Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Nonmetallic materials in contact with media related to oil and gas production - Part 1: Thermoplastics (ISO 23936-1:2009)

ISO 23936 as a whole presents general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification, and gives guidance for the quality assurance, of non-metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production environments, where the failure of such equipment could pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion failures of the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the material requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations. This part of ISO 23936 addresses the resistance of thermoplastics to the deterioration in properties that can be caused by physical or chemical interaction with produced and injected oil and gas-field media, and with production and chemical treatment. Interaction with sunlight is included; however, ionizing radiation is excluded from the scope of this part of ISO 23936. Furthermore, this part of ISO 23936 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment. The equipment considered includes, but is not limited to, non-metallic pipelines, piping, liners, seals, gaskets and washers.

Erdöl-, petrochemische und Erdgasindustrie - Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe mit Medienkontakt bei der Ölund Gasproduktion - Teil 1: Thermoplaste (ISO 23936-1:2009)

Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel - Matériaux non-métalliques en contact avec les fluides relatifs à la production d'huile et de gaz - Partie 1: Matières thermoplastiques (ISO 23936-1:2009)

Globalement, l'ISO 23936 décrit les principes d'ordre général et donne des recommandations concernant la sélection et la qualification de matériaux non métalliques et donne des lignes directrices pour l'assurance de la qualité de ces matériaux non métalliques, destinés à être exposés à des milieux contenant du H2S dans des équipements utilisés en production de pétrole et de gaz et lorsque une rupture d'un tel équipement pourrait présenter un risque pour la santé et la sécurité du public et du personnel ou pour l'environnement. Elle peut aussi aider à réduire les coûts dus à la corrosion sur les équipements eux-mêmes. Elle complète, sans toutefois s'y substituer, les exigences concernant les matériaux dans les codes de construction, normes ou autres réglementations appropriés.
L'ISO 23936-1:2009 traite de la résistance des thermoplastiques à la détérioration des propriétés qui peut être provoquée par une interaction physique ou chimique avec des milieux du champ de pétrole et du champ de gaz produits et injectés ainsi qu'avec les produits de production et de traitement chimique. L'interaction avec la lumière du soleil est incluse. Cependant, les rayonnements ionisants sont exclus du domaine d'application de l'ISO 23936-1:2009.
En outre, l'ISO 23936-1:2009 ne convient pas nécessairement pour être appliquée à des équipements utilisés dans des processus et des équipements de raffinage ou en aval.
Les équipements considérés incluent, mais sans y être limité, les pipelines, les conduites, les chemisages, les joints et les joints d'étanchéité ainsi que les rondelles non métalliques.

Petrokemična industrija ter industrija za predelavo nafte in zemeljskega plina - Nekovinski materiali v stiku z mediji v povezavi s proizvodnjo nafte in plina - 1. del: Plastomeri (ISO 23936-1:2009)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Jun-2007
Publication Date
03-May-2009
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
23-Apr-2009
Due Date
28-Jun-2009
Completion Date
04-May-2009

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
01-junij-2009
3HWURNHPLþQDLQGXVWULMDWHULQGXVWULMD]DSUHGHODYRQDIWHLQ]HPHOMVNHJDSOLQD

1HNRYLQVNLPDWHULDOLYVWLNX]PHGLMLYSRYH]DYLVSURL]YRGQMRQDIWHLQSOLQDGHO

3ODVWRPHUL ,62

Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Nonmetallic materials in contact

with media related to oil and gas production - Part 1: Thermoplastics (ISO 23936-1:2009)

Erdöl-, petrochemische und Erdgasindustrie - Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe mit

Medienkontakt bei der Ölund Gasproduktion - Teil 1: Thermoplaste (ISO 23936-1:2009)

Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel - Matériaux non-métalliques en

contact avec les fluides relatifs à la production d'huile et de gaz - Partie 1: Matières

thermoplastiques (ISO 23936-1:2009)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ICS:
75.180.01 Oprema za industrijo nafte in Equipment for petroleum and
zemeljskega plina na splošno natural gas industries in
general
SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 23936-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2009
ICS 75.180.01
English Version
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Non-
metallic materials in contact with media related to oil and gas
production - Part 1: Thermoplastics (ISO 23936-1:2009)

Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel - Erdöl-, petrochemische und Erdgasindustrie -

Matériaux non-métalliques en contact avec les fluides Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe mit Medienkontakt bei der Öl-

relatifs à la production d'huile et de gaz - Partie 1: Matières und Gasproduktion - Teil 1: Thermoplaste (ISO 23936-

thermoplastiques (ISO 23936-1:2009) 1:2009)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 March 2009.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 23936-1:2009: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
EN ISO 23936-1:2009 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
EN ISO 23936-1:2009 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 23936-1:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67 "Materials,

equipment and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries" in collaboration with Technical

Committee CEN/TC 12 “Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and

natural gas industries”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by October 2009.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 23936-1:2009 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 23936-1:2009 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23936-1
First edition
2009-04-15
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas
industries — Non-metallic materials in
contact with media related to oil and gas
production —
Part 1:
Thermoplastics
Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel — Matériaux
non-métalliques en contact avec les fluides relatifs à la production
d'huile et de gaz —
Partie 1: Matières thermoplastiques
Reference number
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
ISO 2009
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
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© ISO 2009

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ......................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 4

4 Functional requirements...................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Pipelines, piping and liners ................................................................................................................. 5

4.3 Seals, washers and gaskets .............................................................................................................. 10

4.4 Encapsulations, electrical insulations, injection lines ................................................................... 12

5 Requirements for technical information........................................................................................... 12

6 Requirements for manufacturers ...................................................................................................... 13

6.1 General requirements......................................................................................................................... 13

6.2 Raw material manufacturer................................................................................................................ 14

6.3 Component manufacturer.................................................................................................................. 14

6.4 Validity of qualification....................................................................................................................... 14

7 Qualification of thermoplastic materials .......................................................................................... 14

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 14

7.2 Requirements for chemical resistance tests ................................................................................... 14

Annex A (informative) Typical chemical properties of commonly used thermoplastic materials in

media encountered in oil and gas production................................................................................. 16

Annex B (normative) Test media, conditions, equipment, procedures and test report

requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 20

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 25

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 23936-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries.

ISO 23936 consists of the following parts, under the general title Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas

industries — Non-metallic materials in contact with media related to oil and gas production:

⎯ Part 1: Thermoplastics

Elastomers, thermosets, fibre-reinforced composites, and other non-metallic materials are to form the subjects

of future parts 2, 3, 4 and 5.
iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
Introduction

Non-metallic materials are used in the petroleum and natural gas industries for pipelines, piping, liners, seals,

gaskets and washers, among others. Specifically, the use of piping and liners will considerably increase in the

future. The purpose of ISO 23936 is to establish requirements and guidelines for systematic and effective

planning, for the reliable use of non-metallic materials to achieve cost effective technical solutions, taking into

account possible constraints due to safety and/or environmental issues.

ISO 23936 will be of benefit to a broad industry group ranging from operators and suppliers to engineers and

authorities. It covers relevant generic types of non-metallic material (thermoplastics, elastomers, thermosetting

plastics) and includes the widest range of existing technical experience. This is particularly important because

the subject has not been summarized before in a technical standard. Coatings are excluded from the scope of

ISO 23936.

ISO 23936 was initiated during work on ISO 15156-1, ISO 15156-2 and ISO 15156-3, which give the

requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of low-alloy steels, corrosion-resistant

alloys and other alloys for service in equipment used in environments containing H S in oil and natural gas

production and natural gas treatment plants, where failure of such materials could pose a risk to the health

and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. A fourth part of ISO 15156 was originally

envisaged to cover, likewise, the selection and qualification of non-metallic materials in the same environment.

However, at a later stage it was decided that due to the differences in the corrosion mechanisms of metallic

and non-metallic materials it would be too limiting to solely consider hydrogen sulfide as the corrosive

component for non-metallic materials, because in oil and gas production services other systems parameters

must also be considered as being corrosive and deteriorating for non-metallic materials.

It was therefore decided to produce a stand-alone International Standard, covering all systems parameters

that are considered relevant in the petroleum and natural gas industries to the avoidance of corrosion

damages to non-metallic equipment. ISO 23936 supplements, but does not replace, the materials

requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations.

ISO 23936 applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed

using conventional design criteria for technical application of non-metallic materials. Designs utilizing other

criteria are excluded from its scope. ISO 23936 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in

refining or downstream processes and equipment.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries —
Non-metallic materials in contact with media related to oil and
gas production —
Part 1:
Thermoplastics

CAUTION — Non-metallic materials selected using the parts of ISO 23936 are resistant to the given

environments in the petroleum and natural gas industries, but not necessarily immune under all

service conditions. ISO 23936 allocates responsibility for suitability for the intended service in all

cases to the equipment user.
1 Scope

ISO 23936 as a whole presents general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the

selection and qualification, and gives guidance for the quality assurance, of non-metallic materials for service

in equipment used in oil and gas production environments, where the failure of such equipment could pose a

risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to

avoid costly corrosion failures of the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the material

requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations.

This part of ISO 23936 addresses the resistance of thermoplastics to the deterioration in properties that can

be caused by physical or chemical interaction with produced and injected oil and gas-field media, and with

production and chemical treatment. Interaction with sunlight is included; however, ionizing radiation is

excluded from the scope of this part of ISO 23936.

Furthermore, this part of ISO 23936 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or

downstream processes and equipment.

The equipment considered includes, but is not limited to, non-metallic pipelines, piping, liners, seals, gaskets

and washers.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 178, Plastics — Determination of flexural properties

ISO 179-1, Plastics — Determination of Charpy impact properties — Part 1: Non-instrumented impact test

ISO 306, Plastics — Thermoplastic materials — Determination of Vicat softening temperature (VST)

ISO 527-1, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General principles

ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite — Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore

hardness)
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)

ISO 1183-2, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 2: Density gradient

column method

ISO 2578, Plastics — Determination of time-temperature limits after prolonged exposure to heat

ISO 11357-6, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 6: Determination of oxidation

induction time (isothermal OIT) and oxidation induction temperature (dynamic OIT)

ISO 15156–1, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments in oil

and gas production — Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant materials

ISO 15156–2, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments in oil

and gas production — Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels, and the use of cast irons

ISO 15156–3, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments in oil

and gas production — Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys

ASTM D638, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics

ASTM D746, Standard Test Method for Brittleness Temperature of Plastics and Elastomers By Impact

ASTM D792, Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by

Displacement
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following terms, definitions and abbreviated terms apply.

3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
batch
discontinuously manufactured amount of thermoplastic material
3.1.2
certificate of compliance

〈inspection〉 document to be issued by the manufacturer in accordance with requirements stated in this

standard or in the purchase order
3.1.3
end user
oil and/or gas operating company
3.1.4
fluid
liquid or gas
3.1.5
gasket
sealing component compressed in a joint
3.1.6
liner

thermoplastic material for protection of medium-contacted surfaces of pipes, piping, pipelines or equipment

3.1.7
lot
part of a batch or part of a continuously manufactured thermoplastic material
2 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
3.1.8
lot certificate
certificate of analysis issued by the manufacturer
3.1.9
manufacturer

producer of the thermoplastic material or semi-finished products made from thermoplastic materials

3.1.10
material specification
description of characteristics and test requirements for thermoplastic materials
3.1.11
operating temperature
temperature to which a component is subjected during normal operation
3.1.12
maximum operating temperature

maximum temperature to which a component is subjected, including deviations from normal operations, such

as start-up/shutdown
3.1.13
minimum operating temperature

minimum temperature to which a component is subjected, including deviations from normal operations, such

as start-up/shutdown
3.1.14
pipeline

those facilities through which fluids or gases are transported, including pipes, pig traps, components and

equipment, including valves
NOTE Adapted from ISO 13623:2000, definition 3.12.
3.1.15
piping
pipe or system of pipes for the transport of fluids and gases

NOTE 1 A piping system can be regarded as one single system provided it conveys substances having the same

properties and as a whole is designed for the same allowable pressure.

NOTE 2 Interruption by different components such as pumps, machines, vessels, etc. does not preclude integration

into one single piping system.
3.1.16
seal
deformable polymeric device designed to separate different environments
3.1.17
swelling
increase in volume due to absorption of fluids
3.1.18
thermoplastics

plastics that are capable of being repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling through a

temperature range characteristic of the plastics and, in the softened state, of being repeatedly shaped by flow

into articles by moulding, extrusion or forming
[ISO 15750-3:2002]
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
3.1.19
washer

flat plate of a material with a centralized hole used to seat bolt heads and nuts, among others

3.2 Abbreviated terms
COC Certificate of compliance
COA Certificate of analysis
DSC Differential scanning calorimetry
DTMA/TMA Dynamic thermo-mechanical analysis/Thermo-mechanical analysis
ECTFE Polyethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene
ETFE Polyethylene-tetrafluoroethylene
HDPE High density polyethylene
LDPE Low density polyethylene
MDPE Medium density polyethylene
PA Polyamide
PAI Polyamide-imides
PCTFE Polychlorotrifluoro-ethylene
PE Polyethylene
PEI Polyether-imides
PEEK Polyether-etherketones
PEX Cross-linked polyethylene
PFA Perfluoralkoxides
POM Polyoximethylene
PP Polypropylene
PP-B Polypropylene heterophasic copolymers
PP-H Polypropylene homopolymers
PP-R Polypropylene random copolymers
PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
PTFE Polytetrafluoro-ethylene
PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
QC Quality control
RGD Rapid gas decompression
4 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
4 Functional requirements
4.1 General

Materials selection shall be based on evaluation of compatibility with service environment, functionality under

service and the design lifetime. The following shall be considered as appropriate to the requirements and

evaluated when selecting a material for a specific application:

a) adequate physical and mechanical properties at maximum and minimum temperature (hardness, tensile

strength, elongation at break, modulus of elasticity, etc.);
b) resistance to high pressure extrusion or creep at maximum temperature;
c) resistance against rapid gas decompression at maximum temperature;
d) resistance to thermal cycling and dynamic movement;
e) low temperature flexibility, as defined in ASTM D746 and ISO 178;
f) long-term behaviour;
g) gas permeation behaviour;
h) chemical resistance to service environment.

For load-carrying applications, special attention shall be paid on creep and cyclic mechanical loads.

Typical chemical resistances of the most commonly used thermoplastics are listed in Annex A.

4.2 Pipelines, piping and liners
4.2.1 General

The relevant thermoplastic materials in the field of pipelines, piping and liners for use in oil and gas production

include Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and Polyamide (PA).

Thermoplastic materials based on other monomers may also be used.
4.2.2 Polyethylene (PE)

Polyethylene (PE) is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer. There are different types of PE used in the field

of oil and gas production:
⎯ LDPE (low density polyethylene);
⎯ MDPE (medium density polyethylene);
⎯ HDPE (high density polyethylene).

PEX is the abbreviation for cross-linked PE. Cross-linking is usually performed by peroxides (PEXa), silanes

(PEXb) or irradiation (PEXc).

Table 1 gives the characteristic properties of the different types of PE and those of PEX, together with the

related standards.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
Table 1 — Characteristic properties of PE/PEX
Property
Vicat A Maximum Impact strength
Melting point Brittleness
Density softening operating at −30 °C
(DSC) temperature
temperature temperature (Charpy)
Type
g/cm °C °C °C °C MPa
Standard
ISO 11357-1 to
ISO 1183-2 ISO 306 — ASTM D746 ISO 179-1
ISO 11357-6
0,910 to 0,925
LDPE 90 to 120 80 to 105 40 < −50 No break
> 0,932
MDPE 0,926 to 0,940 125 to 130 110 to 120 50 < −60 No break
HDPE W 0,941 130 to 135 125 to 130 60 < −60 No break
b b b c
PEX < −60 No break

NOTE Table A.1 (see Annex A) gives more details on service limitations in media encountered in oil and gas production.

Density of LDPE copolymers.

Similar to basic material (LDPE, MDPE or HDPE) used, depending on the cross-linking technique.

Generally higher than the basic material (LDPE, MDPE or HDPE); however, depending on the cross-linking technique.

Related to a long-term service life in benign environments.

Increasing the density of PE will increase the temperature limits and enhance the chemical resistance.

Cross-linking will also improve the overall properties of the PE material.

NOTE Chemicals like methanol and aromatic hydrocarbons can extract additives from PE materials and thus

accelerate the ageing behaviour. Contact the manufacturer in respect to the chemical resistance of the PE material.

The long-term maximum temperature for PE is related to the Vicat A softening temperature (ISO 306).

The low temperature limits of PE are in the order of −40 °C and relate to the brittleness of the material

characterized by impact measurements as described in Table 1.

PE is generally accepted in aqueous environments. In the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons

the use of PE can be limited due to permeation (specifically aliphatic hydrocarbons) and swelling (loss of

mechanical properties and dimensional stability). The resistance to hydrocarbons can be improved by cross-

linking (PEXa,b,c materials). The degree of cross-linking may be determined in accordance with EN 579.

UV light will degrade the PE material unless efficient stabilizers are added to the polymer.

PE may be sensitive to environmental cracking if contacted with surface-active compounds, such as

detergents, surfactants, emulsifiers, demulsifiers and corrosion inhibitors. Testing for susceptibility to

environmental stress cracking can be performed in accordance with ISO 16770, ASTM D1693 or ISO 22088.

The choice of the testing method should be agreed between end user and manufacturer.

6 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23936-1:2009
ISO 23936-1:2009(E)
4.2.3 Polypropylene

Polypropylene (PP) is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer. There are different types of PP used in the

field of oil and gas production:
⎯ PP-H (PP homopolymers);
⎯ PP-R (PP random-copolymers);
⎯ PP-B (PP heterophasic copolymers);
⎯ PP-Elastomers (PP heterophasic copolymers with very high comonomer content).

Table 2 gives the characteristic properties of the different types of PP, together with the related standards.

Table 2 — Characteristic properties of PP
Property
Vicat A Maximum Impact strength at
Melting point Brittleness
softening operating −30 °C
(DSC) temperature
temperature temperature (Charpy)
Type
°C °C °C °C MPa
Standard
ISO 1183-2 ISO 306 — ASTM D746 ISO 179-1
PP-H 16
...

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