Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and lower limbs (ISO 13857:2019)

EN-ISO 13857 establishes values for safety distances in both industrial and non-industrial environments to prevent machinery hazard zones being reached. The safety distances are appropriate for protective structures. It also gives information about distances to impede free access by the lower limbs (see Annex B). This document covers people of 14 years and older (the 5th percentile stature of 14-year-olds is approximately 1 400 mm). In addition, for upper limbs only, it provides information for children older than 3 years (5th percentile stature of 3-year-olds is approximately 900 mm) where reaching through openings needs to be addressed. Data for preventing lower limb access for children is not considered. The distances apply when sufficient risk reduction can be achieved by distance alone. Because safety distances depend on size, some people of extreme dimensions will still be able to reach hazard zones even when the requirements of this document are met. Compliance with the requirements in this document will prevent access to the hazard zone. Nevertheless the user of this document is advised that it does not provide the required risk reduction for every hazard (e.g. hazards related to machine emissions such as ionizing radiation, heat sources, noise, dust). The clauses covering lower limbs apply on their own only when access by the upper limbs to the same hazard zone is not foreseeable according to the risk assessment. The safety distances are intended to protect those persons trying to reach hazard zones under the conditions specified.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Sicherheitsabstände gegen das Erreichen von Gefährdungsbereichen mit den oberen und unteren Gliedmaßen (ISO 13857:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt Werte für Sicherheitsabstände gegen das Erreichen von maschinellen Gefährdungs¬bereichen für gewerbliche und öffentliche Bereiche fest. Die Sicherheitsabstände sind geeignet für schüt¬zende Konstruktionen. Ferner enthält es Informationen über Abstände, die den freien Zugang durch die unteren Gliedmaßen verhindern (siehe Anhang B).
Dieses Dokument bezieht Personen von 14 Jahren und älter ein (das 5. Perzentil der Personen ab 14 Jahren entspricht etwa 1 400 mm). Nur für die oberen Gliedmaßen stellt es zusätzlich Informationen für Kinder älter als 3 Jahre (5. Perzentil der Personen ab 3 Jahren entspricht etwa 900 mm) bereit, wenn das Hindurch¬reichen durch Öffnungen zu berücksichtigen ist.
ANMERKUNG 1 Es ist nicht sinnvoll, Sicherheitsabstände für alle Personen festzulegen. Daher ist vorgesehen, dass die angegebenen Werte das 95. Perzentil der Bevölkerungsgruppe abdecken.
Daten zur Vermeidung des Zugangs von Kindern mit den unteren Gliedmaßen werden nicht betrachtet.
Diese Abstände sind anwendbar, wenn eine ausreichende Risikominderung allein durch Abstand erreicht werden kann. Da Sicherheitsabstände von der Größe abhängen, kann es einigen extrem großen Personen immer noch möglich sein, Gefährdungsbereiche zu erreichen, obwohl die Anforderungen dieses Dokuments erfüllt sind.
Die Einhaltung der Anforderungen in diesem Dokument verhindert den Zugang zum Gefährdungsbereich. Der Anwender dieses Dokuments wird trotzdem darauf hingewiesen, dass es nicht für jede Gefährdung die erforderliche Risikominderung bereitstellt (z. B. Gefährdungen im Zusammenhang mit Maschinen¬emissionen wie ionisierende Strahlung, Wärmequellen, Lärm, Staub).
Die die unteren Gliedmaßen behandelnden Abschnitte sind nur eigenständig anwendbar, wenn Zugang durch die oberen Gliedmaßen in den gleichen Gefährdungsbereich nach der Risikobeurteilung nicht vorher¬sehbar ist.
Die Sicherheitsabstände sind vorgesehen solche Personen zu schützen, die unter den festgelegten Bedin¬gungen (siehe 4.1.1) Gefährdungsbereiche zu erreichen versuchen.
ANMERKUNG 2 Dieses Dokument ist nicht dazu vorgesehen, Maße gegen das Erreichen von Gefährdungsbereichen durch Überklettern bereitzustellen (siehe ISO 14120:2015, 5.18).

Sécurité des machines - Distances de sécurité empêchant les membres supérieurs et inférieurs d'atteindre les zones dangereuses (ISO 13857:2019)

Le présent document établit des valeurs en matière de distances de sécurité, tant dans un environnement industriel que public, afin d'empêcher l'atteinte des zones dangereuses des machines. Les distances de sécurité sont adaptées aux structures de protection. Elle donne également des informations concernant les distances empêchant le libre accès des membres inférieurs (voir l'Annexe B).
Le présent document concerne les personnes d'un âge égal ou supérieur à 14 ans (la taille du 5ème percentile des personnes âgées de 14 ans est d'environ 1 400 mm). Pour les membres supérieurs uniquement, elle fournit en outre des informations concernant les enfants âgés de plus de 3 ans (la taille du 5ème percentile des personnes âgées de 3 ans est d'environ 900 mm) pour ce qui concerne l'atteinte des zones dangereuses à travers des ouvertures.
NOTE 1 Il n'est pas pratique de spécifier des distances de sécurité pour toutes les personnes. Par conséquent, les valeurs présentées visent à couvrir le 95ème percentile de la population.
Les données destinées à empêcher l'accès des membres inférieurs des enfants ne sont pas prises en compte.
Ces distances s'appliquent lorsqu'une réduction suffisante des risques peut être obtenue par l'éloignement seul. Ces distances de sécurité étant fonction de la taille, certaines personnes ayant des tailles extrêmes pourront toujours être en mesure d'atteindre les zones dangereuses même si les exigences du présent document sont satisfaites.
Le respect des exigences du présent document empêchera l'accès à la zone dangereuse. Néanmoins, l'utilisateur de ce document est averti qu'il ne fournit pas la réduction des risques requise pour chaque danger (par exemple, les phénomènes dangereux liés aux émissions des machines comme les rayonnements ionisants, les sources de chaleur, le bruit, la poussière).
Les articles concernant les membres inférieurs s'appliquent uniquement quand l'accès des membres supérieurs à la même zone de danger n'est pas prévisible, selon l'appréciation du risque.
Les distances de sécurité sont destinées à protéger les personnes qui essaient d'atteindre les zones dangereuses dans les conditions spécifiées (voir 4.1.1).
NOTE 2 Le présent document n'est pas destiné à fournir des mesures contre l'atteinte d'une zone dangereuse en grimpant par-dessus les structures de protection (voir l'ISO 14120:2015, 5.18).

Varnost strojev - Varnostne razdalje, ki preprečujejo doseg nevarnih območij z zgornjimi in spodnjimi udi (ISO 13857:2019)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
27-Feb-2018
Publication Date
09-Mar-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
14-Nov-2019
Due Date
19-Jan-2020
Completion Date
10-Mar-2020

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
English language
31 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
01-april-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 13857:2008
Varnost strojev - Varnostne razdalje, ki preprečujejo doseg nevarnih območij z
zgornjimi in spodnjimi udi (ISO 13857:2019)

Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper

and lower limbs (ISO 13857:2019)
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Sicherheitsabstände gegen das Erreichen von
Gefährdungsbereichen mit den oberen und unteren Gliedmaßen (ISO 13857:2019)

Sécurité des machines - Distances de sécurité empêchant les membres supérieurs et

inférieurs d'atteindre les zones dangereuses (ISO 13857:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 13857:2019
ICS:
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
EN ISO 13857
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.110 Supersedes EN ISO 13857:2008
English Version
Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent hazard
zones being reached by upper and lower limbs (ISO
13857:2019)

Sécurité des machines - Distances de sécurité Sicherheit von Maschinen - Sicherheitsabstände gegen

empêchant les membres supérieurs et inférieurs das Erreichen von Gefährdungsbereichen mit den

d'atteindre les zones dangereuses (ISO 13857:2019) oberen und unteren Gliedmaßen (ISO 13857:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 October 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 13857:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
EN ISO 13857:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC aimed to be covered .................................................. 4

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
EN ISO 13857:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 13857:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 199 "Safety of

machinery" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 114 “Safety of machinery” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 13857:2008.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For the relationship with EU Directive(s) see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 13857:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 13857:2019 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
EN ISO 13857:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the essential
requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC aimed to be covered

This European Standard has been prepared under a Commission’s standardization request M/549

COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION C(2016) 5884 final of 21.9.2016 to provide one voluntary

means of conforming to essential requirements of New Approach Directive 2006/42/EC of the

European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive

95/16/EC (recast).

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive,

compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of

the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding essential requirements

of that Directive, and associated EFTA regulations.

Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive 2006/42/EC

Essential Requirements of Clause(s)/subclause(s) of this Remarks/Notes
Directive 2006/42/EC EN
1.1.2. Principles of safety Clause 1 Safety distance for reaching
integration over/under and through
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.2.1 Reaching over protective
protective devices structures
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.2.2.
protective devices Values
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.3
Reaching around
protective devices
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.4
protective devices Reaching through openings
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.4.1 Reaching through regular
protective devices openings — Persons of 14 years
of age and above
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.4.2 Reaching through regular
protective devices openings — persons of 3 years
of age and above
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.4.3
protective devices Openings of irregular shape
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.2.5 Effect of additional protective
protective devices structures on safety distances
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.3 Safety distances to prevent
protective devices access by lower limbs
1.4.3. Special requirements for 4.4 Consideration of whole body
protective devices access
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
EN ISO 13857:2019 (E)

WARNING 1 — Presumption of conformity stays valid only as long as a reference to this European

Standard is maintained in the list published in the Official Journal of the European Union. Users of this

standard should consult frequently the latest list published in the Official Journal of the European

Union.

WARNING 2 — Other Union legislation may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the scope of

this standard.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13857
Second edition
2019-10
Safety of machinery — Safety distances
to prevent hazard zones being reached
by upper and lower limbs
Sécurité des machines — Distances de sécurité empêchant les
membres supérieurs et inférieurs d'atteindre les zones dangereuses
Reference number
ISO 13857:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Safety distances to prevent reach or access by upper and lower limbs ......................................................2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 Assumptions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1.2 Risk assessment ...................................................................... .......................................................................................... 2

4.2 Safety distances to prevent access by upper limbs .................................................................................................. 3

4.2.1 Reaching upwards .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.2 Reaching over protective structures ............................................................................................................... 4

4.2.3 Reaching around .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2.4 Reaching through openings .................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.5 Effect of additional protective structures on safety distances ..............................................10

4.3 Safety distances to prevent access by lower limbs ...............................................................................................11

4.4 Consideration of whole body access .................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Use of Tables 1 and 2 with intermediate values .......................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Distances to impede free access by lower limbs ......................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13857:2008) which has been technically

revised. The main change compared to the previous edition is that the document has been made more

readable and more in line with ISO 12100:2010.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)
Introduction
The structure of safety standards in the field of machinery is as follows:

a) type-A standards (basic safety standards) giving basic concepts, principles for design, and general

aspects that can be applied to all machinery;

b) type-B standards (generic safety standards) dealing with one safety aspect or one or more type(s)

of safeguard that can be used across a wide range of machinery:

— type-B1 standards on particular safety aspects (e.g. safety distances, surface temperature, noise);

— type-B2 standards on safeguards (e.g. two-hand controls, interlocking devices, pressure

sensitive devices, guards).

c) type-C standards (machine safety standards) dealing with detailed safety requirements for a

particular machine or group of machines.
This document is a type-B1 standard as stated in ISO 12100:2010.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the

market players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organisations, market surveillance etc.);

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e. g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises);

— consumers (in case of machinery intended for use by consumers).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

In addition, this document is intended for standardization bodies elaborating type-C standards.

The requirements of this document can be supplemented or modified by a type-C standard.

For machines which are covered by the scope of a type-C standard and which have been designed and

built according to the requirements of that standard, the requirements of that type-C standard take

precedence.

One method of eliminating or reducing risks caused by machinery is to make use of safety distances

preventing hazard zones from being reached by the upper and lower limbs.

In specifying safety distances, a number of aspects need to be taken into consideration, such as:

— reach situations occurring when machinery is being used;

— reliable surveys of anthropometric data, taking into account population groups likely to be found in

the countries concerned;

— biomechanical factors, such as compression and stretching of parts of the body and limits of joint

rotation;
— technical and practical aspects; and
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)

— additional measures for particular groups of persons (e.g. persons with special needs), which can be

required due to a deviation from the specified body dimensions.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13857:2019(E)
Safety of machinery — Safety distances to prevent hazard
zones being reached by upper and lower limbs
1 Scope

This document establishes values for safety distances in both industrial and non-industrial

environments to prevent machinery hazard zones being reached. The safety distances are appropriate

for protective structures. It also gives information about distances to impede free access by the lower

limbs (see Annex B).

This document covers people of 14 years and older (the 5th percentile stature of 14-year-olds is

approximately 1 400 mm). In addition, for upper limbs only, it provides information for children older

than 3 years (5th percentile stature of 3-year-olds is approximately 900 mm) where reaching through

openings needs to be addressed.

NOTE 1 It is not practical to specify safety distances for all persons. Therefore, the values presented are

intended to cover the 95th percentile of the population.
Data for preventing lower limb access for children is not considered.

The distances apply when sufficient risk reduction can be achieved by distance alone. Because safety

distances depend on size, some people of extreme dimensions will still be able to reach hazard zones

even when the requirements of this document are met.

Compliance with the requirements in this document will prevent access to the hazard zone. Nevertheless

the user of this document is advised that it does not provide the required risk reduction for every

hazard (e.g. hazards related to machine emissions such as ionizing radiation, heat sources, noise, dust).

The clauses covering lower limbs apply on their own only when access by the upper limbs to the same

hazard zone is not foreseeable according to the risk assessment.

The safety distances are intended to protect those persons trying to reach hazard zones under the

conditions specified (see 4.1.1).

NOTE 2 This document is not intended to provide measures against reaching a hazard zone by climbing over

(see ISO 14120:2015, 5.18).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12100:2010 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)
3.1
protective structure

safeguard (e.g. a guard, an impeding device) or other physical obstruction (e.g. a part of a machine)

which restricts the movement of the body and/or a part of it in order to prevent reaching hazard zones

3.2
reference plane

level at which persons would normally stand during the use of the machine or access to the hazard zone

Note 1 to entry: The reference plane is not necessarily the ground or the floor (for example a working platform

can be the reference plane).
3.3
safety distance
safe separation distance

minimum distance a protective structure is required to be placed from a hazard zone

4 Safety distances to prevent reach or access by upper and lower limbs
4.1 General
4.1.1 Assumptions

The safety distances in this document have been derived by making the following assumptions:

— the protective structures and any openings in them retain their shape and position;

— safety distances are measured from the surface restricting the body or the relevant part of the body;

— the body is forced over protective structures or through openings in an attempt to reach the

hazard zone;

— there is some contact with the reference plane while wearing shoes (use of high-soled shoes, climbing

and jumping are not included);
— no aids such as chairs or ladders are used to change the reference plane;

— no aids such as rods or tools are used to extend the natural reach of the upper limbs.

4.1.2 Risk assessment
4.1.2.1 General

Safety distances are determined if the hazard to be considered has been identified as significant (see

ISO 12100:2010, 3.8). All reasonably foreseeable access means shall be taken into account. When the

possibility of access or the variety of hazard zones requires the application of more than one table, all

safety distances shall be taken into account. When more than one safety distance is determined for the

same means of access, the greatest safety distance shall be applied.

The safety distances, s , given in Table 7 apply to persons reaching through openings using the lower

limbs in an attempt to reach a hazard zone.
4.1.2.2 Selection of safety distances when reaching upwards and reaching over

Prior to selecting a suitable safety distance in case of reaching upwards (see 4.2.1) or reaching over

protective structures (see 4.2.2), it is necessary to consider the severity of harm and the probability of

occurrence of this harm caused by the hazard.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)

In case of reaching upwards, the higher value according to 4.2.1.2 shall be applied. In the case of

reaching over protective structures, the values of Table 2 shall be applied.

The lower value according to 4.2.1.2 or Table 1 may only be applied where both the severity of harm

and the probability of occurrence of harm caused by the hazard are low (see ISO 12100:2010, 5.5.2.3).

The probability of occurrence of harm can be assumed low with, for example, slow movements which

allow escape from the hazardous movement.
The severity of the harm can be assumed low in the following examples:

— when temperature and contact duration with hot surfaces is below the burn threshold value (for

burn threshold values, see ISO 13732-1);

— for hazards which do not cause permanent harm or irreversible damages to the body, for example such

as haematomas, slight contusions or breaking of parts of the body which grow again, like finger nails.

More guidance on risk estimation is given in ISO/TR 14121-2:2012, Clause 6.
4.2 Safety distances to prevent access by upper limbs
4.2.1 Reaching upwards
4.2.1.1 General
Figure 1 shows the safety distance for reaching upwards.
4.2.1.2 Height of the hazard zone
The height of the hazard zone, h, shall be 2 700 mm or more.

The height of the hazard zone, h, shall be 2 500 mm or more where both the severity of harm and the

probability of occurrence of harm caused by the hazard are low.
Key
1 hazard zone
2 reference plane
h height of hazard zone
Figure 1 — Reaching upwards
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)
4.2.2 Reaching over protective structures
4.2.2.1 General
Figure 2 shows reaching over a protective structure.
Key
1 area of upper limb reach
2 area outside of upper limb reach (hazard zone)

h height of the point of the hazard zone which is nearest to the area of upper limb reach

h height of protective structure

s horizontal safety distance of the point of the hazard zone which is nearest to the area of upper limb reach

Figure 2 — Reaching over protective structure

The values given in Tables 1 and 2 shall be used to determine the corresponding dimension(s) of the

height of the hazard zone, the height of protective structures and the horizontal safety distance to the

hazard zone.

When the known values of h , h or s are between two values, the greater safety distance or higher

h ps h

protective structure or change in the height (higher or lower) of the hazard zone shall be used.

Consequently, there shall be no interpolation of the values given.
4.2.2.2 Values

Table 1 may be used when the injury severity is slight and there is a low probability of occurrence of

the injury. Table 1 provides the relationship between the height of the hazard zone, the height of the

protective structure and the horizontal safety distance (see Figure 2).
NOTE Annex A gives examples of the use of Table 1.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)

Table 1 — Reaching over protective structures — Only minor injuries along with a low

probability of occurrence
Dimensions in millimetres
h , height of protective structure
h , height of 1 000 1 200 1 400 1 600 1 800 2 000 2 200 2 400 2 500
the point of
the hazard
zone which

s , horizontal safety distance of the point of the hazard zone which is nearest to the area

is nearest to h
of upper limb reach
the area of
upper limb
reach
2 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 400 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 0
2 200 600 600 500 500 400 350 250 0 0
2 000 1 100 900 700 600 500 350 0 0 0
1 800 1 100 1 000 900 900 600 0 0 0 0
1 600 1 300 1 000 900 900 500 0 0 0 0
1 400 1 300 1 000 900 800 100 0 0 0 0
1 200 1 400 1 000 900 500 0 0 0 0 0
1 000 1 400 1 000 900 300 0 0 0 0 0
800 1 300 900 600 0 0 0 0 0 0
600 1 200 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
400 1 200 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
200 1 100 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 100 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Protective structures less than 1 000 mm in height are not included because they do not sufficiently restrict movement

of the body.

Table 2 shall be used when Table 1 is not applicable. Table 2 provides the relationship between the

height of the hazard zone, the height of the protective structure and the horizontal safety distance (see

Figure 2).
NOTE Annex A gives examples of the use of Table 2.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 19 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13857:2020
ISO 13857:2019(E)
Table 2 — Reaching over protective structures
Dimensions in millimetres
b,c
h , height of protective structure
h , height of 1 000 1 200 1 400 1 600 1 800 2 000 2 200 2 400 2 500 2 700
the point of
the hazard
zone which

s , horizontal safety distance of the point of the hazard zone which is nearest to the area

is nearest to h
of upper limb reach
the area of
upper limb
reach
2 700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 600 900 800 700 600 600 500 400 300 100 0
2 400 1 100 1 000 900 800 700 600 400 300 100 0
2 200 1 300 1 200 1 000 900 800 600 400 300 0 0
2 000 1 400 1 300 1 100 900 800 600 400 0 0 0
1 800 1 500 1 400 1 100 900 800 600 0 0 0 0
1 600 1 500 1 400 1 100 900 800 500 0 0 0 0
1 400 1 500 1 400 1 100 900 800 0 0 0 0 0
1 200 1 500 1 400 1 100 900 700 0 0 0 0 0
1 000 1 500
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.