Space engineering - Li-ion battery testing handbook

This Handbook establishes support the testing of Li-ion battery and associated generation of test related documentation.
This handbook sets out to:
- summarize most relevant characterisation tests
- provide guidelines for Li-ion battery testing
- provide guidelines for documentation associated w ith Li-ion cell or battery testing
- give an overview of appropriate test methods
- provide best practices

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zum Testen von Li-Ionen-Akkus

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de tests des batteries Li-ion

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za preskušanje litij-ionske baterije

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
17-Feb-2021
Publication Date
10-Oct-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Oct-2021
Due Date
11-Dec-2021
Completion Date
11-Oct-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021
01-november-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za preskušanje litij-ionske baterije
Space engineering - Li-ion battery testing handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zum Testen von Li-Ionen-Akkus
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de tests des batteries Li-ion
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021
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SIST-TP CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
September 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Li-ion battery testing handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de tests des batteries Li- Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zum Testen von Li-

ion Ionen-Akkus

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 19 March 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 6

2 References .............................................................................................................. 7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................ 8

3.1 Terms from other documents .................................................................................... 8

3.2 Terms specific to the present document ................................................................... 8

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 14

4 Cell or battery testing ........................................................................................... 15

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Test documentation ................................................................................................ 16

4.2.1 Test plan and test procedures ................................................................... 16

4.2.2 Test report ................................................................................................ 16

4.3 Tests....................................................................................................................... 17

4.3.1 Initial electrical characterisation tests ........................................................ 17

4.3.2 Standard capacity and energy measurements .......................................... 17

4.3.3 Internal resistance measurement .............................................................. 17

4.3.4 AC impedance measurement .................................................................... 18

4.3.5 Self-discharge test .................................................................................... 18

4.3.6 Charge retention test ................................................................................. 18

4.3.7 Cell rate capability ..................................................................................... 18

4.3.8 Cell EMF measurement ............................................................................ 18

4.3.9 Battery magnetic moment measurement ................................................... 19

4.3.10 Battery corona testing ............................................................................... 19

4.4 Environmental tests ................................................................................................ 19

4.4.1 Objectives ................................................................................................. 19

4.4.2 Mechanical tests: vibration (low level sine, random, sine) and shock ........ 19

4.4.3 Thermal vacuum test ................................................................................. 20

4.4.4 Leak test ................................................................................................... 20

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4.4.5 Hermeticity test (Helium test) .................................................................... 21

4.4.6 Radiation test ............................................................................................ 21

4.5 Life tests ................................................................................................................. 21

4.5.1 Objectives ................................................................................................. 21

4.5.2 Calendar tests (survivability test) ............................................................... 21

4.5.3 Cycling tests.............................................................................................. 21

4.6 Safety tests ............................................................................................................. 25

4.6.1 Objectives ................................................................................................. 25

4.6.2 Overcharge ............................................................................................... 25

4.6.3 Overdischarge ........................................................................................... 25

4.6.4 Short-circuit test ........................................................................................ 26

4.6.5 Vent and burst tests .................................................................................. 26

4.6.6 Protective devices ..................................................................................... 26

4.7 Storage, handling, transport, AIT ............................................................................ 27

4.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 27

4.7.2 Storage and maintenance conditions ........................................................ 27

4.7.3 Handling .................................................................................................... 27

4.7.4 Transport .................................................................................................. 27

4.7.5 Assembly Integration Test (AIT) ................................................................ 27

5 Test applicability matrix ....................................................................................... 28

Tables

Table 4-1: Thermal vacuum tests conditions ........................................................................ 20

Table 4-2: GEO eclipse cycles ............................................................................................. 23

Table 5-1: Test applicability matrix ....................................................................................... 28

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European Foreword

This document (CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-

20.

This Technical report (CEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021) originates from ECSS-E-HB-20-02A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).

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Introduction

Energy storage is required aboard almost all spacecraft. Batteries are the most common energy storage

device. Batteries provide electrical power when power from solar arrays is temporarily unavailable or

insufficient due to eclipses, payload peak loads, before solar panels are deployed or in case of

emergencies or special manoeuvres. Batteries are tested in order to assess their performance and their

suitability to meet mission requirements. This issue of the document does not include the battery

management subsystem testing.

In order for a new cell or battery system to be accepted for a spacecraft mission, it is essential not only

to have hardware which is qualified for a good beginning of life performance but also to have

hardware whose performance changes with cycle life are well understood and predictable by

appropriate models. For this reason the availability of comprehensive test data is very important.

The present handbook aims at providing practical and helpful guidelines for Li-ion cell and battery

testing (testing conditions, required information, reporting) during the development and

qualification of space equipment and systems. This document has been derived from requirements

from ECSS-E-ST-20C and its purpose is to support the use of ECSS-E-ST-20C.

This Handbook gathers battery testing experience, know-how and lessons-learnt from the European

Space Community.
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Scope

This Handbook establishes support the testing of Li-ion battery and associated generation of test

related documentation.
This handbook sets out to:
• summarize most relevant characterisation tests
• provide guidelines for Li-ion battery testing

• provide guidelines for documentation associated with Li-ion cell or battery testing

• give an overview of appropriate test methods
• provide best practices
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References
EN Reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS System - Glossary of terms
EN 16603-10-02 ECSS-E-ST-10-03 Space engineering - Testing
EN 16603-10-04 ECSS-E-ST-10-04 Space engineering - Space environment
EN 16603-20 ECSS-E-ST-20 Space engineering - Electrical and electronic
EN 16602-20-08 ECSS-Q-ST-20-08 Space product assurance - Storage, handling and
transportation of space hardware
EN 16602-70-02 ECSS-Q-ST-70-02 Space product assurance - Thermal vacuum
outgassing test for the screening of space materials
- IEC 62281 2013-08 Safety of primary and secondary lithium cells and
batteries during transport
- ST/SG/AC.10/11/rev5 United Nations Transport of Dangerous Goods UN
manual of Tests and Criteria, Part III, subsection 38.3
- JSC-20793 Rev.B April Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements
2006
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other documents

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply, in particular

for the following terms:
acceptance lot quality control
applicable document model reliability
assembly nonconformance requirement
bakeout outgassing review
calibration procedure safety
catastrophic process specification
environment product assurance standard
failure project supplier
handbook qualification traceability
hazard quality validation
inspection quality assurance verification
3.2 Terms specific to the present document
3.2.1 accelerated test

test designed to shorten cycle life test to estimate the average cell or battery lifetime at normal

operating conditions
NOTE Temperature, SoC, cycle profile are sources of test acceleration.
3.2.2 activation

introduction of electrolyte in an assembled cell at the manufacturing facility during production

NOTE This is used to define the start of the cell shelf-life. The formation
process is also part of the activation.
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3.2.3 aging

permanent change in characteristics and performance due to repeated use or the passage of time

NOTE Permanent changes include loss of capacity and energy, increase in
resistance.
3.2.4 battery

one or more cells (or modules) electrically connected to provide the required operating voltage,

current and energy storage levels
3.2.5 battery management subsystem

electronics circuitry preventing cell or battery operation outside of specified voltage, current and

temperature ranges, and managing cell-to-cell unbalance
NOTE It also includes cell or module of cells bypass circuits when
deemed necessary by FMECA outcomes.
3.2.6 calendar loss
permanent degradation of electrical performance due to time after activation
NOTE Reversible effects such as self-discharge are not included in the
calendar loss.
3.2.7 capacity
amount of charge available expressed in ampere-hours (Ah)
NOTE 1 Cell or battery (Ah) = ∫ Id.dt. It is the integral of the discharge
current, between start of discharge and cut-off voltage or other
specified voltage or specified duration.
NOTE 2 The capacity of a cell or battery is determined by a number of
factors, including the cut-off voltage, discharge rate, temperature,
method of charge (i.e. current, end-of-charge voltage) and the age
and life history of the cell or battery.
3.2.8 capacity retention

fraction of the rated capacity available from a cell or battery under specified conditions of discharge

after it has been stored for a certain time period at a specified temperature and state of charge in open

circuit
3.2.9 cell can
cell packaging
3.2.10 cell building block or brick
sub-assembly unit, which consists of identical electrically connected cells
NOTE Building blocks (or bricks) are connected together to form a
module or battery.
3.2.11 cell electromotive force

difference of potentials which exists between the two electrodes of opposite polarity in an

electrochemical cell under open circuit steady state conditions
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3.2.12 cell reversal
reverse polarity of a cell during discharge
3.2.13 cell terminal
electrical contacts to connect the cell
3.2.14 cell type
cell chemistry, cell size and cell can geometry
3.2.15 charge rate
amount of current applied to a cell or battery during the charge
NOTE This rate is commonly expressed as a fraction of the nameplate
capacity of the battery. For example, C/2 or C/5.
3.2.16 cycle life

number of cycles under specified conditions, that a cell or battery can

undergo before failing to meet its specified performance criteria
3.2.17 cycle loss

gradual and irreversible degradation of electrical performance due to electrical cycling

3.2.18 deperm
demagnetisation of battery
3.2.19 depth of discharge (DoD)

ampere–hour removed from a battery expressed as a percentage of the nameplate capacity whatever

the initial state of charge
3.2.20 depth of discharged energy (DoDE)

Watt-hours removed from a cell or battery, expressed as a percentage of nameplate energy, whatever

the initial state of charge
3.2.21 discharge rate
amount of current delivered by a cell or battery during the discharge
NOTE This rate is commonly expressed as a fraction of the nameplate
capacity of the battery. For example, C/2 or C/5.
3.2.22 energy

watt-hours available when the battery that has been discharged from a specified end-of-charge

voltage to a selected cut-off voltage, under specified conditions
NOTE 1 Cell or battery (Wh) = ∫ IdVd.dt. It is the integral of the product of
discharge current and voltage. The limits of integration are the
start of discharge and the cut-off voltage or other specified voltage.
NOTE 2 Typical conditions can include:
• Temperature and thermal control
• Charge and discharge profiles
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NOTE 3 The SI unit for energy is joule (1J = 1 W.s), but in practice, battery
energy is usually expressed in watthours (Wh) (1 Wh = 3600 J)
3.2.23 energy reserve

energy available in a cell or battery when discharged from the maximum DoD or voltage cut-off

expected under nominal operation to the minimum end-of-discharge voltage
3.2.24 internal resistance

opposition to the flow of electric current within a cell or battery expressed as the sum of the ionic and

ohmic resistances of the cell components
3.2.25 maximum charge current

maximum continuous DC charge current allowed by the cell manufacturer under specified conditions

NOTE
Usually expressed as C rate.
3.2.26 maximum discharge current

maximum continuous DC discharge current allowed by the cell manufacturer under specified

conditions
NOTE
Usually expressed as C rate.
3.2.27 maximum end-of-charge voltage (EOCV)

voltage determined by the cell or battery manufacturer which expresses the highest voltage limit up to

which the cell can be charged without causing a hazard
3.2.28 minimum end-of-discharge voltage (EODV)

voltage determined by the cell or battery manufacturer which expresses the lowest voltage limit down

to which a cell can be discharged without causing a hazard
3.2.29 module
set of any number of identical cells, electrically connected
NOTE Modules are connected appropriately to form the battery. A
module is a deliverable mechanically distinct item, as opposed to
cell brick.
3.2.30 nameplate capacity
available ampere-hours (Ah) under conditions defined by the cell manufacturer
NOTE 1 These conditions include:
• nominal charge current, method, ambient temperature and
duration
• nominal cut-off voltage
• nominal discharge current and ambient temperature
NOTE 2 The term “nominal capacity” is synonymous.
3.2.31 nameplate energy
available watt-hours (Ah) under conditions defined by the cell manufacturer
NOTE 1 These conditions include:
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• nominal end-of-charge voltage
• nominal charge current, method, ambient temperature and
duration
• nominal discharge current and ambient temperature
• nominal end-of-discharge voltage
NOTE 2 The term “nominal energy” is synonymous.
3.2.32 nominal capacity
see “nameplate capacity” 3.2.30
3.2.33 nominal energy
see “nameplate capacity” 3.2.31
3.2.34 nominal end-of-charge voltage

characteristic end-of-charge voltage specified by the cell or battery manufacturer

NOTE
This parameter is used for nameplate capacity checks.
3.2.35 nominal end-of-discharge voltage

characteristic end-of-discharge voltage specified by the cell or battery manufacturer

NOTE This parameter is used for nameplate capacity checks.
3.2.36 nominal operating voltage range

characteristic operating voltage range of a cell or battery defined by the manufacturer

3.2.37 open-circuit voltage (OCV)
cell or battery voltage measured under 0 (zero) A condition
NOTE This voltage is often associated to the electromotive force (EMF)
when reaching a steady state.
3.2.38 overcharge
cell or battery charged beyond the maximum end-of-charge voltage (EOCV)
3.2.39 overdischarge
cell or battery discharged below the minimum end-of-discharge voltage (EODV)
3.2.40 protective devices

devices which interrupt or reduce the current flow to the affected cell or string to prevent hazardous

failure
NOTE Examples of protective devices are fuses, diodes, by-passes,
pressure switches and hazardous limiters.
3.2.41 rated capacity

minimum capacity guaranteed by the battery manufacturer on delivery under specified conditions

NOTE As conditions specified by the cell manufacturer can differ from
those specified by the battery manufacturer, the battery capacity
specified by the battery manufacturer is used.
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3.2.42 rated energy

minimum energy guaranteed by the battery manufacturer on delivery under specified conditions

3.2.43 self-discharge

reversible capacity decrease while no current is flowing to an outside circuit, due to internal chemical

reactions
3.2.44 shelf-life

duration of storage from the date of activation, under specified conditions, at the end of which a cell

or battery still retains the ability to give a specified performance
3.2.45 specific energy
energy available, expressed in Wh/kg, under specified conditions
NOTE 1 Specific conditions include temperature, charge and discharge
rates, cut-off voltages.
NOTE 2 Gravimetric energy is synonymous.
3.2.46 state of charge (SoC)

available capacity of the cell or battery, expressed as a percentage of its capacity at that time, where

the capacity is measured at a low current such that the terminal voltage approximates the EMF

NOTE This value can be derived from the Open Circuit Voltage of the cell
or battery, following determination of the cell characteristic EMF
versus SoC curve.
3.2.47 taper charge

charge method that reduces progressively the charging current as the cell or battery voltage is

maintained at a constant value
3.2.48 terminal voltage
voltage measured between cell or battery terminals
3.2.49 test item

single cell, string of cells in series or parallel, module, building blocks or battery

3.2.50 venting

release of excessive internal pressure from a cell or battery in a manner intended by design to preclude

rupture or disassembly
3.2.51 volumetric energy
energy available by volume unit under specified conditions
NOTE Expressed in Wh/l.
3.2.52 working voltage
typical voltage range of a battery
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3.3 Abbreviated terms

For the purpose of this document, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 and the following

apply:
Abbreviation Meaning
alternating current
assembly, integration and test
AIT
assembly, integration and test plan
AITP
beginning-of-life
BOL
constant current
critical design review
CDR
commercial off-the-shelf
COTS
constant voltage
direct current
depth of discharge
DoD
depth of discharge energy
DoDE
document requirements definition
DRD
electromotive force
EMF
end-of-charge voltage
EOCV
end-of-discharge voltage
EODV
end-of-life
EOL
European Space Agency
ESA
geostationary orbit
GEO
low Earth orbit
LEO
Lithium-ion
Li-ion
open circuit voltage
OCV
state of charge
SoC
test procedure
TPRO
test specification
TSPE
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Cell or battery testing
4.1 Introduction

Each cell or battery used in space application undertakes different tests i.e. acceptance, qualification.

These tests are detailed with a supporting test plan, associated procedures (containing test criteria and

test method) and test report.

A battery is made of electrically connected cells, strings or modules. Single cells are electrically

connected to build a string of cells. The strings are then connected to form a building-block. The

building blocks are further assembled to make a module. Then the modules are assembled in a

battery. And the tests mentioned in this document are performed on different test items that can be

either single cell, string, building-block, module or full battery. Few examples are given in the Figure

4-1 to Figure 4-4.
Figure 4-1: String of n cells connected in series (called n s 1p string)
Figure 4-2: String of m cells connected in parallel (called a 1s m p string)
Figure 4-3: A module made of cells connected in series and parallel (n s m p
module)
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Figure 4-4: A module made of cells connected in parallel and series (n p m s module)

4.2 Test documentation
4.2.1 Test plan and test procedures

The Test plan (see Annex A) details the cell or battery characteristics under test, the test criteria and

the test conditions.

The test procedure gives all test methods used and the different steps for the execution of the tests

given in the plan to measure and validate the batteries or cell characteristics.
4.2.2 Test report

The tests items and test conditions are recalled in the test report. Test data and test data analysis are

provided. All the NCRs related to test item and their disposition are also described in the report.

Individual test reports can be provided to cover the major test topics:
• Electrical tests
• Environmental tests
• Life tests
• Safety tests

For example in the environmental tests report, the test conditions together with specific details on the

test set-up (i.e. connection, thermal control, equipment used, accelerometers type and location), the

test data and the test data analysis are provided separately typically in the form of spreadsheets.

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4.3 Tests
4.3.1 Initial electrical characterisation tests

The objectives of the initial cell or battery electrical characterisation tests are to:

• Establish the appropriate test parameters consistent with accepted technology limitations and

requirements for the target application,
• Verify the initial capabilities of the life test cells.
4.3.2 Standard capacity and energy measurements

The objectives of the these tests are: to measure the capacity and energy of the test item under specific

conditions in order to observe capacity and energy loss upon testing.

The capacity and energy measurements test, at a given temperature consist of a discharge to the

nominal end-of-discharge voltage, followed by a recharge using the manufacturer’s recommended

procedure, and a constant current or power discharge at a specified rate to the manufacturer’s

recommended cut-off voltage.
The following information are detailed prior to the measurements:

• Charging protocol, e.g. Constant Current – Constant Voltage, Taper, Rest period conditions

• Charge current
• EOCV
• Taper charge conditions
• Discharge protocol (constant current or constant power)
• Discharge current or power
• EODV or specified cut-off voltage
• Temperature

Current, Voltage, Temperature are measured versus time and capacity and energy are calculated.

Temperature management and control are detailed in the test plan and test report.

4.3.3 Internal resistance measurement

The objectives of this test is to characterise the test item and to assess the evolution of the internal

resistance upon cycling.

The impact of ionic and ohmic resistance can be evaluated by applying pulses during discharge (e.g.

capacity check) or current interruption at several points along the discharge curve.

Using Ohm’s law, the total cell internal resistance can be calculated by dividing the change in voltage

by the change in current.

The measurement conditions are specified with the test results i.e.: SoC, temperature, charge and

discharge current, pulse current, pulse duration, measurement time (or current interruption duration),

sampling.
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4.3.4 AC impedance measurement
The objective of the this test is to characterise the test item.

The AC impedance measurement gives a range of impedance value as a function of frequency (i.e.

0,01 kHz to 100 kHz).
The impedance is measured at a specified SOC and at a specified temperature.
4.3.5 Self-discharge test

The objective of this test is to assess the reversible and irreversible capacity losses, over a significant

dura
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021
01-februar-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za testiranje Li-ionske baterije
Space engineering - Li-ion battery testing handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zum Testen von Li-Ionen-Akkus
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de tests des batteries li-ion
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20- en,fr,de
02:2021

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
20-02
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
November 2020
ICS
English version
Space engineering - Li-ion battery testing handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de tests des batteries li- Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zum Testen von Li-

ion Ionen-Akkus

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
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© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword .......................................................................................... 4

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................. 6

2 References ..................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................... 8

3.1 Terms from other documents ........................................................................... 8

3.2 Terms specific to the present document .......................................................... 8

3.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 14

4 Cell or battery testing .................................................................................. 15

4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 15

4.2 Test documentation ....................................................................................... 16

4.2.1 Test plan and test procedures .......................................................... 16

4.2.2 Test report ....................................................................................... 16

4.3 Tests.............................................................................................................. 17

4.3.1 Initial electrical characterisation tests ............................................... 17

4.3.2 Standard capacity and energy measurements ................................. 17

4.3.3 Internal resistance measurement ..................................................... 17

4.3.4 AC impedance measurement ........................................................... 18

4.3.5 Self-discharge test ........................................................................... 18

4.3.6 Charge retention test ........................................................................ 18

4.3.7 Cell rate capability ............................................................................ 18

4.3.8 Cell EMF measurement ................................................................... 18

4.3.9 Battery magnetic moment measurement .......................................... 19

4.3.10 Battery corona testing ...................................................................... 19

4.4 Environmental tests ....................................................................................... 19

4.4.1 Objectives ........................................................................................ 19

4.4.2 Mechanical tests: vibration (low level sine, random, sine) and

shock ............................................................................................... 19

4.4.3 Thermal vacuum test ........................................................................ 20

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4.4.4 Leak test .......................................................................................... 20

4.4.5 Hermeticity test (Helium test) ........................................................... 21

4.4.6 Radiation test ................................................................................... 21

4.5 Life tests ........................................................................................................ 21

4.5.1 Objectives ........................................................................................ 21

4.5.2 Calendar tests (survivability test) ...................................................... 21

4.5.3 Cycling tests..................................................................................... 21

4.6 Safety tests .................................................................................................... 25

4.6.1 Objectives ........................................................................................ 25

4.6.2 Overcharge ...................................................................................... 25

4.6.3 Overdischarge .................................................................................. 25

4.6.4 Short-circuit test ............................................................................... 26

4.6.5 Vent and burst tests ......................................................................... 26

4.6.6 Protective devices ............................................................................ 26

4.7 Storage, handling, transport, AIT ................................................................... 27

4.7.1 General ............................................................................................ 27

4.7.2 Storage and maintenance conditions ............................................... 27

4.7.3 Handling ........................................................................................... 27

4.7.4 Transport ......................................................................................... 27

4.7.5 Assembly Integration Test (AIT) ....................................................... 27

5 Test applicability matrix .............................................................................. 28

Tables

Table 4-1: Thermal vacuum tests conditions ............................................................... 20

Table 4-2: GEO eclipse cycles .................................................................................... 23

Table 5-1: Test applicability matrix .............................................................................. 28

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European Foreword

This document (FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TR.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-20.

This Technical report (FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-02:2020) originates from ECSS-E-HB-20-02A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).

This document is currently submitted to the CEN CONSULTATION.
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Introduction

Energy storage is required aboard almost all spacecraft. Batteries are the most common energy storage

device. Batteries provide electrical power when power from solar arrays is temporarily unavailable or

insufficient due to eclipses, payload peak loads, before solar panels are deployed or in case of

emergencies or special manoeuvres. Batteries are tested in order to assess their performance and their

suitability to meet mission requirements. This issue of the document does not include the battery

management subsystem testing.

In order for a new cell or battery system to be accepted for a spacecraft mission, it is essential not only

to have hardware which is qualified for a good beginning of life performance but also to have hardware

whose performance changes with cycle life are well understood and predictable by appropriate models.

For this reason the availability of comprehensive test data is very important.

The present handbook aims at providing practical and helpful guidelines for Li-ion cell and battery

testing (testing conditions, required information, reporting) during the development and

qualification of space equipment and systems. This document has been derived from requirements

from ECSS-E-ST-20C and its purpose is to support the use of ECSS-E-ST-20C.

This Handbook gathers battery testing experience, know-how and lessons-learnt from the European

Space Community.
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Scope

This Handbook establishes support the testing of Li-ion battery and associated generation of test related

documentation.
This handbook sets out to:
 summarize most relevant characterisation tests
 provide guidelines for Li-ion battery testing

 provide guidelines for documentation associated with Li-ion cell or battery testing

 give an overview of appropriate test methods
 provide best practices
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References
EN Reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS‐S‐ST‐00‐01 ECSS System - Glossary of terms
EN 16603-10-02 ECSS‐E‐ST‐10‐03 Space engineering - Testing
EN 16603-10-04 ECSS‐E‐ST‐10‐04 Space engineering ‐ Space environment
EN 16603-20 ECSS‐E‐ST‐20 Space engineering ‐ Electrical and electronic
EN 16602-20-08 ECSS-Q-ST-20-08 Space product assurance - Storage, handling and
transportation of space hardware

EN 16602-70-02 ECSS-Q-ST-70-02 Space product assurance - Thermal vacuum outgassing

test for the screening of space materials
- IEC 62281 2013-08 Safety of primary and secondary lithium cells and
batteries during transport
- ST/SG/AC.10/11/rev5 United Nations Transport of Dangerous Goods UN
manual of Tests and Criteria, Part III, subsection 38.3
- JSC-20793 Rev.B April Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements
2006
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other documents

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply, in particular

for the following terms:
acceptance lot quality control
applicable document model reliability
assembly nonconformance requirement
bakeout outgassing review
calibration procedure safety
catastrophic process specification
environment product assurance standard
failure project supplier
handbook qualification traceability
hazard quality validation
inspection quality assurance verification
3.2 Terms specific to the present document
3.2.1 accelerated test

test designed to shorten cycle life test to estimate the average cell or battery lifetime at normal operating

conditions
NOTE Temperature, SoC, cycle profile are sources of test acceleration.
3.2.2 activation

introduction of electrolyte in an assembled cell at the manufacturing facility during production

NOTE This is used to define the start of the cell shelf-life. The formation
process is also part of the activation.
3.2.3 aging

permanent change in characteristics and performance due to repeated use or the passage of time

NOTE Permanent changes include loss of capacity and energy, increase in
resistance.
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3.2.4 battery

one or more cells (or modules) electrically connected to provide the required operating voltage, current

and energy storage levels
3.2.5 battery management subsystem

electronics circuitry preventing cell or battery operation outside of specified voltage, current and

temperature ranges, and managing cell-to-cell unbalance
NOTE It also includes cell or module of cells bypass circuits when deemed
necessary by FMECA outcomes.
3.2.6 calendar loss
permanent degradation of electrical performance due to time after activation
NOTE Reversible effects such as self-discharge are not included in the
calendar loss.
3.2.7 capacity
amount of charge available expressed in ampere-hours (Ah)

NOTE 1 Cell or battery (Ah) =  Id.dt. It is the integral of the discharge current,

between start of discharge and cut-off voltage or other specified
voltage or specified duration.
NOTE 2 The capacity of a cell or battery is determined by a number of
factors, including the cut-off voltage, discharge rate, temperature,
method of charge (i.e. current, end-of-charge voltage) and the age
and life history of the cell or battery.
3.2.8 capacity retention

fraction of the rated capacity available from a cell or battery under specified conditions of discharge

after it has been stored for a certain time period at a specified temperature and state of charge in open

circuit
3.2.9 cell can
cell packaging
3.2.10 cell building block or brick
sub-assembly unit, which consists of identical electrically connected cells
NOTE Building blocks (or bricks) are connected together to form a module
or battery.
3.2.11 cell electromotive force

difference of potentials which exists between the two electrodes of opposite polarity in an

electrochemical cell under open circuit steady state conditions
3.2.12 cell reversal
reverse polarity of a cell during discharge
3.2.13 cell terminal
electrical contacts to connect the cell
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3.2.14 cell type
cell chemistry, cell size and cell can geometry
3.2.15 charge rate
amount of current applied to a cell or battery during the charge
NOTE This rate is commonly expressed as a fraction of the nameplate
capacity of the battery. For example, C/2 or C/5.
3.2.16 cycle life

number of cycles under specified conditions, that a cell or battery can

undergo before failing to meet its specified performance criteria
3.2.17 cycle loss

gradual and irreversible degradation of electrical performance due to electrical cycling

3.2.18 deperm
demagnetisation of battery
3.2.19 depth of discharge (DoD)

ampere–hour removed from a battery expressed as a percentage of the nameplate capacity whatever

the initial state of charge
3.2.20 depth of discharged energy (DoDE)

Watt-hours removed from a cell or battery, expressed as a percentage of nameplate energy, whatever

the initial state of charge
3.2.21 discharge rate
amount of current delivered by a cell or battery during the discharge
NOTE This rate is commonly expressed as a fraction of the nameplate
capacity of the battery. For example, C/2 or C/5.
3.2.22 energy

watt-hours available when the battery that has been discharged from a specified end-of-charge voltage

to a selected cut-off voltage, under specified conditions
NOTE 1 Cell or battery (Wh) =  IdVd.dt. It is the integral of the product of
discharge current and voltage. The limits of integration are the start
of discharge and the cut-off voltage or other specified voltage.
NOTE 2 Typical conditions can include:
 Temperature and thermal control
 Charge and discharge profiles
NOTE 3 The SI unit for energy is joule (1J = 1 W.s), but in practice, battery
energy is usually expressed in watthours (Wh) (1 Wh = 3600 J)
3.2.23 energy reserve

energy available in a cell or battery when discharged from the maximum DoD or voltage cut-off

expected under nominal operation to the minimum end-of-discharge voltage
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3.2.24 internal resistance

opposition to the flow of electric current within a cell or battery expressed as the sum of the ionic and

ohmic resistances of the cell components
3.2.25 maximum charge current

maximum continuous DC charge current allowed by the cell manufacturer under specified conditions

NOTE Usually expressed as C rate.
3.2.26 maximum discharge current

maximum continuous DC discharge current allowed by the cell manufacturer under specified

conditions
NOTE Usually expressed as C rate.
3.2.27 maximum end-of-charge voltage (EOCV)

voltage determined by the cell or battery manufacturer which expresses the highest voltage limit up to

which the cell can be charged without causing a hazard
3.2.28 minimum end-of-discharge voltage (EODV)

voltage determined by the cell or battery manufacturer which expresses the lowest voltage limit down

to which a cell can be discharged without causing a hazard
3.2.29 module
set of any number of identical cells, electrically connected
NOTE Modules are connected appropriately to form the battery. A module
is a deliverable mechanically distinct item, as opposed to cell brick.
3.2.30 nameplate capacity
available ampere-hours (Ah) under conditions defined by the cell manufacturer
NOTE 1 These conditions include:
 nominal charge current, method, ambient temperature and
duration
 nominal cut-off voltage
 nominal discharge current and ambient temperature
NOTE 2 The term “nominal capacity” is synonymous.
3.2.31 nameplate energy
available watt-hours (Ah) under conditions defined by the cell manufacturer
NOTE 1 These conditions include:
 nominal end-of-charge voltage
 nominal charge current, method, ambient temperature and
duration
 nominal discharge current and ambient temperature
 nominal end-of-discharge voltage
NOTE 2 The term “nominal energy” is synonymous.
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3.2.32 nominal capacity
see “nameplate capacity” 3.2.30
3.2.33 nominal energy
see “nameplate capacity” 3.2.31
3.2.34 nominal end-of-charge voltage

characteristic end-of-charge voltage specified by the cell or battery manufacturer

NOTE
This parameter is used for nameplate capacity checks.
3.2.35 nominal end-of-discharge voltage

characteristic end-of-discharge voltage specified by the cell or battery manufacturer

NOTE This parameter is used for nameplate capacity checks.
3.2.36 nominal operating voltage range

characteristic operating voltage range of a cell or battery defined by the manufacturer

3.2.37 open-circuit voltage (OCV)
cell or battery voltage measured under 0 (zero) A condition
NOTE This voltage is often associated to the electromotive force (EMF)
when reaching a steady state.
3.2.38 overcharge
cell or battery charged beyond the maximum end-of-charge voltage (EOCV)
3.2.39 overdischarge
cell or battery discharged below the minimum end-of-discharge voltage (EODV)
3.2.40 protective devices

devices which interrupt or reduce the current flow to the affected cell or string to prevent hazardous

failure
NOTE Examples of protective devices are fuses, diodes, by-passes,
pressure switches and hazardous limiters.
3.2.41 rated capacity

minimum capacity guaranteed by the battery manufacturer on delivery under specified conditions

NOTE As conditions specified by the cell manufacturer can differ from
those specified by the battery manufacturer, the battery capacity
specified by the battery manufacturer is used.
3.2.42 rated energy

minimum energy guaranteed by the battery manufacturer on delivery under specified conditions

3.2.43 self-discharge

reversible capacity decrease while no current is flowing to an outside circuit, due to internal chemical

reactions
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3.2.44 shelf-life

duration of storage from the date of activation, under specified conditions, at the end of which a cell or

battery still retains the ability to give a specified performance
3.2.45 specific energy
energy available, expressed in Wh/kg, under specified conditions
NOTE 1 Specific conditions include temperature, charge and discharge rates,
cut-off voltages.
NOTE 2 Gravimetric energy is synonymous.
3.2.46 state of charge (SoC)

available capacity of the cell or battery, expressed as a percentage of its capacity at that time, where the

capacity is measured at a low current such that the terminal voltage approximates the EMF

NOTE This value can be derived from the Open Circuit Voltage of the cell
or battery, following determination of the cell characteristic EMF
versus SoC curve.
3.2.47 taper charge

charge method that reduces progressively the charging current as the cell or battery voltage is

maintained at a constant value
3.2.48 terminal voltage
voltage measured between cell or battery terminals
3.2.49 test item

single cell, string of cells in series or parallel, module, building blocks or battery

3.2.50 venting

release of excessive internal pressure from a cell or battery in a manner intended by design to preclude

rupture or disassembly
3.2.51 volumetric energy
energy available by volume unit under specified conditions
NOTE Expressed in Wh/l.
3.2.52 working voltage
typical voltage range of a battery
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3.3 Abbreviated terms

For the purpose of this document, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 and the following

apply:
Abbreviation Meaning
alternating current
assembly, integration and test
AIT
assembly, integration and test plan
AITP
beginning-of-life
BOL
constant current
critical design review
CDR
commercial off-the-shelf
COTS
constant voltage
direct current
depth of discharge
DoD
depth of discharge energy
DoDE
document requirements definition
DRD
electromotive force
EMF
end-of-charge voltage
EOCV
end-of-discharge voltage
EODV
end-of-life
EOL
European Space Agency
ESA
geostationary orbit
GEO
low Earth orbit
LEO
Lithium-ion
Li-ion
open circuit voltage
OCV
state of charge
SoC
test procedure
TPRO
test specification
TSPE
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Cell or battery testing
4.1 Introduction

Each cell or battery used in space application undertakes different tests i.e. acceptance, qualification.

These tests are detailed with a supporting test plan, associated procedures (containing test criteria and

test method) and test report.

A battery is made of electrically connected cells, strings or modules. Single cells are electrically

connected to build a string of cells. The strings are then connected to form a building-block. The building

blocks are further assembled to make a module. Then the modules are assembled in a battery. And the

tests mentioned in this document are performed on different test items that can be either single cell,

string, building-block, module or full battery. Few examples are given in the Figure 4-1 to Figure 4-4.

Figure 4-1: String of n cells connected in series (called n s 1p string)
Figure 4-2: String of m cells connected in parallel (called a 1s m p string)
Figure 4-3: A module made of cells connected in series and parallel (n s m p
module)
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Figure 4-4: A module made of cells connected in parallel and series (n p m s module)

4.2 Test documentation
4.2.1 Test plan and test procedures

The Test plan (see Annex A) details the cell or battery characteristics under test, the test criteria and the

test conditions.

The test procedure gives all test methods used and the different steps for the execution of the tests given

in the plan to measure and validate the batteries or cell characteristics.
4.2.2 Test report

The tests items and test conditions are recalled in the test report. Test data and test data analysis are

provided. All the NCRs related to test item and their disposition are also described in the report.

Individual test reports can be provided to cover the major test topics:
 Electrical tests
 Environmental tests
 Life tests
 Safety tests

For example in the environmental tests report, the test conditions together with specific details on the

test set-up (i.e. connection, thermal control, equipment used, accelerometers type and location), the test

data and the test data analysis are provided separately typically in the form of spreadsheets.

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4.3 Tests
4.3.1 Initial electrical characterisation tests

The objectives of the initial cell or battery electrical characterisation tests are to:

 Establish the appropriate test parameters consistent with accepted technology limitations and

requirements for the target application,
 Verify the initial capabilities of the life test cells.
4.3.2 Standard capacity and energy measurements

The objectives of the these tests are: to measure the capacity and energy of the test item under specific

conditions in order to observe capacity and energy loss upon testing.

The capacity and energy measurements test, at a given temperature consist of a discharge to the nominal

end-of-discharge voltage, followed by a recharge using the manufacturer’s recommended procedure,

and a constant current or power discharge at a specified rate to the manufacturer’s recommended cut-

off voltage.
The following information are detailed prior to the measurements:

 Charging protocol, e.g. Constant Current – Constant Voltage, Taper, Rest period conditions

 Charge current
 EOCV
 Taper charge conditions
 Discharge protocol (constant current or constant power)
 Discharge current or power
 EODV or specified cut-off voltage
 Temperature

Current, Voltage, Temperature are measured versus time and capacity and energy are calculated.

Temperature management and control are detailed in the test plan and test report.

4.3.3 Internal resistance measurement

The objectives of this test is to characterise the test item and to assess the evolution of the internal

resistance upon cycling.

The impact of ionic and ohmic resistance can be evaluated by applying pulses during discharge (e.g.

capacity check) or current interruption at several points along the discharge curve.

Using Ohm’s law, the total cell internal resistance can be calculated by dividing the change in voltage

by the change in current.

The measurement conditions are specified with the test results i.e.: SoC, temperature, charge and

discharge current, pulse current, pulse duration, measurement time (or current interruption duration),

sampling.
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4.3.4 AC impedance measurement
The objective of the this test is to characterise the test item.
The AC impedance measurement gives a range of impedance value as a function
...

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