Geotechnical investigation and testing - Laboratory testing of soil - Part 11: Permeability tests (ISO 17892-11:2019)

This document specifies methods for the laboratory determination of the water flow characteristics
in soil.
This document is applicable to the laboratory determination of the coefficient of permeability of soil
within the scope of geotechnical investigations.
NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of the determination of the coefficient of permeability of soils
in the laboratory for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Laborversuche an Bodenproben - Teil 11: Bestimmung der Wasserdurchlässigkeit (ISO 17892-11:2019)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de laboratoire sur les sols - Partie 11: Essais de perméabilité (ISO 17892-11:2019)

Le présent document spécifie des méthodes pour la détermination au laboratoire des caractéristiques de circulation de l'eau dans un sol.
Ce document s'applique à la détermination en laboratoire du coefficient de perméabilité d'un sol dans le cadre d'investigations géotechniques.
NOTE       Le présent document répond aux exigences applicables à la détermination du coefficient de perméabilité des sols en laboratoire pour la reconnaissance et les essais géotechniques conformément aux normes EN 1997-1 et EN 1997-2.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Laboratorijsko preskušanje zemljin - 11. del: Ugotavljanje prepustnosti (ISO 17892-11:2019)

Ta dokument določa metode za laboratorijsko določevanje značilnosti pretoka vode
v zemljinah.
Ta dokument se uporablja za laboratorijsko določevanje koeficienta prepustnosti zemljin,
ki spada na področje uporabe geotehničnega preiskovanja.
OPOMBA: Ta dokument izpolnjuje zahteve za določevanje koeficienta prepustnosti zemljin v laboratoriju za geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje v skladu s standardoma EN 1997-1 in EN 1997-2.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Apr-2018
Publication Date
07-Apr-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Mar-2019
Due Date
23-May-2019
Completion Date
08-Apr-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
01-maj-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 17892-11:2004
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 17892-11:2004/AC:2010
*HRWHKQLþQRSUHLVNRYDQMHLQSUHVNXãDQMH/DERUDWRULMVNRSUHVNXãDQMH]HPOMLQ
GHO8JRWDYOMDQMHSUHSXVWQRVWL ,62

Geotechnical investigation and testing - Laboratory testing of soil - Part 11: Permeability

tests (ISO 17892-11:2019)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Laborversuche an Bodenproben - Teil
11: Bestimmung der Wasserdurchlässigkeit (ISO 17892-11:2019)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de laboratoire sur les sols - Partie 11:

Essais de perméabilité (ISO 17892-11:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ICS:
13.080.20 Fizikalne lastnosti tal Physical properties of soils
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
EN ISO 17892-11
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.20; 93.020 Supersedes CEN ISO/TS 17892-11:2004
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Laboratory testing
of soil - Part 11: Permeability tests (ISO 17892-11:2019)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

laboratoire sur les sols - Partie 11: Essais de Laborversuche an Bodenproben - Teil 11: Bestimmung

perméabilité (ISO 17892-11:2019) der Wasserdurchlässigkeit (ISO 17892-11:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 February 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 17892-11:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
EN ISO 17892-11:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
EN ISO 17892-11:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 17892-11:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

"Geotechnics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2019, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN ISO/TS 17892-11:2004.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 17892-11:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 17892-11:2019 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17892-11
First edition
2019-01
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Laboratory testing of soil —
Part 11:
Permeability tests
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais de laboratoire sur
les sols —
Partie 11: Essais de perméabilité
Reference number
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Permeameters.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Rigid wall permeameters ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.3 Flexible wall permeameter ..................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Porous discs ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Permeant water properties .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5 Measurement and control devices ......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.1 Elevation head .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.2 Displacement and volume measuring devices ....................................................................................... 7

5.5.3 Flow volume measurement device .................................................................................................................. 7

5.6 Ancillary apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.1 Saturation ...................................................................... ......................................................................................................... 8

6.1.2 Hydraulic gradient .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.3 Water temperature ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2 Specimen preparation ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Rigid wall permeameter ............................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2.3 Flexible wall permeameter ..................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 Cylindrical permeameter .......................................................................................................................................10

6.3.2 Oedometer ring ..............................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Flexible wall permeameter ..................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Permeability measurement .......................................................................................................................................................12

6.5 Dismounting ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

7 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.1 Bulk density, dry density, water content and degree of saturation ........................................................14

7.2 Coefficient of permeability and hydraulic gradient .............................................................................................14

7.3 Correction for test temperature ............................................................................................................................................15

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.1 Mandatory reporting ......................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Optional reporting ............................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (normative) Calibration, maintenance and checks ....................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical Investigation and Testing, in collaboration with ISO Technical

Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This first edition cancels and replaces ISO/TS 17892-11:2004, which has been technically revised. It

also incorporates the Technical Corrigendum ISO/TS 17892-11:2004/Cor 1:2006.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the document has been restructured with general revision of text and figures and addition of

specimen preparation procedures;

— types of apparatus have been included for rigid wall permeameters, both cylindrical and oedometer

ring equipment, and flexible wall permeameters;

— permeability measurement by constant head, falling head and constant flow conditions has been

included;
— normative Annex A on calibration, maintenance and checks has been added.
A list of all the parts in the ISO 17892 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
Introduction

This document provides laboratory test methods for the determination of the coefficient of permeability

of soils within the international field of geotechnical engineering.

The tests have not previously been standardized internationally. It is intended that this document

presents broad good practice and significant differences with national documents is not anticipated. It

is based on international practice (see Reference [1]).

The permeability test is carried out on a cylindrical test specimen that is either confined laterally by a

rigid container or by a flexible membrane. The specimen is subjected to differential hydraulic head and

the water flow is measured under either a constant or falling head. The results are used to determine

the coefficient of permeability of the soil specimen. Tests can be carried out on undisturbed, remoulded,

compacted or reconstituted specimens.

The calculation of the coefficient of permeability assumes the application of Darcy’s law for laminar

flow of water under saturated conditions.

It is possible that the size of the specimen does not adequately represent the fabric features present in

field conditions.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory
testing of soil —
Part 11:
Permeability tests
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for the laboratory determination of the water flow characteristics

in soil.

This document is applicable to the laboratory determination of the coefficient of permeability of soil

within the scope of geotechnical investigations.

NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of the determination of the coefficient of permeability of soils

in the laboratory for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 386, Liquid-in-glass laboratory thermometers — Principles of design, construction and use

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 17892-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 1: Determination

of water content

ISO 17892-2, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 2: Determination

of bulk density

ISO 17892-3, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 3: Determination

of particle density
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
permeameter
apparatus (cell) containing the test specimen in a permeability test
3.2
flow rate
volume of water passing through a specimen per unit time
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
3.3
discharge velocity

rate of flow of water per unit cross-sectional area of specimen in the direction of flow

3.4
hydraulic gradient

ratio of the difference in elevation head of water (head loss) between two points, to the length of the

flow path (distance between the points measured in the direction of flow)
Note 1 to entry: In Figure 1 the hydraulic gradient is i = Δh/l.
Key
1 measurement point 1
2 measurement point 2
3 specimen
4 standpipe
5 standpipe head
6 datum
Figure 1 — Water flow in a soil specimen
3.5
coefficient of permeability
ratio of the discharge velocity (3.3) to the hydraulic gradient (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: The coefficient of permeability is in accordance with Darcy's law for laminar flow.

3.6
degree of saturation
ratio of the volume of water to the volume of voids
4 Symbols
A cross-sectional area of specimen in the direction of flow
a cross-sectional area of standpipe
a cross-sectional area of inlet pipe
a cross-sectional area of outlet pipe
out
B pore pressure coefficient
D diameter of the specimen
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
h total head of water above datum at measurement point 1
h total head of water above datum at measurement point 2
Δh difference in head of water between measurement point 1 and 2
Δh head of water above outlet elevation at time t
t1 1
Δh head of water above outlet elevation at time t
t2 2
l distance between measuring points 1 and 2 in the direction of flow
k coefficient of permeability
k coefficient of permeability corrected to temperature
Q flow rate
v discharge velocity
i hydraulic gradient
S degree of saturation
Δσ increment of cell pressure
Δt increment of time between two readings
Δu change in pore pressure due increment of cell pressure
α correction factor for temperature
T temperature
5 Apparatus
5.1 General

The equipment shall undergo regular calibration, maintenance and checks as specified in Annex A.

The permeability test arrangement requires a container for the specimen (the permeameter) which may

have either rigid or flexible walls and a system for applying and measuring water pressures to either or

both ends of the specimen. Schematics of some typical arrangements are shown in Figures 2 to 4.

5.2 Permeameters
5.2.1 General

The minimum internal dimension (height and diameter) of the permeameter shall be at least six times

the maximum particle size of the specimen.
5.2.2 Rigid wall permeameters
5.2.2.1 General

Rigid wall permeameters shall be made of corrosion-resistant materials of sufficient rigidity to resist

deformation during the test. The inlet and outlet arrangements shall be of sufficient flow capacity to

not influence the test results. Hydrophobic coating can be used on the inside of the permeameter, mould

or ring to prevent channels and cavities that can cause bypass seepage along the surface. This coating

can consist of silicon grease, petroleum jelly coated with bentonite powder or other suitable lubricant.

5.2.2.2 Cylindrical permeameter

A cylindrical permeameter comprises a cylindrical mould fitted with porous discs on a top-plate and

baseplate. The plates are mounted with watertight seals and equipped with valves where water inlet

and outlet can be connected.
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)

Two or more fitted glands can be provided for connecting manometer tubes/standpipes along the

length of the cylinder.

If required a piston that goes through the top plate and can be locked with a watertight seal at the

vertical position where it is in contact with the top porous disc, should be provided to maintain the

specimen height during the test.

A typical arrangement for a permeability test in a cylindrical rigid wall permeameter is shown in

Figure 2.
Key
1 reservoir
2 porous disc
3 perforated base plate
4 specimen
5 overflow
6 measuring cylinder
7 standpipe

Figure 2 — Example arrangement for a constant head test in a cylindrical rigid wall

permeameter
5.2.2.3 Oedometer ring permeameter

An oedometer ring permeameter comprises an oedometer ring that holds the specimen in an oedometer

used for compression tests. A typical arrangement for a permeability test in an oedometer ring

permeameter is shown in Figure 3.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
Key
1 oedometer ring
2 specimen
3 porous disc
4 water seal
5 reservoir
6 standpipe
7 vertical load and displacement measurement device

Figure 3 — Example arrangement for a falling head test in an oedometer cell permeameter

5.2.3 Flexible wall permeameter
5.2.3.1 General

A flexible wall permeameter can be used where the soil specimen is to be tested under specific effective

stress conditions and/or where back pressure will be used to fully saturate the specimen. The test can

be performed in a standard triaxial apparatus. It needs to have a cell that can be pressurised, a base

pedestal and top cap with porous discs and connectors to the water flow measurement system and a

membrane that seals the surface of the specimen.

A typical arrangement for a permeability test in a flexible wall permeameter is shown in Figure 4.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
Key
1 top cap
2 porous disc
3 specimen
4 membrane
5 pedestal
6 cell pressure
7 displacement measurement device
8 pressure control and volume measurement device
Figure 4 — Example arrangement for a flexible wall permeameter
5.2.3.2 Membranes

The soil specimen shall be confined by an elastic membrane which effectively prevents the cell fluid

from penetrating into the specimen. If rubber membranes are used they shall have an un-stretched

diameter between 95 % and 100 % of the specimen diameter. The membranes are sealed with O-rings

on the pedestal and top cap.
5.2.3.3 Cell pressure system

The devices for applying pressure to the cell and to the back pressure system shall be capable of

maintaining a stable pressure within 1 kPa or 1 % of the absolute pressure, whichever is greater.

The total cell pressure used shall be greater than the sum of the back pressure and the inlet pressure

applied.
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SIST EN ISO 17892-11:2019
ISO 17892-11:2019(E)
5.2.3.4 Cell pressure fluid

The cell fluid should be selected such that it does not significantly penetrate through the membrane

into the specimen nor extract pore water from the specimen through the membrane in the period of

time it takes to perform the permeability test.
NOTE De-aired water is generally found to meet these requirements.
5.3 Porous discs

The specimen is contained between porous discs at both ends of the specimen. The porous discs shall

be of corrosion-resistant material and shall allow free drainage of water, while preventing intrusion

of soil particles into their pores. The upper and lower surfaces shall be plane, clean and undamaged.

Filter paper may be used to prevent soil particles from clogging the porous discs. The permeability of

the discs together with the filter paper, if used, shall be at least one order of magnitude higher than the

permeability of the specimen tested.
5.4 Permeant water properties

Water of a similar chemistry to the pore water should be used if the soil is susceptible to the chemistry

of the water. If the chemistry of the pore water is unknown, tap water should be used as its chemistry

is more likely to be similar to ground water than distilled water would be. The water shall be de-aired.

5.5 Measurement and control devices
5.5.1 Elevation head

The water elevation head can be measured as the difference in height of the water source and the

water outlet.
Electronic differential or absolu
...

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