Additive manufacturing - Test artifacts - Geometric capability assessment of additive manufacturing systems (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

This document covers the general description of benchmarking test piece geometries along with quantitative and qualitative measurements to be taken on the benchmarking test piece(s) to assess the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. The benchmarking test piece(s) is primarily used to quantitatively assess the geometric performance of an AM system. The standard describes a suite of test geometries, each designed to investigate one or more specific performance metrics, and several example configurations of these geometries into test piece(s). The standard prescribes quantities and qualities of the test geometries to be measured, but does not dictate specific measurement methods. Various user applications may require various grades of performance. This standard discusses examples of feature configurations as well as measurement uncertainty requirements to demonstrate low and high grade examination and performance. This standard does not discuss a specific procedure or machine settings for manufacturing a test piece although these should be recorded as per ASTM F2971 and other relevant process specific specifications.

Additive Fertigung - Testkörper - Allgemeine Leitlinie für die Bewertung der geometrischen Leistung additiver Fertigungssysteme (AM-Systeme) (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Dieses Dokument enthält die allgemeine Beschreibung von Prüfkörpergeometrien mit dem Ziel des Benchmarkings, gemeinsam mit an dem/den Benchmarking-Prüfkörper(n) vorzunehmenden quantitativen und qualitativen Messungen zur Bewertung der Leistung additiver Fertigungssysteme (AM Systeme).
Diese Leistungsbewertung kann den beiden folgenden Zwecken dienen:
—   der Fähigkeitsbewertung des AM-Systems;
—   der Kalibrierung des AM-Systems.
Der Hauptverwendungszweck der/des Benchmarking-Prüfkörper(s) ist die quantitative Bewertung der geometrischen Leistungsfähigkeit eines AM-Systems. Das Dokument beschreibt einen Satz von Prüfgeometrien, die jeweils für die Untersuchung einer oder mehrerer Leistungsmetriken ausgelegt sind, sowie mehrere Beispielkonfigurationen dieser Geometrien im/in Prüfkörper(n). Es gibt zu messende Quantitäten und Qualitäten der Prüfgeometrien vor, schreibt aber keine spezifischen Messverfahren vor. Verschiedene Nutzeranwendungen können verschiedene Leistungsniveaus erfordern. Zur Veranschaulichung von Untersuchungen und für den Nachweis der Leistungsfähigkeit auf niedrigem und hohem Niveau erörtert dieses Dokument Beispiele für Merkmalskonfigurationen sowie Anforderungen an die Messunsicherheit. Dieses Dokument behandelt keine spezifischen Verfahrensweisen oder Maschineneinstellungen für die Prüfkörperherstellung, die durch ASTM F 2971 und andere maßgebende prozessbezogene Spezifikationen abgedeckt werden.

Fabrication additive - Pièces types d'essai - Évaluation de la capacité géométrique des systèmes de fabrication additive (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Le présent document couvre la description générale du benchmarking de géométries d'éprouvette ainsi que les mesures quantitatives et qualitatives à appliquer à la ou aux éprouvettes de benchmarking afin d'évaluer les performances de systèmes de fabrication additive (FA).
Cette évaluation de performances peut servir aux deux fins suivantes:
—          Évaluation de la capacité du système FA;
—          Étalonnage du système FA.
La ou les éprouvettes de benchmarking sont utilisées principalement pour évaluer quantitativement les performances géométriques d'un système FA. Le présent document décrit une suite de géométries d'essai, chacune conçue pour examiner une ou plusieurs mesures de performances spécifiques, ainsi que plusieurs configurations d'exemple de ces géométries au sein d'une ou plusieurs éprouvettes. Il prescrit les quantités et qualités des géométries d'essai à mesurer, mais ne stipule pas de méthodes de mesure spécifiques. Différentes applications d'utilisateur peuvent exiger différents niveaux de performances. Le présent document donne des exemples de configurations de forme ainsi que des exigences d'incertitude de mesure afin de faire la démonstration d'un examen et de performances de niveau bas et élevé. Le présent document ne donne pas de procédure ou de réglages de machine spécifiques pour la fabrication d'une éprouvette qui sont couverts par l'ASTM F2971 et à d'autres spécifications de procédé pertinentes.

Aditivna proizvodnja - Preskusna telesa - Geometrijske zmogljivosti aditivnih proizvodnih sistemov (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Ta dokument zajema splošni opis geometrij primerjalnih preskušancev, skupaj s kvantitativnimi in kvalitativnimi meritvami, ki jih je treba opraviti na primerjalnih preskušancih za oceno zmogljivosti aditivnih proizvodnih (AM) sistemov. Primerjalni preskušanci se v osnovi uporabljajo za kvantitativno ocenjevanje geometrijske zmogljivosti aditivnega proizvodnega sistema. Standard opisuje zbirko preskusnih geometrij, od katerih je vsaka zasnovana za preiskavo ene ali več določenih meritev zmogljivosti, in več primerov konfiguracij teh geometrij v preskušancih. Standard predpisuje količine in kakovosti preskusnih geometrij, ki jih je treba izmeriti, ne določa pa posameznih metod meritev. Različni načini uporabe lahko zahtevajo različne razrede zmogljivosti. Ta standard predstavlja primere konfiguracij značilnosti in tudi zahteve glede merilne negotovosti za prikaz preskusov ter zmogljivosti nizkega in visokega razreda. Ta standard ne obravnava določenega postopka ali nastavitev stroja za proizvodnjo preskušanca, čeprav naj se ti zabeležijo v skladu s standardom ASTM F2971 in drugimi ustreznimi specifikacijami, značilnimi za proces.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jul-2018
Publication Date
14-Oct-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Oct-2019
Due Date
09-Dec-2019
Completion Date
15-Oct-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
01-december-2019
Aditivna proizvodnja - Preskusna telesa - Geometrijske zmogljivosti aditivnih
proizvodnih sistemov (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Additive manufacturing - Test artifacts - Geometric capability assessment of additive

manufacturing systems (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)
Additive Fertigung - Testkörper - Allgemeine Leitlinie für die Bewertung der
geometrischen Leistung additiver Fertigungssysteme (AM-Systeme) (ISO/ASTM
52902:2019)

Fabrication additive - Pièces types d'essai - Évaluation de la capacité géométrique des

systèmes de fabrication additive (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52902
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.030
English Version
Additive manufacturing - Test artifacts - Geometric
capability assessment of additive manufacturing systems
(ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Fabrication additive - Pièces types d'essai - Évaluation Additive Fertigung - Testkörper - Allgemeine Leitlinie

de la capacité géométrique des systèmes de fabrication für die Bewertung der geometrischen Leistung

additive (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019) additiver Fertigungssysteme (AM-Systeme)
(ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 July 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261

"Additive manufacturing" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 438 “Additive

Manufacturing” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 without

any modification.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52902
First edition
2019-07
Additive manufacturing —
Test artifacts — Geometric
capability assessment of additive
manufacturing systems
Fabrication additive — Pièces types d'essai — Évaluation de la
capacité géométrique des systèmes de fabrication additive
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
ISO/ASTM International 2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11 Phone: +610 832 9634
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47 Fax: +610 832 9635
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: khooper@astm.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.astm.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Significance and use .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Comparing results from one machine ................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General principles for producing artifacts ................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Need to use feedstock conforming to a material specification ...................................................................... 2

5.3 Need to undertake artifact building according to a documented process specification ......... 2

5.4 File formats and preparation ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Download files ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Discussion of file conversion ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 AMF preferred (with conversion instructions/ resolutions) .......................................................................... 3

5.8 Need for test specification and test process .................................................................................................................. 3

5.9 Quantity of test artifacts ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.10 Position and orientation of test artifacts .......................................................................................................................... 4

5.11 Considerations for orientation .................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.12 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.13 Coverage ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.14 Arrays .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.15 Part consolidation ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.16 Supports and post processing .................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 General principles for measuring artifacts .............................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Measure parts as built ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Measurement strategy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Artifact geometries ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Accuracy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.2.1 Linear artifact ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2.2 Circular artifact ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.3 Resolution ................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Resolution pins ...............................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Resolution holes ............................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.3 Resolution rib ..................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3.4 Resolution slot ................................................................................................................................................................15

7.4 Surface texture .....................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.4.2 Geometry .............................................................................................................................................................................17

7.4.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................18

7.4.4 Reporting .............................................................................................................................................................................19

7.4.5 Considerations ................................................................................................................................................................19

7.5 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.5.2 Geometry .............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.5.3 Considerations ................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Example artifact configurations ...............................................................................................................22

Annex B (informative) Measurement techniques ................................................................................................................................25

© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)

Annex C (informative) Measurement procedures................................................................................................................................28

Annex D (informative) List of specimen names and sizes ...........................................................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

iv © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation with

ASTM Committee F42, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership agreement

between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on

additive manufacturing.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
Additive manufacturing — Test artifacts — Geometric
capability assessment of additive manufacturing systems
1 Scope

This document covers the general description of benchmarking test piece geometries along with

quantitative and qualitative measurements to be taken on the benchmarking test piece(s) to assess the

performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems.
This performance assessment can serve the following two purposes:
— AM system capability evaluation;
— AM system calibration.

The benchmarking test piece(s) is (are) primarily used to quantitatively assess the geometric

performance of an AM system. This document describes a suite of test geometries, each designed to

investigate one or more specific performance metrics and several example configurations of these

geometries into test piece(s). It prescribes quantities and qualities of the test geometries to be measured

but does not dictate specific measurement methods. Various user applications can require various grades

of performance. This document discusses examples of feature configurations, as well as measurement

uncertainty requirements, to demonstrate low and high grade examination and performance. This

document does not discuss a specific procedure or machine settings for manufacturing a test piece,

which are covered by ASTM F 2971 and other relevant process specific specifications.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/ASTM 52900, Additive manufacturing — General principles — Fundamentals and vocabulary

ISO/ASTM 52921, Standard terminology for additive manufacturing — Coordinate systems and test

methodologies
ASME B46.1, Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/ASTM 52900 and

ISO/ASTM 52921 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
4 Significance and use
4.1 General

Measurements and observations described in this document are used to assess the performance of an

AM system with a given system set-up and process parameters, in combination with a specific feedstock

material.

The primary characterization of the AM system obtained by this document is via geometric accuracy,

surface finish and minimum feature sizes of the benchmarking test piece(s).
4.2 Comparing results from one machine

The test piece(s) can be built and measured for example when the new machine is installed. The test

piece(s) may be used to periodically evaluate the performance or diagnose a fault in one AM system, for

example, after system maintenance or as defined by the requirements of a quality system.

The test piece(s) described in this test method may be used as a demonstration of capabilities for a

contract between a buyer and seller of AM parts or AM systems.

Data from the measurements described in this document can be used to gauge the impact of new

process parameters or material on the AM system performance.

Certain test geometries may be included with every build on a particular AM system to help establish

performance traceability. Depending on the needs of the end user, not all test artifacts need to be built,

and individual test artifacts can be built separately if required.
5 General principles for producing artifacts
5.1 General

This clause outlines principles applicable for producing all of the test artifact geometries in this

document. Reporting requirements are previewed in connection with the production steps in this

clause, but more details about recording and reporting can be found with the individual artifact

descriptions given in Clause 7.
5.2 Need to use feedstock conforming to a material specification

In order to ensure repeatable results, the use of a quality feedstock material is needed. A feedstock

material specification should be selected or determined by the end user and the feedstock used for test

artifact trials should match said specification. For example, the specification may include the particulate

properties (particle size, size distribution, morphology) for powder feedstock, bulk properties (such as

flow) and chemical properties (such as chemical composition and level of contamination). Although the

details of the material specification shall not be disclosed (unless otherwise agreed between supplier

and purchaser), it should be documented by the producer and reported with a unique alphanumeric

designation as specified by ASTM F2971: 2013, Annex A1, element “B”. For powder-based processes, the

material specification should specifically address limitations of powder re-use and percent of virgin/

re-used powder.
5.3 Need to undertake artifact building according to a documented process
specification

The processing of the material in the AM system should be undertaken according to a documented

process specification/manufacturing plan, as specified by ASTM F2971: 2013, Annex A1, element “C”.

This may be a proprietary internal standard or external standard (subject to buyer/seller negotiations),

but the producer should document user-definable settings and conditions surrounding the building of

parts. For example, it should document the layer thickness, build strategies (e.g. scan path, tool path,

2 © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)

and/or scan parameters), temperatures, etc. used during the build. This process should be consistent

for all test artifacts produced within one build. These recommendations can be different for each use,

so the parameters in the process specification should be agreed between the vendor and end user.

5.4 File formats and preparation

The file formats used and steps of the digital file preparation including slice parameters should be

included in the process specification. Care shall be taken during the creation and transfer of data files

to avoid degradation of the model. Any discrepancy between these affects the outcome of tests on

the artifacts and for this reason, best practice for the control of the file formats and preparation is

discussed here.
5.5 Download files

The 3D digital models for standard test artifact geometries can be downloaded in *.step format at https:

//standards .iso .org/iso/52902/ed -1/en. For a complete list of available files, please see Annex D.

5.6 Discussion of file conversion

When a CAD model is converted to AMF, STL (or any intermediate file format), sufficient fidelity shall

be maintained to ensure that the test artifact produced from it fairly reflects the capabilities of the

AM system under assessment. The file conversion tolerance selected should ensure that the maximum

deviation of the data from the nominal CAD model is less than one quarter and, based on good

measurement practice, ideally less than one tenth of the expected accuracy of the AM system being

assessed. Currently, most additive manufacturing equipment cannot produce features with a resolution

better than 10 µm, therefore CAD models are saved to STL/AMF ensuring at least a 2,5 µm accuracy

or better. This is only general guidance and should be confirmed for the specific output system. It is

recommended that users check the maximum deviation and record the conversion parameters used, as

well as any maximum deviation (chord height and angular tolerance).

Files should not be scaled up or down either during conversion or afterward. Machine correction

factors (e.g. offsets, axis scaling, etc.) may be used and should be documented as part of the process

specification.
5.7 AMF preferred (with conversion instructions/ resolutions)

The AMF file format as defined by ISO/ASTM 52915 is the preferred model format for test artifact

geometry representation due to its ability to store high fidelity geometry with embedded units in an

intermediate file format.
5.8 Need for test specification and test process

This document forms the basis for the general Test Plan/Specification described in ASTM F2971: 2013,

Annex A1, element “D”, but specifics about its implementation need recording to accurately document

the Test Process (element “E” in Annex A1), used for producing the parts as discussed in Clause 6.

5.9 Quantity of test artifacts

For a complete test of machine performance, two things dictate the quantity of the test artifacts

produced. First, the Test Specification/Test Process shall ensure a quantity of samples, typically no less

than five, so that statistically significant measurements can be made. Second, sufficient coverage (see

5.5) of the build platform needs to be made to account for variations in performance between build

locations. Fewer test artifacts with less complete coverage may be used for spot checks or limited

demonstrations, such as the example detailed in Annex A. The number of artifacts shall be agreed upon

between the buyer and seller and shall permit to perform at least 5 mesurements.
© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
5.10 Position and orientation of test artifacts

As per ASTM F2971: 2013, Annex A1, element “F”, it is recommended to report results in combination

with the test artifacts’ build p
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
01-december-2019
Aditivna proizvodnja - Preskusni artefakti - Geometrijske zmogljivosti aditivnih
proizvodnih sistemov (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Additive manufacturing - Test artifacts - Geometric capability assessment of additive

manufacturing systems (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)
Additive Fertigung - Testkörper - Allgemeine Leitlinie für die Bewertung der
geometrischen Leistung additiver Fertigungssysteme (AM-Systeme) (ISO/ASTM
52902:2019)

Fabrication additive - Pièces types d'essai - Ligne directrice standard pour l'évaluation de

la capacité géométrique des systèmes de fabrication additive (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52902
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.030
English Version
Additive manufacturing - Test artifacts - Geometric
capability assessment of additive manufacturing systems
(ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)

Fabrication additive - Pièces types d'essai - Évaluation Additive Fertigung - Testkörper - Allgemeine Leitlinie

de la capacité géométrique des systèmes de fabrication für die Bewertung der geometrischen Leistung

additive (ISO/ASTM 52902:2019) additiver Fertigungssysteme (AM-Systeme)
(ISO/ASTM 52902:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 July 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

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United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
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© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261

"Additive manufacturing" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 438 “Additive

Manufacturing” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019 without

any modification.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52902
First edition
2019-07
Additive manufacturing —
Test artifacts — Geometric
capability assessment of additive
manufacturing systems
Fabrication additive — Pièces types d'essai — Évaluation de la
capacité géométrique des systèmes de fabrication additive
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
ISO/ASTM International 2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Significance and use .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Comparing results from one machine ................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General principles for producing artifacts ................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Need to use feedstock conforming to a material specification ...................................................................... 2

5.3 Need to undertake artifact building according to a documented process specification ......... 2

5.4 File formats and preparation ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Download files ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Discussion of file conversion ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 AMF preferred (with conversion instructions/ resolutions) .......................................................................... 3

5.8 Need for test specification and test process .................................................................................................................. 3

5.9 Quantity of test artifacts ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.10 Position and orientation of test artifacts .......................................................................................................................... 4

5.11 Considerations for orientation .................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.12 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.13 Coverage ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.14 Arrays .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.15 Part consolidation ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.16 Supports and post processing .................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 General principles for measuring artifacts .............................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Measure parts as built ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Measurement strategy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Artifact geometries ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Accuracy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.2.1 Linear artifact ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2.2 Circular artifact ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.3 Resolution ................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Resolution pins ...............................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Resolution holes ............................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.3 Resolution rib ..................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3.4 Resolution slot ................................................................................................................................................................15

7.4 Surface texture .....................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.4.2 Geometry .............................................................................................................................................................................17

7.4.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................18

7.4.4 Reporting .............................................................................................................................................................................19

7.4.5 Considerations ................................................................................................................................................................19

7.5 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.5.2 Geometry .............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.5.3 Considerations ................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Example artifact configurations ...............................................................................................................22

Annex B (informative) Measurement techniques ................................................................................................................................25

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Annex C (informative) Measurement procedures................................................................................................................................28

Annex D (informative) List of specimen names and sizes ...........................................................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation with

ASTM Committee F42, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership agreement

between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on

additive manufacturing.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52902:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52902:2019(E)
Additive manufacturing — Test artifacts — Geometric
capability assessment of additive manufacturing systems
1 Scope

This document covers the general description of benchmarking test piece geometries along with

quantitative and qualitative measurements to be taken on the benchmarking test piece(s) to assess the

performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems.
This performance assessment can serve the following two purposes:
— AM system capability evaluation;
— AM system calibration.

The benchmarking test piece(s) is (are) primarily used to quantitatively assess the geometric

performance of an AM system. This document describes a suite of test geometries, each designed to

investigate one or more specific performance metrics and several example configurations of these

geometries into test piece(s). It prescribes quantities and qualities of the test geometries to be measured

but does not dictate specific measurement methods. Various user applications can require various grades

of performance. This document discusses examples of feature configurations, as well as measurement

uncertainty requirements, to demonstrate low and high grade examination and performance. This

document does not discuss a specific procedure or machine settings for manufacturing a test piece,

which are covered by ASTM F 2971 and other relevant process specific specifications.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/ASTM 52900, Additive manufacturing — General principles — Fundamentals and vocabulary

ISO/ASTM 52921, Standard terminology for additive manufacturing — Coordinate systems and test

methodologies
ASME B46.1, Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/ASTM 52900 and

ISO/ASTM 52921 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
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4 Significance and use
4.1 General

Measurements and observations described in this document are used to assess the performance of an

AM system with a given system set-up and process parameters, in combination with a specific feedstock

material.

The primary characterization of the AM system obtained by this document is via geometric accuracy,

surface finish and minimum feature sizes of the benchmarking test piece(s).
4.2 Comparing results from one machine

The test piece(s) can be built and measured for example when the new machine is installed. The test

piece(s) may be used to periodically evaluate the performance or diagnose a fault in one AM system, for

example, after system maintenance or as defined by the requirements of a quality system.

The test piece(s) described in this test method may be used as a demonstration of capabilities for a

contract between a buyer and seller of AM parts or AM systems.

Data from the measurements described in this document can be used to gauge the impact of new

process parameters or material on the AM system performance.

Certain test geometries may be included with every build on a particular AM system to help establish

performance traceability. Depending on the needs of the end user, not all test artifacts need to be built,

and individual test artifacts can be built separately if required.
5 General principles for producing artifacts
5.1 General

This clause outlines principles applicable for producing all of the test artifact geometries in this

document. Reporting requirements are previewed in connection with the production steps in this

clause, but more details about recording and reporting can be found with the individual artifact

descriptions given in Clause 7.
5.2 Need to use feedstock conforming to a material specification

In order to ensure repeatable results, the use of a quality feedstock material is needed. A feedstock

material specification should be selected or determined by the end user and the feedstock used for test

artifact trials should match said specification. For example, the specification may include the particulate

properties (particle size, size distribution, morphology) for powder feedstock, bulk properties (such as

flow) and chemical properties (such as chemical composition and level of contamination). Although the

details of the material specification shall not be disclosed (unless otherwise agreed between supplier

and purchaser), it should be documented by the producer and reported with a unique alphanumeric

designation as specified by ASTM F2971: 2013, Annex A1, element “B”. For powder-based processes, the

material specification should specifically address limitations of powder re-use and percent of virgin/

re-used powder.
5.3 Need to undertake artifact building according to a documented process
specification

The processing of the material in the AM system should be undertaken according to a documented

process specification/manufacturing plan, as specified by ASTM F2971: 2013, Annex A1, element “C”.

This may be a proprietary internal standard or external standard (subject to buyer/seller negotiations),

but the producer should document user-definable settings and conditions surrounding the building of

parts. For example, it should document the layer thickness, build strategies (e.g. scan path, tool path,

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and/or scan parameters), temperatures, etc. used during the build. This process should be consistent

for all test artifacts produced within one build. These recommendations can be different for each use,

so the parameters in the process specification should be agreed between the vendor and end user.

5.4 File formats and preparation

The file formats used and steps of the digital file preparation including slice parameters should be

included in the process specification. Care shall be taken during the creation and transfer of data files

to avoid degradation of the model. Any discrepancy between these affects the outcome of tests on

the artifacts and for this reason, best practice for the control of the file formats and preparation is

discussed here.
5.5 Download files

The 3D digital models for standard test artifact geometries can be downloaded in *.step format at https:

//standards .iso .org/iso/52902/ed -1/en. For a complete list of available files, please see Annex D.

5.6 Discussion of file conversion

When a CAD model is converted to AMF, STL (or any intermediate file format), sufficient fidelity shall

be maintained to ensure that the test artifact produced from it fairly reflects the capabilities of the

AM system under assessment. The file conversion tolerance selected should ensure that the maximum

deviation of the data from the nominal CAD model is less than one quarter and, based on good

measurement practice, ideally less than one tenth of the expected accuracy of the AM system being

assessed. Currently, most additive manufacturing equipment cannot produce features with a resolution

better than 10 µm, therefore CAD models are saved to STL/AMF ensuring at least a 2,5 µm accuracy

or better. This is only general guidance and should be confirmed for the specific output system. It is

recommended that users check the maximum deviation and record the conversion parameters used, as

well as any maximum deviation (chord height and angular tolerance).

Files should not be scaled up or down either during conversion or afterward. Machine correction

factors (e.g. offsets, axis scaling, etc.) may be used and should be documented as part of the process

specification.
5.7 AMF preferred (with conversion instructions/ resolutions)

The AMF file format as defined by ISO/ASTM 52915 is the preferred model format for test artifact

geometry representation due to its ability to store high fidelity geometry with embedded units in an

intermediate file format.
5.8 Need for test specification and test process

This document forms the basis for the general Test Plan/Specification described in ASTM F2971: 2013,

Annex A1, element “D”, but specifics about its implementation need recording to accurately document

the Test Process (element “E” in Annex A1), used for producing the parts as discussed in Clause 6.

5.9 Quantity of test artifacts

For a complete test of machine performance, two things dictate the quantity of the test artifacts

produced. First, the Test Specification/Test Process shall ensure a quantity of samples, typically no less

than five, so that statistically significant measurements can be made. Second, sufficient coverage (see

5.5) of the build platform needs to be made to account for variations in performance between build

locations. Fewer test artifacts with less complete coverage may be used for spot checks or limited

demonstrations, such as the example detailed in Annex A. The number of artifacts shall be agreed upon

between the buyer and seller and shall permit to perform at least 5 mesurements.
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5.10 Position and orientation of test artifacts

As per ASTM F2971: 2013, Annex A1, element “F”, it is recommended to report results in combinati

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