions. Table 1 — Classes of Qd for dry road markings Road marking Colour Road surface Type Class Minimum luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd in mcdbm-2blx-1 White Asphaltic Q0 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 No value requested Qd

s r r Qd
s u r Qd
s x r Qd
t r r Cement concrete Q0 Q3 Q4 Q5 No value requested Qd
s u r Qd
s x r Qd
t r r Yellow
Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 No value requested Qd
z r Qd
s r r Qd
s u r SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 10 4.2.3 Luminance fac Annex C and shall conform to Table 2 for road markings in dry conditions. plane areas covered with marking material. Table 2 —

Road marking colour Road surface type Class
White Asphaltic B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 No value requested
Cement concrete B0 B3 B4 B5 No value requested
Yellow
B0 B1 B2 B3 No value requested

4.3 Retroreflection under vehicle headlamp illumination For the measurement of reflection under vehicle headlamp illumination, the coefficient of retroreflected luminance RL is used. It shall be measured in the direction of traffic in accordance with Annex B and expressed in mcdbm-2blx-1. Road markings in the dry condition shall conform to Table 3; and shall conform to Table 4 during wetness and to Table 5 during rain. NOTE The coefficient of retroreflected luminance represents the brightness of a road marking as seen by drivers of vehicles under the illumination by the driver’s own headlamps. SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 11 Table 3 — Classes of RL for dry road markings Road marking type and colour Class Minimum coefficient of retroreflected luminance RL in mcdbm-2blx-1 Permanent White R0 R2 R3 R4 R5 No value requested RL

s r r RL
s w r RL
t r r RL
u r r Yellow R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 No value requested RL
z r RL
s r r RL
s w r RL
t r r RL
u r r Temporary
R0 R2 R3 R4 R5 No value requested RL
s r r RL
s w r RL
t r r RL

u r r Table 4 — Classes of RL for road markings during wetness Conditions of wetness Class Minimum coefficient of retroreflected luminance RL in mcdbm-2blx-1 As obtained 1 min after flooding the surface in accordance with B.6 RW0 No value requested RW1 RL

t w RW2 RL
u w RW3 RL
w r RW4 RL
y w RW5 RL
s r r RW6 RL

s w r Table 5 — Classes of RL for road markings during rain Conditions of rain Class Minimum coefficient of retroreflected luminance RL in mcdbm-2blx-1 As obtained after at least 5 min exposure in accordance with B.7 during uniform rainfall of 20 mm/h RR0 No value requested RR1 RL

t w RR2 RL
u w RR3 RL
w r RR4 RL
y w RR5 RL
s r r RR6 RL
s w r SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 12 4.4 Colour 4.4.1 Chromaticity in daylight The x, y chromaticity co-ordinates for dry road markings shall be measured in accordance with Annex C and shall lie within the regions defined by the corner points given in Table 6 and illustrated in Figure 1. Measured values of the x, y chromaticity co-ordinates are not reliable, when a structured road marking does not have sufficiently large areas covered with marking material. Table 6 — Corner points of chromaticity regions for white and yellow road markings in daylight Corner point No. 1 2 3 4 White road markings x y 0,355 0,355 0,305 0,305 0,285 0,325 0,335 0,375 Yellow road markings class Y1 x y 0,443 0,399 0,545 0,454 0,465 0,534 0,389 0,431 Yellow road markings class Y2 x y 0,494 0,427 0,545 0,454 0,465 0,534 0,427 0,483 The classes Y1 and Y2 for yellow road markings are intended for permanent and temporary road markings respectively.

Key 1 yellow class Y1 2 yellow class Y2 3 white Figure 1 — Chromaticity regions of white and yellow road markings in daylight SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 13 4.4.2 Chromaticity of retroreflected light The x, y chromaticity co-ordinates for the retroreflected light of dry yellow road markings shall be one of the following classes: — class RC0: no requirements; — class RC1: within the regions defined by the corner points given in Table 7 and illustrated in Figure 2 when measured in accordance with Annex C. Table 7 — Corner points of chromaticity regions for yellow road markings class RC1 Corner point No. 1 2 3 4 Yellow road markings class RC1 x y 0,575 0,425 0,508 0,415 0,473 0,453 0,510 0,490

Key 1 yellow class RC1 Figure 2 — Chromaticity regions of retroreflected light for yellow road markings class RC1 It is an experience that some yellow road markings of classes Y1 or Y2 may appear as white in retroreflected light. Class yellow RC1 should be applied if visual distinction between white and yellow road markings in retroreflected light is important. SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 14 NOTE In accordance with C.2, the chromaticity of retroreflected light of yellow road markings is measured using standard illuminant A, which represents headlamps with incandescent light sources such as the conventional H4 lamp. However, the requirement of class RC1 ensures discrimination of the colour of yellow road markings, even when the headlamps have other light sources, as long as these have a sufficient colour rendition. Headlamps with light sources of a poor colour rendition, on the other hand, may complicate discrimination between white and yellow road markings. 4.5 Skid resistance Skid resistance shall be measured in accordance with EN 13036-4 using a wide slider assembly with slider 57. The measured value is the skid resistance tester value (SRT). NOTE 1 EN 13036-4 uses the concept of Pendulum Test Value (PTV). PTV and SRT are equivalent, when PTV is measured as stated above. This test is valid for flat road markings and road markings with low degree of texture. Road markings with high degree of texture or structured markings may not be suitable for measurement of skid resistance by this method. Sometimes the sliding length cannot be adjusted adequately because of a roughly structured marking surface. Sometimes the sliding length can be adjusted but the slider jumps because of a roughly structured surface. In both of the above-mentioned cases it shall be stated that the measurement of the SRT value cannot be performed because of a roughly structured surface. Other measurement methods may be used provided they simulate the action of tyres on a road surface in wet conditions and they have a correlation with the above-mentioned method. Table 8 — Classes of skid resistance Class Minimum SRT value S0 No value requested S1 SRT

v w S2 SRT
w r S3 SRT
w w S4 SRT
x r S5 SRT

x w NOTE 2 The Class S0 is also for when SRT value cannot be measured. NOTE 3 The "International PIARC experiment to compare and harmonize texture and skid resistance measurements", PIARC - 01.04T - 1995, gives information about different skid resistance test methods and equipment, as well as their repeatability and correlation to SRT. NOTE 4 In the case that "in situ" inspections are requested (taking into account its high degree of incertitude), other equipment more practical and safer than the skid resistance tester presents advantages. SIST EN 1436:2018

EN 1436:2018 (E) 15 Annex A (normative)
Measurement method for the lumina
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