Solid recovered fuels - Safe handling and storage of solid recovered fuels (ISO 21912:2021)

This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and
storage of solid recovered fuels (SRF).
The International Standard covers the handling, transportation and storage of SRF
throughout the supply chain, from the point of reception of non-hazardous waste.

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Sicherer Umgang und Lagerung von festen Sekundärbrennstoffen (ISO 21912:2021)

Dieses Dokument enthält die Grundsätze für und Anforderungen an die sichere Handhabung, Behandlung und Lagerung von festen Sekundärbrennstoffen (SRF), die aus nicht gefährlichem Abfall hergestellt werden und für die energiewirtschaftliche Nutzung zu verwenden sind. Dieses Dokument umfasst Prozessabschnitte von der Stelle für die Annahme von Material bis zum Anlieferungsort von SRF.
Dieses Dokument schließt Brennstoffe aus, die in den Aufgabenbereich von ISO/TC 238 Solid biofuels und ISO/TC 28 Petroleum products and related products of synthetic or biological origin fallen.
Zur Bestimmung, welche Sicherheitsmaßnahmen in Betracht zu ziehen sind, wird ein risikobasierter Ansatz angewendet.
Zwar sind das Ent  und Beladen von z. B. Behältern, Zügen oder Lastkraftwagen enthalten, jedoch nicht die Sicherheitsaspekte nach dem Laden und der Transport selbst.

Combustibles solides de récupération - Sécurité de la mise en oeuvre et dus stockage de combustibles solides de récupération (ISO 21912:2021)

Trdna alternativna goriva - Varno ravnanje in skladiščenje trdnih goriv (ISO 21912:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
03-May-2020
Publication Date
15-Apr-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-Mar-2021
Due Date
29-May-2021
Completion Date
16-Apr-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
01-maj-2021
Trdna alternativna goriva - Varno ravnanje in skladiščenje trdnih goriv (ISO
21912:2021)
Solid recovered fuels - Safe handling and storage of solid recovered fuels (ISO
21912:2021)
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Sicherer Umgang und Lagerung von festen
Sekundärbrennstoffen (ISO 21912:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Sécurité de la mise en oeuvre et dus stockage

de combustibles solides de récupération (ISO 21912:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21912:2021
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
SIST EN ISO 21912:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
EN ISO 21912
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.10
English Version
Solid recovered fuels - Safe handling and storage of solid
recovered fuels (ISO 21912:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Sécurité de la Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Sicherer Umgang und

mise en oeuvre et dus stockage de combustibles solides Lagerung von festen Sekundärbrennstoffen (ISO

de récupération (ISO 21912:2021) 21912:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 February 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21912:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
EN ISO 21912:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
EN ISO 21912:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 21912:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 "Solid

recovered materials, including solid recovered fuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee

CEN/TC 343 “Solid Recovered Fuels” the secretariat of which is held by SFS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21912:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21912:2021 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21912
First edition
2021-02
Solid recovered fuels — Safe handling
and storage of solid recovered fuels
Combustibles solides de récupération — Sécurité de la mise en oeuvre
et dus stockage de combustibles solides de récupération
Reference number
ISO 21912:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
ISO 21912:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
ISO 21912:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Parts of the SRF process .................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Risk management ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

3.3 Operation and safety .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Introduction to the use of this document ................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Risk management ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Introduction to the risk management process ............................................................................................................ 9

5.2.1 Definition of scope ...................................................................... .................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Hazard identification.................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.3 Risk estimation .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2.4 Risk evaluation ...............................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.5 Risk reduction/control ............................................................................................................................................10

6 SRF processes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 SRF production process ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Typical SRF receiving, storing and feeding at power plant or cement kiln .....................................12

6.3 SRF production facilities including densifying .........................................................................................................13

7 Safety considerations and requirements for SRF plant ............................................................................................14

7.1 Safety hazards .......................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 General requirements and recommendations for safe production and handling ......................16

7.3 General requirement for operation and maintenance .......................................................................................17

7.4 Documentation of operation procedures ......................................................................................................................17

7.5 Safety during operation ................................................................................................................................................................18

7.5.1 Operation .............................................................................................................................................................................18

7.5.2 Housekeeping ..................................................................................................................................................................19

7.5.3 Maintenance .....................................................................................................................................................................19

7.5.4 Guidelines for visitors/contractors ..............................................................................................................20

7.6 Pre-planning of emergency operations ..........................................................................................................................20

7.7 Personnel risks.....................................................................................................................................................................................21

8 Safety considerations and requirements for specific parts of the SRF production

and handling process ....................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.1 Receiving and feeding ....................................................................................................................................................................21

8.1.1 General for all receiving and feeding solutions ..................................................................................21

8.1.2 Inputting the raw material into pre-treatment process .............................................................22

8.1.3 Feeders ..................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.1.4 Emergency feeding process .................................................................................................................................24

8.2 Crushing, milling and shredding ...........................................................................................................................................24

8.2.1 General for all crushers, mills and shredders ......................................................................................24

8.2.2 Pre-shredding ..................................................................................................................................................................25

8.2.3 Main shredding ..............................................................................................................................................................26

8.2.4 Fine shredding ................................................................................................................................................................27

8.3 Conveying .................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.3.1 Chain conveyors.............................................................................................................................................................28

8.3.2 Screw conveyors ...................................................................... ......................................................................................30

8.3.3 Belt conveyors .................................................................................................................................................................30

8.3.4 Bucket elevators ............................................................................................................................................................31

8.3.5 Pneumatic conveying ................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
ISO 21912:2021(E)

8.4 Storage solutions ................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.4.1 General for all storage solutions ......................................................................................................................33

8.4.2 Storage of mechanically densified SRF ......................................................................................................35

8.4.3 Open storage in piles .................................................................................................................................................35

8.4.4 Bale storing ........................................................................................................................................................................36

8.4.5 Silo storage .........................................................................................................................................................................37

8.4.6 Bunker and box storage ..........................................................................................................................................38

8.4.7 Hoppers ................................................................................................................................................................................39

8.5 Separation and screening ...........................................................................................................................................................40

8.5.1 Screening .............................................................................................................................................................................40

8.5.2 Ferrous metal separation ......................................................................................................................................41

8.5.3 Non-ferrous metal separation ...........................................................................................................................42

8.5.4 Density separation ......................................................................................................................................................42

8.5.5 Optical identification and sorting...................................................................................................................43

8.6 Other systems .......................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.6.1 Thermal drying...............................................................................................................................................................44

8.6.2 Dust collecting system .............................................................................................................................................44

8.6.3 Moulding and cooling ...............................................................................................................................................46

9 Fire protection .....................................................................................................................................................................................................47

9.1 General requirements and recommendations for fire protection ...........................................................47

9.2 Detection ...................................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.3 During a fire ............................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.4 Working environment and safety during a fire ........................................................................................................49

9.5 After a fire ......... ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................50

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
ISO 21912:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered fuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
ISO 21912:2021(E)
Introduction

Modern society is based on production and consumption of an enormous variety of products, both for

industrial and private use. After its intended use, the product will be disposed as waste by the user

and will then enter the chain of waste management which includes a variety of handling, storage and

processing/recycling methods.

With production, handling, transportation and storage of SRF (Solid Recovered Fuels) there is always

a significant risk of fire and dust explosion. A fire or an explosion provides risks both for human health

and the environment and cause large economical losses. It is therefore important that operators

throughout the supply chain ensure that there is a developed strategy to prevent fires and to prevent

dust explosions, and if a fire should occur, a readiness to handle the fire effectively to reduce the

consequences.

Fires will, in addition to economic losses and effects on health and the environment, also have a negative

impact on the confidence in the SRF industry and difficulty to obtain insurance coverage might also

increase.

In facilities where dry combustible materials are handled such as in SRF facilities, there are several

risks present for fires and dust explosions. A typical cause for an ignition of the material is friction

heat or impact ignition sources generated within the processing chain. Such ignition sources can be

generated due to mechanical wear or break-down, metal pieces and stones, material overfeeding, etc.

Most mechanical machines contain moving parts that potentially could generate friction heat high

enough to ignite the material. Examples are shredders, conveyors, screening/separation machinery and

fans. Other sources causing ignitions are for example hot surfaces, electrical discharges, hot works and

self-ignition inside storages.

An ignition source can ignite the material being processed or dust accumulations inside and around the

machinery. It is important to take necessary measures for reducing the risk for ignitions. Accumulations

of combustible dust are intended to be avoided. However, dust can quickly accumulate to a stage where

it can become a significant fire load.

This document provides support, advice and guidance to facility owners, logistics providers, equipment

suppliers/manufacturers, consultants, authorities and insurance providers to assess and mitigate

different risks when producing, handling and storing SRF.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21912:2021(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Safe handling and storage of solid
recovered fuels
1 Scope

This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling, treatment and storage of solid

recovered fuels (SRF), prepared from non-hazardous waste, to be used for energy purposes. This

document covers process stages from point of acceptance of material to point of delivery of SRF.

This document excludes fuels that are included in the scope of ISO/TC 238 Solid biofuels and ISO/TC 28

Petroleum products and related products of synthetic or biological origin.

It uses a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures are to be considered.

Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included, the safety issues following

the loading and transport itself are not.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12100, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 21637:2020, Solid recovered fuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21637:2020 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Parts of the SRF process
3.1.1
baling

process of producing a compressed material bundle or package secured by wires, hoops, cords or similar

3.1.2
belt conveyor
conveyor with an endless belt acting as a carrying and traction element

Note 1 to entry: There are several belt conveyor types, such as; troughed belt conveyor, deep troughed belt

conveyor, pipe belt conveyor, walled belt conveyor, flat belt conveyor and radial conveyor.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
ISO 21912:2021(E)
3.1.3
belt feeder

shortened form of belt conveyor (3.1.2), normally running at slow speed, designed to extract or control

the rate of flow of bulk materials from hoppers
[SOURCE: EN 620:2002+A1: 2010, 3.2.4]
3.1.4
box
storage with two or three walls
3.1.5
bucket elevator

elevator for loose bulk materials with buckets as the carrying medium attached to a belt or chains as

the driving medium

Note 1 to entry: The bucket elevator consists of a strap forming belt, stretched vertically between a driving head

pulley and a pulley of foot. Buckets are attached to the strap and the whole is enclosed in a metal frame.

Note 2 to entry: The foot of the elevator is equipped with a chute in which the buckets are filled by shovelling and

a head shape suitable for evacuating grain by projection centrifugal.
[SOURCE: EN 618:2002+A1: 2010, 3.1.3 – modified: notes to entry were added]
3.1.6
bunker
storage which is closed on four sides and reachable from the top
3.1.7
chain conveyor

conveyor for loose bulk materials with a chain as the driving medium having attached flights or scraper

flights moving the material "en masse" in an enclosing trough
3.1.8
chain reclaimer

machine for loose bulk materials with a chain as driving medium having attached flights or scraper

flights moving the material in an open drop-in pit or drive over pit
3.1.9
conveyor system
number of linked conveyors with their ancillary equipment and control system
[SOURCE: EN 620:2002+A1: 2010, 3.1 – modified: "control system" was added]
3.1.10
crushing

mechanical reduction of particle size (3.3.4) by exerting mainly blunt deforming forces to a material

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.15]
3.1.11
density separation

separation of mixed materials by using density differences of the different fractions for classification

Note 1 to entry: With respect to SRF-production, most common application of density separation is wind

shifting applying airflow as conveying/transport medium. A process of separation by different densities of

particles and fluids.
3.1.12
dust collection system
system that collects free dust from the air in process systems
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21912:2021
ISO 21912:2021(E)
3.1.13
electromagnetic separation of non-ferrous metals
separation of non-ferrous metals by inducing temporary magnetic forces
Note 1 to entry: This term is also known as eddy current separators.
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.26]
3.1.14
enclosed conveyor

conveyor which is enclosed to avoid contamination between the interior and the exterior environment

3.1.15
enclosed storage

storage that is enclosed to avoid contamination between the interior and the exterior environment

3.1.16
feeder
mechanical device for delivering
...

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