Hydroelectric power plant automation - Guide for computer-based control

Provides guidelines for the application, design concepts, and implementation of computer-based control systems for hydroelectric plant automation. This standard addresses functional capabilities, performance requirements, interface requirements, hardware considerations, and operator training. Recommendations for system testing and acceptance are also included.

Automatisierung von Wasserkraftwerken - Leitfaden zur computergestützten Steuerung

Automatisation de centrale hydroélectrique - Guide pour la commande à base de calculateur

En anglais seulement.

Avtomatizacija hidroelektrarn – Vodilo za računalniški krmilni sistem (IEC 62270:2004)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Aug-2005
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Sep-2005
Due Date
01-Sep-2005
Completion Date
01-Sep-2005

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SLOVENSKI SIST EN 62270:2005
STANDARD
september 2005
Avtomatizacija hidroelektrarn – Vodilo za računalniški krmilni sistem (IEC
62270:2004)
Hydroelectric power plant automation – Guide for computer-based control (IEC
62270:2004)
ICS 27.140 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 62270:2005(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62270
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM July 2004
ICS 27.140
English version
Hydroelectric power plant automation -
Guide for computer-based control
(IEC 62270:2004)
Automatisation Automatisierung von Wasserkraftwerken -
de centrale hydroélectrique - Leitfaden zur computergestützten
Guide pour la commande Steuerung
à base de calculateur (IEC 62270:2004)
(CEI 62270:2004)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2004-07-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in two official versions (English, German). A version in any other language

made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the

Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2004 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62270:2004 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 62270:2004 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 4/188/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62270, prepared by IEC TC 4, Hydraulic

turbines, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as

EN 62270 on 2004-07-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
(dop) 2005-04-01
national standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
(dow) 2007-07-01
with the EN have to be withdrawn
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62270:2004 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 62270:2004
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE Where an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 61158 Series Digital data communications for EN 61158 Series
measurement and control - Fieldbus for
use in industrial control systems
ANSI C63.4 2001 Methods of Measurement of Radio-Noise - -
Emissions from Low-Voltage Electrical
and Electronic Equipment in the Range of
9 kHz - 40 GHz
IEEE Std 100 1996 The IEEE Standard Dictionary of - -
Electrical and Electronics Terms
IEEE Std 485 1997 IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing - -
Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary
Applications (ANSI)
IEEE Std 610 1990 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software - -
Engineering Terminology (ANSI)
IEEE Std 1010 1987 IEEE Guide for Control of Hydroelectric - -
Power Plants (ANSI)
IEEE Std 1014 1987 IEEE Standard for a Versatile Backplane - -
Bus: VMEbus
IEEE Std 1020 1988 IEEE Guide for Control of Small - -
Hydroelectric Power Plants (ANSI)
IEEE Std 1046 1991 IEEE Application Guide for Distributed - -
Digital Control and Monitoring for Power
Plants (ANSI)
IEEE Std 1147 1991 IEEE Guide for the Rehabilitation of - -
Hydroelectric Power Plants (ANSI)
IEEE Std C37.1 1994 IEEE Standard Definition, Specification, - -
and Analysis of Systems Used for
Supervisory Control, Data Acquisition,
and Automatic Control (ANSI)
IEEE Std 2002 IEEE Standard Surge Withstand - -
C37.90.1 Capability (SWC) Tests for Protective
Relays and Relay Systems (ANSI)
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 62270:2004 - 4 -
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEEE Std 1995 IEEE Trial Use Standard for Withstand - -
C37.90.2 Capability of Relay Systems to Radiated
Electromagnetic Interference from
Transceivers (ANSI)
IEEE Std 1379 2000 IEEE Recommended Practice for Data - -
Communications Between Remote
Terminal Units and Intelligent Electronic
Devices in a Substation (ANSI)
ISO/IEC 8802-3 2001 Information technology - - -
Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems - Local and
metropolitan area networks - Specific
requirements
Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with
collision detection (CSMA/CD) access
method and physical layer specifications
ISO/IEC 8802-4 1990 Part 4: Token-passing bus access - -
method and physical layer specifications
ISO/IEC 8802-5 1998 Part 5: Token ring access method and - -
physical layer specifications
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL IEC
STANDARD 62270
First edition
2004-04
Hydroelectric power plant automation –
Guide for computer-based control
 IEC 2004  Copyright - all rights reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or

mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

PRICE CODE
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale XB
International Electrotechnical Commission
МеждународнаяЭлектротехническаяКомиссия
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
– 2 – 62270  IEC:2004(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................6

1 Overview..........................................................................................................................7

1.1 Scope......................................................................................................................7

1.2 Purpose...................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references........................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................8

4 Functional capabilities.....................................................................................................13

4.1 General.................................................................................................................13

4.2 Control capabilities................................................................................................13

4.3 Data acquisition capabilities...................................................................................22

4.4 Alarm processing and diagnostics ..........................................................................23

4.5 Report generation..................................................................................................24

4.6 Maintenance management interface.......................................................................24

4.7 Data archival and retrieval .....................................................................................24

4.8 Operation scheduling and forecasting ....................................................................24

4.9 Data access...........................................................................................................25

4.10 Operator simulation training ...................................................................................25

4.11 Typical control parameters.....................................................................................25

5 System architecture, communications, and databases .....................................................26

5.1 General.................................................................................................................26

5.2 System classification.............................................................................................27

5.3 System architecture characteristics........................................................................28

5.4 Control data networks ............................................................................................33

5.5 Data bases and software configuration...................................................................37

6 User and plant interfaces ................................................................................................39

6.1 User interfaces......................................................................................................39

6.2 Plant interfaces......................................................................................................40

7 System performance.......................................................................................................43

7.1 General.................................................................................................................43

7.2 Hardware...............................................................................................................44

7.3 Communications....................................................................................................45

7.4 Measuring performance.........................................................................................46

8 System backup capabilities .............................................................................................47

8.1 General.................................................................................................................47

8.2 Design principles...................................................................................................48

8.3 Basic functions......................................................................................................48

8.4 Design of equipment for backup control .................................................................48

8.5 Alarm handling.......................................................................................................49

8.6 Protective function.................................................................................................50

9 Site integration and support systems...............................................................................50

9.1 Interface to existing equipment ..............................................................................50

9.2 Environmental conditions.......................................................................................50

9.3 Power source.........................................................................................................51

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62270  IEC:2004(E) – 3 –

9.4 Supervision of existing contact status points ..........................................................51

9.5 Supervision of existing transducers ........................................................................52

9.6 Supervision of existing control output points...........................................................52

9.7 Grounding..............................................................................................................52

9.8 Static control.........................................................................................................52

10 Recommended test and acceptance criteria ....................................................................53

10.1 Specific test requirements......................................................................................53

10.2 Quality assurance..................................................................................................54

10.3 Acceptance............................................................................................................54

11 System management......................................................................................................54

11.1 Maintenance..........................................................................................................54

11.2 Training.................................................................................................................54

11.3 Documentation......................................................................................................55

12 Case studies...................................................................................................................57

12.1 Automation of the Conowingo Hydroelectric Station................................................57

12.2 Computer-based control system at Waddell Pump-Generating Plant.......................59

12.3 Retrofit of TrŠngslet Hydro Power Station ..............................................................63

12.4 Computer-based control system at Wynoochee Hydroelectric Project .....................68

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................72

Figure 1 – Relationship of local, centralized, and offsite control .............................................15

Figure 2 – Local control configuration ....................................................................................15

Figure 3 – Computer communication network ........................................................................28

Figure 4 – Multi-point data link versus LANs ..........................................................................33

Figure 5 – Star topology ........................................................................................................35

Figure 6 – Ring topology........................................................................................................35

Figure 7 – Bus topology.........................................................................................................36

Figure 8 – Conowingo control system overview......................................................................58

Figure 9 – System configuration ............................................................................................61

Figure 10 – Control system configuration...............................................................................64

Figure 11 – Station control configuration after upgrading .......................................................67

Figure 12 – System configuration ..........................................................................................69

Figure 13 – Local and remote interface..................................................................................70

Table 1 – Summary of control hierarchy for hydroelectric power plants...................................14

Table 2 – Typical parameters necessary to implement automated control...............................25

Table 3 – Classifications of hydroelectric power plant computer control systems ....................27

Table 4 – Hydroplant computer control systems data communications attributes ....................36

Table 5 – Cable media characteristics ...................................................................................37

Table 6 – System performance ..............................................................................................66

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– 4 – 62270  IEC:2004(E)
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT AUTOMATION –
GUIDE FOR COMPUTER-BASED CONTROL
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62270 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 4: Hydraulic

turbines.

The text of this standard is based on the IEEE Standard 1249 (1996) IEEE guide for computer-

based control for hydroelectric power plant automation. It was submitted to the national

committees for voting under the Fast Track procedure as the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
4/188/FDIS 4/190/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
62270  IEC:2004(E) – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

2005. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
– 6 – 62270  IEC:2004(E)
INTRODUCTION

Automation of hydroelectric generating plants has been a known technology for many years.

Due to the relative simplicity of the control logic for hydroelectric power plants, the application

of computer-based control has lagged, compared to other types of generating stations, such as

fossil. Now that computer-based control can be implemented for comparable costs as relay-

based logic and can incorporate additional features, it is being applied in hydroelectric power

stations worldwide, both in new installations and in the rehabilitation of older plants.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
62270  IEC:2004(E) – 7 –
HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT AUTOMATION –
GUIDE FOR COMPUTER-BASED CONTROL
1 Overview
1.1 Scope

This standard sets down guidelines for the application, design concepts, and implementation of

computer-based control systems for hydroelectric plant automation. It addresses functional

capabilities, performance requirements, interface requirements, hardware considerations, and

operator training. It includes recommendations for system testing and acceptance. Finally, case

studies of actual computer-based automatic control applications are presented.

The automation of control and data logging functions has relieved the plant operator of these

tasks, allowing the operator more time to concentrate on other duties. In many cases, the

plant’s operating costs can be significantly reduced by automation (primarily via staff reduction)

while still maintaining a high level of unit control reliability.

Automatic control systems for hydroelectric units based on electromechanical relay logic have

been in general use for a number of years and, in fact, were considered standard practice for

the industry. Within the last decade, microprocessor-based controllers have become available

that are suitable for operation in a power plant environment. These computer-based systems

have been applied for data logging, alarm monitoring, and unit and plant control. Advantages of

computer-based control include use of graphical user interfaces, the incorporation of sequence

of events and trending into the control system, the incorporation of artificial intelligence and

expert system capabilities, and reduced plant life cycle cost.
1.2 Purpose

This standard is directed to the practicing engineer who has some familiarity with computer-

based control systems and who is designing or implementing hydroelectric unit or plant control

systems, either in a new project or as a retrofit to an existing one. This standard assumes that

the control system logic has already been defined; therefore, its development is not covered.

For information on control sequence logic, the reader is directed to the IEEE guides for control

of hydroelectric power plants listed in Clause 2 of this standard.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 61158, Digital data communications for measurement and control - Fieldbus for use in

industrial control systems

ANSI C63.4-2001, Methods of Measurement of Radio-Noise Emissions from Low-Voltage

Electrical and Electronic Equipment in the Range of 9 kHz–40 GHz

IEEE Std 100-1996, The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms

___________

ANSI publications are available from the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West

42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA.

IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, P.O.

Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
– 8 – 62270  IEC:2004(E)

IEEE Std 485-1997, IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary

Applications (ANSI)

IEEE Std 610-1990, IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology (ANSI).

IEEE Std 1010-1987 (Reaffirmed 1992), IEEE Guide for Control of Hydroelectric Power Plants

(ANSI)
IEEE Std 1014-1987 IEEE Standard for A Versatile Backplane Bus: VMEbus

IEEE Std 1020-1988 (Reaffirmed 1994), IEEE Guide for Control of Small Hydroelectric Power

Plants. (ANSI)

IEEE Std 1046-1991 (Reaffirmed 1996), IEEE Guide for Distributed Digital Control and

Monitoring for Power Plants (ANSI)

IEEE Std 1147-1991 (Reaffirmed 1996), IEEE Guide for the Rehabilitation of Hydroelectric

Power Plants (ANSI)

IEEE Std C37.1-1994, IEEE Standard Definition, Specification, and Analysis of Systems Used

for Supervisory Control, Data Acquisition, and Automation Control (ANSI)

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2002, IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for

Protective Relays and Relay Systems (ANSI)

IEEE Std C37.90.2-1995, IEEE Trial Use Standard Withstand Capability of Relay Systems to

Radiated Electromagnetic Interference from Transceivers (ANSI)

IEEE 1379: 2000, IEEE Recommended Practice for Data Communications Between Remote

Terminal Units and Intelligent Electronic Devices in a Substation (ANSI)

ISO/IEC 8802-3:2001, Information technology – Telecommunications and information exchange

between systems – Local and metropolitan area networks – Specific requirements – Part 3:

Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical

layer specifications (ANSI/IEEE Std 802.3, 1996 Edition)

ISO/IEC 8802-4:1990 (Reaffirmed 1995), Information processing systems – Local area

networks – Part 4: Token-passing bus access method and physical layer specifications

(ANSI/IEEE 802.4-1990 Edition)

ISO/IEC 8802-5:1998, Information technology –Telecommunications and information exchange

between systems – Local and metropolitan area networks – Specific requirements – Part 5:

Token ring access method and physical layer specifications (ANSI/IEEE Std 802.5, 1995

Edition)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document the definitions provided here reflect common industry usage

as related to automation of hydroelectric power plants, and may not in all instances be in

accordance with IEEE Std 100-1996, or IEEE Std 610-1990, or other applicable standards. For

more rigorous definitions, or for definitions not covered herein, the reader is referred to the

appropriate IEEE standards.
___________

ISO publications are available from the ISO Central Secretariat, Case Postale 56, 1 rue de Varembé, CH-1211,

Genève 20, Switzerland/Suisse. ISO publications are also available in the United States from the Sales

Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036,

USA.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
62270  IEC:2004(E) – 9 –
3.1
analog-to-digital (a/d) conversion

production of a digital output corresponding to the value of an analog input quantity

3.2
automatic control

arrangement of electrical controls that provides for switching or controlling, or both, of

equipment in a specific sequence and under predetermined conditions without operator

intervention
3.3
automatic generation control (AGC)

capability to regulate the power output of selectable units in response to total power plant

output, tie-line power flow, and power system frequency
3.4
automatic voltage control (AVC)

capability to regulate a specific power system voltage, via adjustment of unit excitation within

the limits of unit terminal voltage and VAR capability
3.5
automation hierarchy

design and implementation of automation functions in a multilevel structure, such as local level,

group level, unit level, etc.
3.6
availability

ratio of uptime (system functional) to uptime plus downtime (system not functional)

3.7
backplane

circuit board with connectors or sockets that provides a standardized method of transferring

signals between plug-in circuit cards
3.8
bridge
device that allows two networks of the same or similar technology to communicate
3.9
centralized control

control location one step removed from local control; remote from the equipment or generating

unit, but still within the confines of the plant (e.g. controls located in a plant control room)

3.10
closed loop control
type of automatic control in which control actions are based on signa
...

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