Stationary source emissions - Determination of the ratio of biomass (biogenic) and fossil-derived carbon dioxide - Radiocarbon sampling and determination (ISO 13833:2013)

This International Standard specifies sampling methods and analysis methods for the determination of the ratio of biomass- and fossil-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) in the CO2 from exhaust gases of stationary sources, based on the radiocarbon (14C isotope) method. The lower limit of application is a biogenic to total CO2 fraction of 0,02. The working range is a biogenic to total CO2 fraction of 0,02 to 1,0.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung des Verhältnisses von Kohlendioxid aus Biomasse (biogen) und aus fossilen Quellen - Probenahme und Bestimmung des radioaktiven Kohlenstoffs (ISO 13833:2013)

Die vorliegende Internationale Norm beschreibt Probenahmestrategien und Analysenverfahren für die
Bestimmung der auf Biomasse und fossilen Brennstoffen beruhenden CO2-Anteile im emittierten Gesamt-CO2
von Abgasen stationärer Quellen auf Grundlage des Radiokarbonverfahrens (14C-Bestimmung). Die untere
Anwendungsgrenze liegt bei einem Anteil von biogenem CO2 von 0,02. Der Arbeitsbereich ist ein Anteil von
biogenem CO2 von 0,02 bis 1,0. Die erweiterte Messunsicherheit des Verfahrens beträgt 10 % bei einem
Anteil von biogenem CO2 von 0,02 bis 0,10 und 5 % bei einem Anteil von biogenem CO2 von 0,1 bis 1,0.

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination du rapport du dioxyde de carbone de la biomasse (biogénique) et des dérivés fossiles - Échantillonnage et détermination du radiocarbone (ISO 13833:2013)

L'ISO 13833:2013 spécifie des méthodes d'échantillonnage et d'analyse pour la détermination du rapport du dioxyde de carbone (CO2) provenant de la biomasse et de combustibles fossiles dans le CO2 des effluents gazeux de sources fixes, d'après la méthode du radiocarbone (isotope 14C). La limite inférieure d'application est une fraction de CO2 biogénique/total de 0,02. La plage de travail est une fraction de CO2 biogénique/total de 0,02 à 1,0.

Emisije nepremičnih virov - Določevanje razmerja ogljikovega dioksida biomasnega in fosilnega izvora - Vzorčenje in določevanje izotopov ogljika (ISO 13833:2013)

Ta mednarodni standard navaja metode vzorčenja in analize za določanje razmerja ogljikovega dioksida biomasnega in fosilnega izvora(CO2) v CO2 v izpušnih plinih, ki jih proizvajajo nepremični viri, na osnovi metode z ogljikom-14 (izotop 14C). Spodnja meja uporabe je 0,02 biogenega deleža CO2 od celotnega deleža. Delovni razpon je od 0,02 do 1,0 biogenega deleža CO2 od celotnega deleža.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Nov-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Nov-2013
Due Date
13-Jan-2014
Completion Date
19-Nov-2013

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
English language
45 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
01-december-2013
(PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY'RORþHYDQMHUD]PHUMDRJOMLNRYHJDGLRNVLGD
ELRPDVQHJDLQIRVLOQHJDL]YRUD9]RUþHQMHLQGRORþHYDQMHL]RWRSRYRJOMLND ,62


Stationary source emissions - Determination of the ratio of biomass (biogenic) and fossil-

derived carbon dioxide - Radiocarbon sampling and determination (ISO 13833:2013)

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung des Verhältnisses von Kohlendioxid

aus Biomasse (biogen) und aus fossilen Quellen - Probenahme und Bestimmung des
radioaktiven Kohlenstoffs (ISO 13833:2013)

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination du rapport du dioxyde de carbone de la

biomasse (biogénique) et des dérivés fossiles - Échantillonnage et détermination du

radiocarbone (ISO 13833:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 13833:2013
ICS:
13.040.40 (PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY Stationary source emissions
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 13833
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2013
ICS 13.040.40
English Version
Stationary source emissions - Determination of the ratio of
biomass (biogenic) and fossil-derived carbon dioxide -
Radiocarbon sampling and determination (ISO 13833:2013)

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination du rapport du Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung des

dioxyde de carbone de la biomasse (biogénique) et des Verhältnisses von Kohlendioxid aus Biomasse (biogen) und

dérivés fossiles - Échantillonnage et détermination du aus fossilen Quellen - Probenahme und Bestimmung des

radiocarbone (ISO 13833:2013) radioaktiven Kohlenstoffs (ISO 13833:2013)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 March 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 13833:2013: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
EN ISO 13833:2013 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
EN ISO 13833:2013 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 13833:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146 "Air quality" in

collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air quality” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by October 2013.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 13833:2013 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 13833:2013 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13833
First edition
2013-04-01
Stationary source emissions —
Determination of the ratio of biomass
(biogenic) and fossil-derived carbon
dioxide — Radiocarbon sampling and
determination
Émissions de sources fixes — Détermination du rapport du dioxyde
de carbone de la biomasse (biogénique) et des dérivés fossiles —
Échantillonnage et détermination du radiocarbone
Reference number
ISO 13833:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Principles of sampling ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 14

C measurement techniques..................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Reagent, materials and equipment ................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Analysis .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Calculation of the results ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

9 Quality assurance and quality control procedures .......................................................................................................11

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (normative) Procedure for C determination by accelerator mass spectrometry ..................13

Annex B (normative) Procedure for C determination by liquid scintillation counter method .......16

Annex C (normative) Procedures for C determination by beta-ionization ..........................................................21

Annex D (informative) Performance characteristics C methods ....................................................................................24

Annex E (informative) Definitions and equations of the C-based method ...........................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

ISO 13833 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 1, Stationary

source emissions.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
Introduction

Reliable data for biogenic carbon dioxide (CO ) emissions are needed for carbon emission trading and in

order to provide more accurate inventories.

When combusting mixtures of fuels from fossil and biogenic origin, it is often difficult to determine the

exact ratio of biogenic and fossil CO in the total CO that is emitted through the stack gas, because the

2 2

biogenic and fossil composition of the combusted fuels is not always known or cannot be determined

with sufficient accuracy. This is the case when solid recovered fuels (SRF) are used.

The contribution of solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels to energy production is likely to increase. A reliable

and robust method for the determination of the ratio of fossil and biogenic CO in the total emitted CO

2 2

of stack gas will enhance the implementation of these products, as reliable data for carbon emission

trading can be generated with this approach.

Different methods exist to determine the ratio of fossil and biogenic CO in stack gas. The radiocarbon

( C isotope) method has been applied since the 1950s in a variety of sample types, like food, fuels,

polymers, and atmospheric and combustion CO to determine the ratio of biogenic and fossil carbon

(Reference [18]). Biogenic and fossil carbon can be distinguished based on the measured amount of

the C isotope in the sample. Another, relatively new applied method is the “balance method”, which

combines standard data on the chemical composition of biogenic and fossil organic matter with routinely

measured operating data of the plant (Reference [10]). Similar methods using stoichiometric methods,

for example, can also be used.

This International Standard gives sampling and analysis methods for the determination of the ratio of

biomass and fossil fuel-derived CO in the total emitted CO from exhaust gases of stationary sources,

2 2

based on the radiocarbon ( C isotope) method. Sample strategies for integrated sampling for periods

from 1 h up to 1 month are given. Radiocarbon determination procedures include accelerated mass

spectrometry (AMS), beta-ionization (BI), and liquid scintillation (LS) measurement procedures for the

determination of the radiocarbon content.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draws attention to the fact that it is

claimed that compliance with this document may involve the use of patents concerning the use of the

radiocarbon isotope as biogenic marker: a) Method for determining the relationship of renewable to non-

renewable sources of energy; b) Method for determining the fossil fuel content in a fuel stream, as well as a

an incineration furnace.

ISO takes no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of these patent rights.

The holders of these patent rights have assured ISO that they are willing to negotiate licences under

reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world. In this

respect, statements of the holders of these patent rights are registered with ISO. Information may be

obtained from:
a) European Cement Research Academy (ECRA)

Tannenstrasse 2, D-40476, DÜSSELDORF. Tel.: +49 211 23 98 38 0; E-mail: info@ecra-online.org

b) Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

Westerduinweg 3, PO Box 1, NL-1755 ZG PETTEN. Tel.: +31 224 56 4475; E-mail: denuijl@ecn.nl

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those identified above. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or

all such patent rights.

ISO (www.iso.org/patents) maintains on-line databases of patents relevant to its documents. Users are

encouraged to consult the databases for the most up to date information concerning patents.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13833:2013(E)
Stationary source emissions — Determination of the ratio
of biomass (biogenic) and fossil-derived carbon dioxide —
Radiocarbon sampling and determination
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies sampling methods and analysis methods for the determination of

the ratio of biomass- and fossil-derived carbon dioxide (CO ) in the CO from exhaust gases of stationary

2 2

sources, based on the radiocarbon ( C isotope) method. The lower limit of application is a biogenic to

total CO fraction of 0,02. The working range is a biogenic to total CO fraction of 0,02 to 1,0.

2 2
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7934, Stationary source emissions — Determination of the mass concentration of sulfur dioxide —

Hydrogen peroxide/barium perchlorate/Thorin method

ISO 10396, Stationary source emissions — Sampling for the automated determination of gas emission

concentrations for permanently-installed monitoring systems

ISO 15713, Stationary source emissions — Sampling and determination of gaseous fluoride content

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
biogenic

produced in natural processes by living organisms but not fossilized or derived from fossil resources

3.2
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formation or transformed to fossil

3.3
isotope abundance
fraction of atoms of a particular isotope of an element
3.4
organic carbon
amount of carbon bound in an organic material
3.5
percentage modern carbon
pmC

normalized and standardized value for the amount of the C isotope in a sample, calculated relative to the

standardized and normalized C isotope amount of oxalic acid standard reference material, SRM 4990c

Note 1 to entry: In 2009, the value of 100 % bio-based carbon was set at 105 pmC.

1) SRM 4990c is the trade name of a product supplied by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
3.6
proportional sampling
flow proportional sampling

technique for obtaining a sample from flowing stack gas in which the wet or dry sample flow rate is

directly proportional to the mass flow rate, volume flow rate or velocity in the stack

3.7
radiocarbon

radioactive isotope of the element carbon, C, having 8 neutrons, 6 protons, and 6 electrons

−10 14

Note 1 to entry: Of the total carbon on Earth, 1 × 10 % mass fraction is C. It decays exponentially with a half-

life of 5 730 years and as such it is not measurable in fossil materials derived from petroleum, coal, natural gas or

any other source older than about 50 000 years.
3.8
sample

quantity of material, representative of a larger quantity for which the property is to be determined

3.9
sample preparation

all the actions taken to obtain representative analyses, samples or test portions from the original sample

3.10
test portion

quantity of material drawn from the test sample (or from the laboratory sample if both are the same)

and on which the test or observation is actually carried out
3.11
beta-particle

electron or positron which has been emitted by an atomic nucleus or neutron in a nuclear transformation

[1]
[ISO 921:1997, definition 81]
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
A disintegrations per second
b default C content (in pmC) of 100 % biomass, produced and harvested in 2011
E counting rate
C coefficient of variation
E(R ) counting rate of blank
E(R ) lower limit of detection
n,LLD
i increment number
k + k coverage factor (typical value: 1,645)
1 − α 1 − β
m measured C content of the sample
m mass of CO

This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by

ISO of the product named. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
M 44,01 kg/kmole
n number of increments
r biogenic CO to total CO ratio derived from the measured pmC value
2 2
t operating time
t counting time of sample
t counting time of blank
V total amount of stack gas emitted
V volume of CO
V actual stack gas flow at moment i
V 22,41 m /kmol (at 273 K and 1 013 hPa)
β beta-particle (electron emitted during radioactive decay)
ϕ average concentration of CO
ϕ actual concentration of CO
CO ,i
η counting efficiency of the apparatus (0 < η < 1)
4.2 Abbreviations
AMS accelerator mass spectrometer; accelerator mass spectrometry

BI beta-ionization measurement, gas proportional counter, proportional gas counter

cpm counts per minute
cps counts per second
dpm disintegrations per minute
dps disintegrations per second, equivalent to becquerel
GM Geiger–Müller
LLD lower limit of detection
LSC liquid scintillation counter; liquid scintillation counting
pmC percentage modern carbon
SRF solid recovered fuel
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
5 Principle
5.1 General

The measurement of the presence of the C isotope in flue gas or stack gas enables the determination

of the biogenic and fossil fractions of the CO that is emitted. The determination of the biogenic CO

2 2
fraction in flue gas or stack gas consists of:
— representative sampling of CO ;
— measurement of the sampled C;

— calculation of the biogenic CO fraction in the stack gas emitted during the sampling period.

Procedures for collection of whole gas samples and absorption of CO in liquid and solid alkaline media

are given. Three C determination procedures that can be used are described. The biogenic fraction

is determined using the measured C value. From the calculated biogenic CO fraction, the emitted

amount of biogenic and fossil CO can be calculated. Examples are given.
5.2 Principles of sampling
5.2.1 General

Sampling of CO in stack gas is in principle not different from sampling of other acid gaseous substances

like sulfur dioxide (SO ) or hydrogen chloride (HCl). The CO present in a representative stack gas sample

2 2

is absorbed in an alkaline medium or transferred to a gas bag or lecture bottle and after sampling the

collected CO is prepared for C analysis.

Standard equipment as used for other gaseous components may be utilized. As CO is present in relatively

high concentrations compared to other acidic gaseous substances, the capacity of the absorption media

used requires consideration, an excess of alkaline media shall be used to ensure complete absorption

during the sampling period.
Sampling shall be carried out in accordance with applicable standards.

NOTE Sampling and sampling strategies for continuous and intermittent measurements of stationary source

[4]

emissions are specified, for example, in ISO 10396 and EN 15259. Unlike other species where a concentration is

determined, for biogenic CO a ratio of biogenic CO to the total is determined. Many uncertainties that occur if a

2 2

concentration is actually measured can be excluded if an amount of a component with exactly the same chemical

behaviour as the various CO isotopes is determined instead. Some uncertainties specific for spectroscopic

measurement can, however, affect the preferred CO analyser for flow proportional sampling.

5.2.2 Grab gas samples

If applicable, use accepted procedures for the collection of gas in gas bags, canisters or gas bottles.

Only gas bags impenetrable to CO shall be used. Most aluminium-lined gas bags are suitable.

5.2.3 Absorption samples

When liquid or solid absorbers are used, the CO is collected in a medium containing alkaline reagents.

For sampling with liquids, alkaline solutions of, for example, 2 mol/l to 4 mol/l potassium hydroxide

(KOH) or equivalent (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) are suitable. For solid CO absorbers, commercial

products are suitable.

After collection of the samples, close the absorbers and ensure that they are gastight, in order to prevent

the ingress of atmospheric CO .
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)
5.3 14
C measurement techniques
The C content of the collected samples can be determined using:
— accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS);
— beta-ionization (BI) measurement (gas proportional counter);
— the liquid scintillation counting technique (LSC).
All sampling methods mentioned in 5.2 are suitable for the collection of CO .

Depending on the C analysis technique different amounts of sampled CO are required. For AMS

measurements the minimum volume of CO is 4 ml. For BI measurements, 2 l to 10 l CO are required.

2 2

For LSC measurements, the required amount of CO depends on the way the sample is prepared for

measurement, but at least a few grams are necessary.
6 Reagent, materials and equipment

During the analysis, unless otherwise stated, use only reagents of recognized analytical grade and

distilled or demineralized water or water of equivalent purity containing negligible amounts of

carbonate, i.e. at concentrations that do not contribute significantly to the determinations.

6.1 Reagent. A setup consisting of:

— glass bottle (standard glass sample bottle with plastic screw cap resistant to the alkaline medium used);

— alkaline absorption medium;
— solid absorber suitable for the collection of CO .

Mixing of water and NaOH or KOH should be done under the addition of inert gas, in order to reduce

absorption of CO from ambient air and exhalation.

For the preparation of a carbonate-free absorption liquid, preparation using freshly opened NaOH or

KOH pellet containers is sufficient. Dissolve the NaOH or KOH pellets in a small amount of water (the

heat produced enhances dissolution). Small amounts of precipitation are an indication of the presence

of sodium carbonate (Na CO ). By decanting the clear phase, the almost carbonate-free solution can be

2 3

diluted to the desired volume. As NaOH dissolution is an exothermic process, take extra care as boiling

of the concentrated solution during dilution can occur.

6.2 Materials and equipment. The components in the sampling device are listed in the following.

— Stack gas flow measurement device (typically based on S-type, P-type or L-type Pitot tube) according

[2]
to ISO 10780.

NOTE 1 Under “steady-state” conditions, the stack gas flow can be calculated from the fuel consumption. If this

is done, no instrumentation for stack gas flow determination is needed.
— Standard equipment for sampling stack gas for main component analysis.

NOTE 2 If a conditioning system for gas analysis is already present, this needs to be taken into consideration in

the sampling plan and part of the conditioned gas used, e.g. using a T-piece somewhere in the sampling line. In these

standard gas conditioning devices, usually a typical gas flow of 60 l/h to 100 l/h is available after conditioning,

— Mass flow controller, externally adjustable. An external adjustable mass flow controller is needed

only for proportional sampling as it is necessary to use the signal obtained from the measurement

of the total flow in the duct to adjust the sampling flow linearly proportionally to it. Use mass flow

2) Ascarite II is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this product.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13833:2013
ISO 13833:2013(E)

controllers in the range of e.g. 0,1 ml/min ... 1 ml/min or 10 ml/min ... 100 ml/min, tuned for stack

gas composition.
— Sample containers.

— Gas sampling: use air tight vessels, compatible with the system design, which includes flexible

bags, evacuated canisters, lecture gas bottles.

— Liquid sampling: use accepted gas wash bottles (e.g. 250 ml glass wash bottles).

— Solid sampling: use air tight container (e.g. glass tube, length by diameter: 200 mm × 18 mm,

with standard fitting).
— Gas analysis system for CO and O measurement.
2 2
[3]
Perform any CO , CO, or O measurements required according to ISO 12039.
2 2

Before measurement, the homogeneity of the stack gas shall be tested. Perform homogeneity testing

in accordance with ISO 10396. Use the CO concentration as measurand. If homogeneity testing is

successful, sampling can be done on a single point.

Comprehensive measurement planning shall be performed before sampling, taking into consideration

the specific measurement task.

If stack gas pre-sample and analysis equipment is already present, part of this gas sampling stream can

be used to collect the sample. If that is not the case, a probe suitable for gas sampling, equipped with an

in-stack or out of stack filter for removal of particulate matter shall be used, and provisions shall be made

for excess water removal. To ensure representative sampling and to en
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.