Building valves - Hydraulic safety groups - Tests and requirements

EN 1487 specifies dimensions, materials and performance requirements (including methods of test) for hydraulic safety groups, of nominal sizes from DN 15 to DN 25, having working pressures1) from 0,1 MPa (1 bar) to 0,7 MPa (7 bar). Hydraulic safety groups are intended for fitting to the potable water supply of storage water heaters, having a maximum storage temperature of 95°C. Hydraulic safety groups limit the pressure in hot water heaters, prevent the backflow of water into the main circuit and prevent the discharged water to get into contact with the water in the water heater. Hydraulic safety groups do not control the temperature. They ensure the hydraulic safety of water heaters if the mechanical resistance of the water heater remains at least equal to the rating pressure. NOTE The use of the device specified in this European Standard does not override the need to use controls (e.g. thermostats and cut-outs) which act directly on the power sources of water heaters.

Gebäudearmaturen - Hydraulische Sicherheitsgruppen - Prüfungen und Anforderungen

Diese Europäische Norm legt Maße, Werkstoffe und Leistungsanforderungen (einschließlich Prüfverfahren) für hydraulische Sicherheitsgruppen in den Nennweiten DN 15 bis DN 25 mit Arbeitsdrücken ) von 0,1 MPa (1 bar) bis 0,7 MPa (7 bar) fest. Hydraulische Sicherheitsgruppen sind für die Ausrüstung der Trinkwasser¬versorgung von Speicherwassererwärmern mit einer maximalen Speichertemperatur von 95 °C bestimmt.
Hydraulische Sicherheitsgruppen begrenzen den Druck im Wassererwärmer und verhindern sowohl, dass Wasser in das Netz zurückfließt, als auch, dass das abgelassene Wasser mit dem Wasser im Wassererwär¬mer in Kontakt kommt.
Hydraulische Sicherheitsgruppen regeln nicht die Temperatur. Sie stellen die hydraulische Sicherheit von Wassererwärmern sicher, soweit die Festigkeit des Behälters mindestens dem Druck bei Nennleistung entspricht.
ANMERKUNG   Die in dieser Norm festgelegte Armatur ist nur in Verbindung mit energieseitig arbeitenden Sicherheits¬elementen (z. B. Temperaturregler und Temperaturbegrenzer) für die gesamte Sicherheit des Wassererwärmers verant¬wortlich.

Robinetterie de bâtiment - Groupes de sécurité hydraulique - Essais et exigences

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les dimensions, les matériaux et les exigences de performance (y compris les méthodes d’essai) auxquels doivent satisfaire les groupes de sécurité hydraulique de diamètre nominal allant de DN 15 à DN 25, dont les pressions de service ) sont comprises entre 0,1 MPa (1 bar) et 0,7 MPa (7 bar). Les groupes de sécurité hydraulique sont destinés à être montés au niveau de l’alimentation en eau potable des chauffe-eau à accumulation, dont la température de stockage ne dépasse pas 95 °C.
Les groupes de sécurité hydraulique limitent la pression du fluide contenu dans les chauffe-eau, empêchant le retour d’eau dans le circuit principal et tout contact entre l’eau du réseau d’évacuation et l’eau du chauffe-eau.
Les groupes de sécurité hydraulique ne contrôlent pas la température. Ils assurent la sécurité hydraulique des chauffe-eau, sous réserve que la résistance mécanique de la cuve du chauffe-eau soit au moins égale à la pression de débit nominal.
NOTE   L’utilisation du dispositif spécifié dans la présente Norme européenne ne doit pas prévaloir sur la nécessité d’utiliser des commandes qui agissent directement sur les sources d’énergie des chauffe-eau (tels que les thermostats et dispositifs de coupure).

Ventili v stavbah - Varnostni bloki - Preskusi in zahteve

Standard EN 1487 določa mere, materiale in tehnične zahteve (vključno s preskusnimi metodami) za varnostne bloke nazivnih velikosti od DN 15 do DN 25 z delovnimi tlaki od 0,1 MPa (1 bar) do 0,7 MPa (7 barov). Varnostni bloki so namenjeni priključitvi na akumulacijske grelnike vode za oskrbo s pitno vodo, ki imajo najvišjo temperaturo vode 95 °C. Varnostni bloki omejijo tlak v grelnikih vode, s čimer preprečujejo povratni tok vode v glavni vodovod, obenem pa iztečeni vodi preprečujejo stik z vodo v grelniku vode. Varnostni bloki ne nadzorujejo temperature, temveč zagotavljajo hidravlično varnost grelnikov vode, če mehanska odpornost grelnika vode ostane najmanj enaka nazivnemu tlaku. OPOMBA Uporaba naprave, navedene v tem evropskem standardu, ne izključuje zahteve za uporabo krmilnikov (npr. termostatov in izklopnih stikal), ki delujejo neposredno na vire napajanja grelnikov vode.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Sep-2014
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Aug-2014
Due Date
11-Oct-2014
Completion Date
03-Sep-2014

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Ventili v stavbah - Varnostni bloki - Preskusi in zahteveGebäudearmaturen - Hydraulische Sicherheitsgruppen - Prüfungen und AnforderungenRobinetterie de bâtiment - Groupes de sécurité hydraulique - Essais et exigencesBuilding valves - Hydraulic safety groups - Tests and requirements91.140.60Sistemi za oskrbo z vodoWater supply systems23.060.01Ventili na splošnoValves in generalICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1487:2014SIST EN 1487:2014en,fr,de01-oktober-2014SIST EN 1487:2014SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1487:20001DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1487:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1487
July 2014 ICS 91.140.60 Supersedes EN 1487:2000English Version
Building valves - Hydraulic safety groups - Tests and requirements
Robinetterie de bâtiment - Groupes de sécurité hydraulique - Essais et exigences

Gebäudearmaturen - Hydraulische Sicherheitsgruppen - Prüfungen und Anforderungen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 22 May 2014.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 1487:2014 ESIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E)

2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................6 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................7 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................7 3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................8 4 Materials and surface finishes .......................................................................................................... 11 4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 11 4.2 Materials .............................................................................................................................................. 11 4.3 Detection of residual stress ............................................................................................................... 11 4.3.1 Test ....................................................................................................................................................... 11 4.3.2 Test method (Procedure) ................................................................................................................... 11 4.3.3 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 12 4.4 Outside visible surfaces .................................................................................................................... 12 4.4.1 Surfaces without coatings ................................................................................................................. 12 4.4.2 Surfaces with coatings ....................................................................................................................... 13 4.5 Corrosion resistance .......................................................................................................................... 13 4.5.1 Test method ......................................................................................................................................... 13 4.5.2 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 13 4.6 Coating adherence.............................................................................................................................. 13 4.6.1 Test method ......................................................................................................................................... 13 4.6.2 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 14 4.7 Compatibility with the products used for disinfection of the networks ........................................ 14 4.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 14 4.7.2 Test method ......................................................................................................................................... 14 4.7.3 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 14 5 Design and dimensional requirements ............................................................................................ 14 5.1 General guidance ................................................................................................................................ 14 5.2 Dimensional characteristics .............................................................................................................. 15 5.2.1 End connections ................................................................................................................................. 15 5.3 Test port ............................................................................................................................................... 17 5.4 Pressure tapping................................................................................................................................. 17 5.5 Hydraulic safety valve outlet connection to air break to drain ...................................................... 18 5.6 Hydraulic safety valve discharge connection to drain device ....................................................... 18 5.7 Exclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 18 5.8 Replacing of the safety valve ............................................................................................................ 18 5.9 Check valve ......................................................................................................................................... 18 6 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................ 18 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 18 6.2 Tolerances of parameters and accuracy of measure instruments ................................................ 18 6.2.1 Tolerances on set parameters ........................................................................................................... 18 6.2.2 Accuracy of measuring instruments ................................................................................................ 19 6.2.3 Test media ........................................................................................................................................... 19 7 Hydraulic tests and requirements ..................................................................................................... 19 7.1 Flow rate test ....................................................................................................................................... 19 7.1.1 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 19 7.1.2 Requirement ........................................................................................................................................ 19 7.2 Tightness test ...................................................................................................................................... 19 SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E) 3 7.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 19 7.2.2 Tightness test for the isolating valve at a pressure of 1,6 MPa (16 bar) ....................................... 19 7.2.3 Hydraulic safety group tightness test ............................................................................................... 20 8 Mechanical tests and requirements .................................................................................................. 20 8.1 Mechanical strength ............................................................................................................................ 20 8.1.1 Pressure test of the body of the hydraulic safety group ................................................................. 20 8.1.2 Bending test of the body and pull out test of the drainage of the hydraulic safety group .......... 20 8.1.3 Torsional strength of the hydraulic safety group’s body ................................................................ 22 8.1.4 Tensile strength of the captive rotating nuts ................................................................................... 23 8.2 Mechanical strength of the easing gear of the pressure safety valve ........................................... 23 8.2.1 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 23 8.2.2 Requirement ......................................................................................................................................... 23 9 Tests and requirements of the components of the hydraulic safety group .................................. 24 9.1 Isolating valve ...................................................................................................................................... 24 9.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 24 9.1.2 Test of manual operation .................................................................................................................... 24 9.1.3 Endurance test ..................................................................................................................................... 24 9.1.4 Test for manual operation .................................................................................................................. 24 9.2 Check valve .......................................................................................................................................... 25 9.2.1 Verification of the leaktightness between the group’s body and the check valve at low pressure................................................................................................................................................ 25 9.2.2 Verification of the leaktightness between the group’s body and the check valve under high pressure ....................................................................................................................................... 25 9.3 Pressure safety valve .......................................................................................................................... 25 9.3.1 Pressures ............................................................................................................................................. 25 9.3.2 Cold water pressure tests................................................................................................................... 26 9.3.3 Steam test............................................................................................................................................. 27 9.4 Endurance test ..................................................................................................................................... 28 9.4.1 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 28 9.4.2 Requirement ......................................................................................................................................... 28 9.5 Easing gear (manual control device) ................................................................................................. 29 9.5.1 Operation of the easing gear .............................................................................................................. 29 9.5.2 Easing gear endurance test................................................................................................................ 29 9.6 Manual drainage device ...................................................................................................................... 29 9.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 29 9.6.2 Flow rate test ....................................................................................................................................... 29 9.7 Air break to drain ................................................................................................................................. 29 10 Resistance to thermal shocks ............................................................................................................ 30 10.1 Test method ......................................................................................................................................... 30 10.2 Requirement ......................................................................................................................................... 30 11 Acoustic tests and requirements ....................................................................................................... 30 12 Classification ....................................................................................................................................... 31 13 Designation .......................................................................................................................................... 31 14 Marking ................................................................................................................................................. 32 15 Technical documents and presentation at delivery ......................................................................... 32 Annex A (informative)

Test sequences ........................................................................................................... 34

SIST EN 1487:2014
EN 1487:2014 (E)

4 Foreword This document (EN 1487:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 164 “Water Supply”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2015, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2015. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 1487:2000. The main changes compared to EN 1487:2000 are as follows: a) the Scope has been modified to nominal sizes DN 15 to DN 25; b) Normative references were updated; c) Terms and definitions were changed; d) subclause 4.1 (general wording for materials) was modified; e) subclauses 4.3 (Detection of residual stress), 4.4 (Outside visible surfaces), 4.5 (Corrosion resistance), 4.6 (Coating adherence) and 4.7 (Compatibility with the products used for disinfection of the networks) were added; f) subclauses 5.2 (Dimensional characteristics), 5.3 (Test port) and 5.4 (Pressure tapping) were modified; g) subclause 5.7 (Other threads) was deleted; h) subclauses 5.8 (Replacing of the safety valve) and 5.9 (Check valve) were added; i) Clause 6 (Apparatus) was added, thus renumbering of the following clauses was necessary; j) Clause 7 (Hydraulic tests and requirements) was modified; k) Clause 8 (Acoustic tests and requirements) was moved to Clause 11 and modified editorially; l) Clause 9 (Tests and requirements of the components of the hydraulic safety group) was modified; m) Clause 10 (Resistance to thermal shocks) was added; n) Clause 12 (Classification) was modified; o) Clause 13 (Designation) was modified editorially; p) Clause 15 (Technical documents, presentation at delivery) was added; q) informative Annex A was replaced by informative Annex A (Test sequences). SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E) 5 According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E)

6 Introduction In respect of potential adverse effect on the quality of water intended for human consumption, caused by the product covered by this standard: a) This standard provides no information as to whether the product may be used without restriction in any of the Member States of the EU or EFTA. b) It should be noted that, whilst awaiting the adoption of verifiable European criteria, existing national regulations concerning the use and or the characteristics of this product remain in force. SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E) 7 1 Scope This European Standard specifies dimensions, materials and performance requirements (including methods of test) for hydraulic safety groups, of nominal sizes from DN 15 to DN 25, having working pressures1) from 0,1 MPa (1 bar) to 0,7 MPa (7 bar). Hydraulic safety groups are intended for fitting to the potable water supply of storage water heaters, having a maximum storage temperature of 95°C. Hydraulic safety groups limit the pressure in hot water heaters, prevent the backflow of water into the main circuit and prevent the discharged water to get into contact with the water in the water heater. Hydraulic safety groups do not control the temperature. They ensure the hydraulic safety of water heaters if the mechanical resistance of the water heater remains at least equal to the rating pressure. NOTE The use of the device specified in this European Standard does not override the need to use controls (e.g. thermostats and cut-outs) which act directly on the power sources of water heaters. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 248:2002, Sanitary tapware - General specification for electrodeposited coatings of Ni-Cr EN 806-1, Specifications for installations inside buildings conveying water for human consumption - Part 1: General EN 806-2, Specification for installations inside buildings conveying water for human consumption - Part 2: Design EN 806-3, Specifications for installations inside buildings conveying water for human consumption - Part 3: Pipe sizing - Simplified method EN 806-4, Specifications for installations inside buildings conveying water for human consumption - Part 4: Installation EN 806-5, Specifications for installations inside buildings conveying water for human consumption - Part 5: Operation and maintenance EN 1488, Building valves - Expansion groups - Tests and requirements EN 1567, Building valves - Water pressure reducing valves and combination water pressure reducing valves - Requirements and tests EN 1717:2000, Protection against pollution of potable water in water installations and general requirements of devices to prevent pollution by backflow EN 10226-1, Pipe threads where pressure tight joints are made on the threads - Part 1: Taper external threads and parallel internal threads - Dimensions, tolerances and designation EN 13959, Anti-pollution check valves - DN 6 to DN 250 inclusive family E, type A, B, C and D

1) All pressures are gauge unless otherwise stated. SIST EN 1487:2014
EN 1487:2014 (E)

8 EN ISO 228-1, Pipe threads where pressure-tight joints are not made on the threads - Part 1: Dimensions, tolerances and designation (ISO 228-1) EN ISO 3822-1, Acoustics - Laboratory tests on noise emission from appliances and equipment used in water supply installations - Part 1: Method of measurement (ISO 3822-1) EN ISO 3822-3, Acoustics - Laboratory tests on noise emission from appliances and equipment used in water supply installations - Part 3: Mounting and operating conditions for in-line valves and appliances (ISO 3822-3) EN ISO 4628-3, Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of degradation of coatings - Designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance - Part 3: Assessment of degree of rusting (ISO 4628-3) EN ISO 6509, Corrosion of metals and alloys - Determination of dezincification resistance of brass (ISO 6509) ISO 6957, Copper alloys — Ammonia test for stress corrosion resistance 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 hydraulic safety group safety device that limits the pressure in hot water heaters, prevents the backflow of water into the main circuit, prevents the discharged water from coming into contact with the water in the water heater, allows the function of the backflow prevention to be controlled and isolates and drains the water heater for maintenance services Note 1 to entry: A hydraulic safety group is comprised of at least the following items in a single unit, in an upstream to downstream order, as shown in Table 1. Table 1 — Components of hydraulic safety groups

DN 15 DN 20 DN 25 isolating valve 1 1 1 test port for monitoring the check valve 1 1 1 check valve 1 1 1 isolating valve 1a 1a 1a additional outlet connection 1a 1a 1a pressure safety valve 1 1 1 drain device or drain function 1 1 1 air break to drain 1 1 1 pressure tapping 1a 1a 1a a Optional. 3.2 isolating valve valve that allows the water heater to be isolated from the potable water supply Note 1 to entry: If a second valve is fitted, it is placed between the check valve and safety valve. SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E) 9 3.3 check valve valve that allows water to flow into a water heater, and automatically prevents water returning to the water supply 3.4 additional outlet connection outlet connection that allows cold potable water to be supplied to an additional device Note 1 to entry: For example, inline hot water supply tempering valves etc. 3.5 pressure safety valve valve that limits the pressure of the water in the water heater to a predetermined value by discharging water to the drain and in case of temperature control failure, discharging the energy stored as water or steam 3.6 drain device or drain function device that allows the water heater to be drained without removing the hydraulic safety group and the outlet connection which is also used to discharge water or steam from the pressure safety valve 3.7 air break to drain air break that prevents discharged water from returning to the hydraulic safety group and thus to the water heater 3.8 pressure tapping tapping that allows pressure measuring equipment to be connected 3.9 nominal set pressure (Pnr) pressure of the pressure safety valve which is set on production Note 1 to entry: The "nominal set pressure" (Pnr) is often called "set pressure". 3.10 water tightness pressure (Pe) pressure up to which the pressure safety valve is closed Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1. 3.11 initial opening pressure (Pdc) 3.11.1 Pdc, water pressure at which the pressure safety valve opens for the first time, as indicated by the first droplet of water at the outlet of the safety group, after a period of storage Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1. 3.11.2 Pdc, steam pressure at which the pressure safety valve opens for the first time, as indicated by the first appearance of steam at the outlet of the safety group, after a period of storage Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1. SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E)

10 3.12 opening pressure (Po) 3.12.1 Po, water pressure at which the pressure safety valve opens as indicated by the appearance of water at the discharge connection of the hydraulic safety group Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1. 3.12.2 Po, steam pressure at which the pressure safety valve opens as indicated by the appearance of steam at the discharge connection of the hydraulic safety group 3.13 rating pressure (Pdn) pressure at which the discharged flow is above the limit given in Table 9 and Table 10 Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1. 3.14 closing pressure (Pf) pressure at which the pressure safety valve closes after having reached the rating pressure Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Key P pressure t time Figure 1 — Pressures SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E) 11 4 Materials and surface finishes 4.1 General The selection of materials is the responsibility of the manufacturer, provided they satisfy the following requirements: a) Materials and coatings shall not contaminate the potable water. b) In a technical document, the manufacturer shall state the nature of the materials and coatings used. c) Materials with inadequate corrosion resistance shall have additional protection. d) The materials used shall be suitable for the temperatures specified in the tests in this standard. e) The materials, and in particular copper alloys, for which recommendations or international standards exist, shall comply with the relevant recommendations or international standards. 4.2 Materials All materials in accordance with national regulations of the European Community can be used. Copper-zinc alloys containing more than 10 % zinc are subject to dezincification when submitted to water capable of dezincification. In the countries where the use of products made of dezincification resistant materials is required, the products shall guarantee a dezincification depth less than 200 µm in any direction, they shall be tested in accordance with EN ISO 6509 and shall be marked in compliance with the indications according to Clause 14. 4.3 Detection of residual stress 4.3.1 Test This test is based on ISO 6957. Its purpose is to verify the resistance to cracking of copper alloy pieces under stress corrosion in ammonia medium. The test entails exposing test specimens consisting of the assembled safety group in an atmosphere loaded with ammonia vapour. 4.3.2 Test method (Procedure) The paragraph below details ISO 6957. Test solution: a) Use solutions of analysis quality and of distilled water. b) Solution of ammonia at 20 % (in weight). c) The pH of the test solution is to be adjusted to 9,502,0+−. d) The test temperature is to be (23 ± 2) °C with a measurement uncertainty of ± 1 °C. SIST EN 1487:2014

EN 1487:2014 (E)

12 Test specimen: e) The test specimen consists of three samples of a single assembled product. The test specimen is inserted into the test enclosure under no stress. Instructions: f) Rinse the test specimens with a clean non-chlorinated solvent (for example, ethanol). g) Let them dry in the air. h) Insert the test specimens into the test enclosure along with the ammonia solution. The test enclosure volume is to be (10 ± 1) l. i) The volume of the solution inserted is to be 200 ml for 3 l of total volume of the container. j) Place the test specimens in the container in such a way that they will not touch each other and that they will not be in contact with the solution. k) After an exposure of 24h 20+−, remove the test specimens and rinse them. 4.3.3 Requirements The test is positive if at least two samples are in accordance with the test in 7.2. 4.4 Outside visible surfaces 4.4.1 Surfaces without c

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