Gas infrastructure - Underground gas storage - Part 5: Functional recommendations for surface facilities

This standard covers the functional recommendations for the design, construction, testing, commissioning, operation, maintenance and abandonment of the surface facilities for underground gas storage, between the wellhead and the connection to the gas grid. In this context "gas" is any hydrocarbon fuel which is in a gaseous state at a temperature of 15°C and under a pressure of 1 bar. This includes natural gas (also called CNG) and LPG.

Gasinfrastruktur - Untertagespeicherung von Gas - Teil 5: Funktionale Empfehlungen für Übertageanlagen

Diese Europäische Norm legt die funktionalen Empfehlungen für Planung, Errichtung, Prüfung, Inbetrieb-nahme, Betrieb, Instandhaltung und Stilllegung von Übertageanlagen für Untertagegasspeicher vom Bohrlochkopf bis zum Anschluss an das Gastransportsystem fest.
Sie legt sichere und umweltverträgliche Verfahrensweisen fest.
Für erforderliche Untertageanlagen für die Untertagespeicherung gelten die einschlägigen Teile 1, 2, 3 oder 4 von EN 1918.
In diesem Zusammenhang ist „Gas“ jeder Brennstoff auf Kohlenwasserstoffbasis, der:
   sich bei einer Temperatur von 15 °C und unter einem Druck von 0,1 MPa in gasförmigem Zustand befindet (dazu gehören Erdgas, komprimiertes Erdgas (en: compressed natural gas, CNG) und Flüssig-gas (en: liquefied petroleum gas, LPG). Das gespeicherte Produkt wird auch als Medium bezeichnet);
   bestimmte Qualitätsanforderungen erfüllt, um die Integrität des Untertagespeichers, die Leistung und die Umweltverträglichkeit aufrechtzuerhalten, und vertragliche Anforderungen erfüllt.
Die vorliegende Europäische Norm legt allgemeine Grundsätze für Untertagegasspeicheranlagen fest. Die Anwender dieser Europäischen Norm sollten sich bewusst sein, dass detailliertere Normen und/oder Technische Regeln existieren. Eine Liste einschlägiger Normen, die allerdings nicht abschließend ist, findet sich in Anhang A.
Es ist vorgesehen, dass diese Europäische Norm in Verbindung mit nationalen Normen und/oder Technischen Regeln angewendet wird. Sie ersetzt diese nicht.
Beim Auftreten von Widersprüchen aufgrund restriktiverer Anforderungen in nationalen Gesetzen/Vor-schriften als in der vorliegenden Europäischen Norm gefordert haben nationale Gesetze/Vorschriften Vorrang, wie in CEN/TR 13737 (alle Teile) dargestellt.
ANMERKUNG   CEN/TR 13737 (alle Teile) enthält:
   Darstellung der in den einzelnen Ländern zu beachtenden Gesetze/Vorschriften;
   wenn notwendig, darin enthaltene restriktivere nationale Anforderungen;
   eine nationale Kontaktstelle für die aktuellsten Informationen.
Es ist nicht vorgesehen, diese Europäische Norm rückwirkend auf bestehende Anlagen anzuwenden.

Infrastructures gazières - Stockage souterrain de gaz - Partie 5: Recommandations fonctionnelles pour les installations de surface

La présente Norme européenne décrit les recommandations fonctionnelles pour la conception, la construction, les essais, la mise en service, l'exploitation, la maintenance et l'abandon des installations de surface d'un stockage souterrain de gaz (UGS) comprises entre les têtes de puits et le réseau de gaz.
Elle spécifie les pratiques acceptables pour la sécurité et l'environnement.
Pour les installations souterraines qui sont nécessaires pour un stockage souterrain de gaz, la partie pertinente des EN 1918 1 à EN 1918-4 s’applique.
Dans ce contexte, le terme « gaz » désigne tout combustible hydrocarboné :
—   qui est à l'état gazeux à une température de 15 °C et sous une pression de 0,1 MPa (sont inclus le gaz naturel, le gaz naturel comprimé (GNC) et le gaz de pétrole liquéfié (GPL)). Le produit stocké est également appelé « fluide » ;
—   qui satisfait à des prescriptions spécifiques en matière de qualité afin de maintenir l'intégrité, les performances, la compatibilité environnementale du stockage souterrain et qui respecte les prescriptions contractuelles.
La présente Norme européenne spécifie les principes communs fondamentaux des stockages souterrains de gaz. Il convient que les utilisateurs de la présente Norme européenne gardent à l'esprit qu'il existe des normes et/ou des codes de bonne pratique plus détaillés. Une liste non exhaustive des normes pertinentes figure à l'Annexe A.
La présente Norme européenne est destinée à s'appliquer conjointement avec ces normes nationales et/ou codes de bonne pratique ; elle ne les remplace pas.
En cas de conflits en termes de prescriptions plus restrictives dans la réglementations/législation nationale vis-à-vis des prescriptions de la présente Norme européenne, la réglementation/législation nationale prévaut comme illustré dans le CEN/TR 13737 (toutes les parties).
NOTE   Le CEN/TR 13737 (toutes les parties) donne :
—   la clarification des législations/règlements applicables dans un pays ;
—   si approprié, des prescriptions nationales plus restrictives ;
—   un point de contact national pour une information ultérieure.
La présente Norme européenne n'est pas prévue pour être appliquée de façon rétroactive aux installations existantes.

Infrastruktura za plin - Podzemna plinska skladišča - 5. del: Funkcionalna priporočila za nadzemno opremo

Ta standard zajema funkcionalna priporočila za načrtovanje, izgradnjo, preskušanje, delovanje, vzdrževanje in opustitev nadzemne opreme za podzemna plinska skladišča, med ustjem vrtine in povezavo s plinskim omrežjem. »Plin« v tem kontekstu pomeni vsako ogljikovodikovo gorivo, ki je v plinastem stanju pri temperaturi 15 °C in tlaku 1 bar. To vključuje zemeljski plin (imenovan tudi CNG) in LPG.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Aug-2014
Publication Date
12-Oct-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Oct-2016
Due Date
11-Dec-2016
Completion Date
13-Oct-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.NFLRQDOQDGasinfrastruktur - Untertagespeicherung von Gas - Teil 5: Funktionale Empfehlungen für ÜbertageanlagenInfrastructures gazières - Stockage souterrain de gaz - Partie 5: Recommandations fonctionnelles pour les installations de surfaceGas infrastructure - Underground gas storage - Part 5: Functional recommendations for surface facilities75.200Petroleum products and natural gas handling equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1918-5:2016SIST EN 1918-5:2016en,fr,de01-november-2016SIST EN 1918-5:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1918-5:19991DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1918-5:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1918-5
March
t r s x ICS
y wä t r r Supersedes EN
s { s zæ wã s { { zEnglish Version
Gas infrastructure æ Underground gas storage æ Part

wã Functional recommendations for surface facilities Infrastructures gazières æ Stockage souterrain de gaz æ Partie

wã Recommandations fonctionnelles pour les installations de surface
Gasinfrastruktur æ Untertagespeicherung von Gas æ Teil

wã Funktionale Empfehlungen für Übertageanlagen This European Standard was approved by CEN on

{ January
t r s xä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s { s zæ wã t r s x ESIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 4 3 Requirements for underground gas storage ......................................................................................... 5 3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 5 3.2 Underground gas storage ............................................................................................................................. 5 3.3 Injection facilities ............................................................................................................................................ 8 3.4 Withdrawal facilities ...................................................................................................................................... 9 3.5 Utilities ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 3.6 Leaching and debrining facilities for salt caverns ........................................................................... 10 3.7 LPG ..................................................................................................................................................................... 11 4 Design ............................................................................................................................................................... 12 4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12 4.2 Safety and environmental issues ............................................................................................................ 12 4.3 Engineering .................................................................................................................................................... 13 4.4 Security ............................................................................................................................................................ 13 4.5 Pumps and compressors ........................................................................................................................... 13 4.6 Process control and monitoring ............................................................................................................. 13 4.7 Back-up systems ........................................................................................................................................... 13 4.8 Manning levels .............................................................................................................................................. 13 4.9 Maintenance and inspection .................................................................................................................... 13 4.10 Flaring and venting ...................................................................................................................................... 14 4.11 Prevention and control of fires and explosions ................................................................................ 14 5 Construction ................................................................................................................................................... 14 6 Testing and commissioning ...................................................................................................................... 14 7 Operation and maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 14 8 HSE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15 8.1 HSE management.......................................................................................................................................... 15 8.2 Emergency procedures .............................................................................................................................. 15 9 Abandonment ................................................................................................................................................ 15 9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 9.2 Withdrawal of the gas ................................................................................................................................. 16 9.3 Plugging and abandonment of wells ..................................................................................................... 16 9.4 Surface facilities ........................................................................................................................................... 16 9.5 Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 Annex A (informative)

Non-exhaustive list of relevant standards ............................................................ 17 Annex B (informative)

Significant technical changes between this European Standard and the previous version EN 1918-5:1998 ......................................................................................................... 19

SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 1918-5:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 234 “Gas infrastructure”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2016 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2016. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 1918-5:1998. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. For a list of significant technical changes between this European Standard and EN 1918-5:1998, see Annex B. This document is Part 5 of a European Standard on “Gas infrastructure - Underground gas storage” which includes the following five parts: — Part 1: Functional recommendations for storage in aquifers; — Part 2: Functional recommendations for storage in oil and gas fields; — Part 3: Functional recommendations for storage in solution-mined salt cavities; — Part 4: Functional recommendations for storage in rock caverns; — Part 5: Functional recommendations for surface facilities. Directive 2009/73/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and the related Regulation (EC) No 715/2009 on conditions for access to the natural gas transmission networks also aim at technical safety including technical reliability of the European gas system. These aspects are also in the scope of CEN/TC 234 standardization. In this respect, CEN/TC 234 evaluated the indicated EU legislation and amended this technical standard accordingly, where required and appropriate. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 4 1 Scope This European Standard covers the functional recommendations for the design, construction, testing, commissioning, operation, maintenance and abandonment of the surface facilities for underground gas storage (UGS), between the wellhead and the connection to the gas grid. It specifies practices which are safe and environmentally acceptable. For necessary subsurface facilities for underground storage, the relevant part of EN 1918-1 to EN 1918-4 applies.

In this context, "gas" is any hydrocarbon fuel: — which is in a gaseous state at a temperature of 15 °C and under a pressure of 0,1 MPa (this includes natural gas, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The stored product is also named fluid); — which meets specific quality requirements in order to maintain underground storage integrity, performance, environmental compatibility and fulfils contractual requirements. This European Standard specifies common basic principles for underground gas storage facilities. Users of this European Standard should be aware that more detailed standards and/or codes of practice exist. A non-exhaustive list of relevant standards can be found in Annex A. This European Standard is intended to be applied in association with these national standards and/or codes of practice and does not replace them. In the event of conflicts in terms of more restrictive requirements in the national legislation/regulation with the requirements of this European Standard, the national legislation/regulation takes precedence as illustrated in CEN/TR 13737 (all parts). NOTE CEN/TR 13737 (all parts) contains: — clarification of relevant legislation/regulations applicable in a country; — if appropriate, more restrictive national requirements; — national contact point for the latest information. This European Standard is not intended to be applied retrospectively to existing facilities. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 1918-1, Gas infrastructure - Underground gas storage - Part 1: Functional recommendations for storage in aquifers EN 1918-2, Gas infrastructure - Underground gas storage - Part 2: Functional recommendations for storage in oil and gas fields EN 1918-3, Gas infrastructure - Underground gas storage - Part 3: Functional recommendations for storage in solution-mined salt cavities SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 5 EN 1918-4, Gas infrastructure - Underground gas storage - Part 4: Functional recommendations for storage in rock caverns 3 Requirements for underground gas storage 3.1 General The main equipment that may be required for both the withdrawal and the injection operations of gas storage facility is described below. Where no specific mention of LPG or natural gas is made, the following statements refer to both. 3.2 Underground gas storage 3.2.1 Overview and functionality of underground gas storage EN 1918 covers storage of natural gas, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Because of the relevance of underground gas storage of CNG the major part of this introduction is related to the storage of natural gas. The underground gas storage (UGS) is an efficient proven common technology and is in use since 1915. UGS became an essential indispensable link in the gas supply chain for adjusting supply to meet short-term and seasonal changes in demand. Natural gas produced from oil and gas fields is increasingly being used to supply energy requirements. As the gas supply from these fields does not match with the variable market demand, natural gas is injected into subsurface storage reservoirs when market demand falls below the level of gas delivery or if there is an economic incentive for injection. Gas is withdrawn from storage facilities to supplement the supply if demand exceeds that supply or withdrawal is economically attractive. The primary function of UGS is to ensure that supply is adjusted for peak and seasonal demand. Apart from this, the storage facilities can provide stand-by reserves in case of interruption of the planned supply. Increasingly UGS is applied for commercial storage services. Thus, in summary underground gas storage facilities can be used for: — security of supply; — providing flexibilities; — balancing of seasonal demand variabilities; — structuring of gas supply; — provision of balancing energy for the optimization of transport grids; — trading and arbitrage purpose; — stand-by provisions and strategic reserves; — structuring renewable energy sources – power to gas; — storage of associated gas as service for production optimization and resultant environmental conservation. SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 6 3.2.2 Types of UGS For storage of natural gas, several types of underground gas storage facilities can be used which differ by storage formation and storage mechanism (see Figure 1): — pore storage: — storage in aquifers; — storage in former gas fields; — storage in former oil fields. — caverns: — storage in salt caverns; — storage in rock caverns (including lined rock caverns); — storage in abandoned mines.

Key 1 operating wells 2 monitoring wells 3 indicator horizon 4 caprock 5 storage reservoir and stored gas 6 salt dome 7 cavern Figure 1 — Storage in aquifers, oil and gas fields, solution mined salt caverns For LPG storage, only salt or rock caverns can be applied. The UGS type applied is dependent on the geological conditions and prerequisites as well as on the designed capacity layout. SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 7 3.2.3 General characterization of UGS UGS are naturally or artificially developed reservoirs respectively artificially developed caverns in subsurface geological formations used for the storage of natural gas (or LPG). A UGS consists of all subsurface and surface facilities required for the storage and for the withdrawal and injection of natural gas (or LPG). Several subsurface storage reservoirs or caverns may be connected to one or several common surface facilities. The suitability of subsurface geological formations have to be investigated individually for each location, in order to operate the storage facilities in an efficient, safe and environmentally compatible manner. In order to construct a storage facility, wells are used to establish a controlled connection between the reservoir or cavern and the surface facilities at the well head. The wells used for cycling the storage gas are called operating wells. In addition to the operating wells, specially assigned observation wells may be used to monitor the storage performance with respect to pressures and saturations and the quality of reservoir water as well as to monitor any interference in adjacent formations. For the handling of gas withdrawal and gas injection, the surface facilities are the link between the subsurface facilities and the transport system, comprising facilities for gas dehydration/treatment, compression, process control and measurement. Gas is injected via the operating wells into the pores of a reservoir or into a cavern, thus building up a reservoir of compressed natural gas (or LPG). Gas is withdrawn using the operating wells. With progressing gas withdrawal, the reservoir or cavern pressure declines according to the storage characteristic. For withdrawal, re-compression may be needed. See Figure 2 for the injection mode and withdrawal mode. The working gas volume can be withdrawn and injected within the pressure range between the maximum and minimum operating pressure. In order to maintain the minimum operating pressure, it is inevitable that a significant quantity of gas, known as cushion gas volume, remains in the reservoir or cavern. The storage facility comprises the following storage capacities: — working gas volume; — withdrawal rates; — injection rates. The technical storage performance is given by withdrawal and injection rate profiles versus working gas volume. Recommendations for the design, construction, testing and commissioning, operation and abandonment of underground storage facilities are described in Clauses 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Construction of a storage facility begins after the design and exploration phase and should be carried out in accordance with the storage design. It is based on proven experience from the oil and gas industry. For specific elements of an underground gas storage facility, e.g. wells and surface installations, existing standards should be applied. SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 8

Key 1 filter 9 gas heaters 2 gas metering 10 control room 3 compressors 11 manifold 4 coolers 12 solid & liquid separation 5 oil separator 13 storage well 6 gas conditioning (e. g. glycol) 14 gas transport system 7 glycol regeneration - - - - - withdrawal with compression 8 pressure reduction ……… injection without compression Figure 2 — Example of flow path injection (above) and withdrawal (below) 3.3 Injection facilities 3.3.1 Liquid and solid separation Liquids and solid particles that the gas stream may contain should be removed by filters and/or separators to prevent damage to or incorrect operation of the equipment. 3.3.2 Gas analysis and metering Mass and/or volumetric flow rates are normally measured and recorded when injected into a storage facility. Gas analysis may be required to check gas quality before injection into a storage facility. SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 9 3.3.3 Gas compression Compression will normally be required to inject natural gas into the storage reservoir and cavern, unless the storage system pressure is lower than the pressure in the supplying transport system. Gas or electrical power may be used to drive the compressors. 3.3.4 Gas cooling After compression, the natural gas is cooled to ensure the maximum temperature allowable for equipment like separators, compressors, piping, etc., especially for the protection of pipe coatings, is not exceeded. In order to maintain the pressure of the stored LPG at a suitable level, cooling of the incoming LPG or condensation of the vapour phase may be required. 3.4 Withdrawal facilities 3.4.1 Prevention of hydrate formation Hydrate formation in a gas stream of known composition can be predicted by means of experimental data or calculated using vapour/liquid/solid equilibrium constants. The formation of hydrates can be prevented by inhibiting, heating and/or dehydrating the gas. 3.4.2 Solid and liquid separation Natural gas produced from underground storage may contain solids and/or liquids that shall be separated upstream of the other treatment facilities. 3.4.3 Gas heating To avoid excessively low temperatures due to pressure reduction heating may be required. 3.4.4 Pressure reduction Pressure reduction from wellhead pressure to the transmission system pressure may be obtained by specific equipment, for example control valves, choke valves or expanders. 3.4.5 Gas conditioning Gas from underground gas storage facilities may contain water and shall be dehydrated to meet the required water dew point specifications. Gas from storage facilities may contain higher hydrocarbon components and shall be treated to meet the hydrocarbon dew point. Natural gas from underground storage may contain minor components (e.g. hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide) that shall be reduced to the required concentrations according to the gas specification. If the specification requires LPG with a water content below that in saturated conditions, then a dehydration of the LPG may be required. Each component to be reduced may require a separate and different conditioning process. 3.4.6 Re-Compression The operating pressure of the storage is usually higher than the gas transport system pressure. Storage facilities and/or plant may be operated at a pressure lower than the gas transport system pressure to increase the working gas volume. In this case, compressors are required. SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 10 3.4.7 Gas analysis and metering Mass and/or volumetric flow rates are normally measured and recorded during withdrawal from the storage facility. Gas analysis may be required to check gas quality while withdrawing from the storage facility. 3.4.8 Odorization If required, odorization of the gas leaving the surface facilities is done downstream of the gas processing. 3.5 Utilities 3.5.1 Treatment of recovered water If required, equipment should be provided to treat water produced from the wells and recovered during separation or conditioning before it is disposed of or reinjected. 3.5.2 Fuel gas A fuel gas system is required for the operation of gas fired equipment such as heaters, compressor drivers or boilers. 3.5.3 Instrument system An instrument air, a hydraulic or an electrical system may be required for the control and operation of the surface and subsurface systems. 3.5.4 Corrosion protection Suitable corrosion protection measures for all parts of the facility are necessary, such as, e.g. cathodic protection, coating, insulation shelters, inhibition or material selection. 3.5.5 Power supplies Suitable power supplies are necessary for the operation of all electrical equipment on site. A backup system is required to operate the safety equipment. 3.5.6 Others Field flow lines, process control system, venting systems, inhibition system and, if applicable, flare. 3.6 Leaching and debrining facilities for salt caverns Leaching facilities for salt caverns may consist of: — a system for leaching water delivery with: — water off take station(s) at the leaching water source with filters, pumps; — water wells, if required; — line pipe from the leaching water off take station(s) to the leaching plant; — in some cases water reservoirs or tanks; — water injection pumps, filters; — line pipe from the leaching plant to the well head(s); SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 11 — a system for brine discharge with: — line pipe for brine discharges; — in some cases brine reservoirs or tanks; — brine disposal wells, if applicable; — brine discharge pumps, filters, dispersers; — a system for the cavern blanket with: — blanket storage, filters and pumps at the leaching plant; — line pipe for the blanket from the leaching plant to the wellhead(s); — separation equipment for the removal of blanket from brine, if required; — a system for ensuring the safety of the facility including a shutdown system; — equipment for process control. A system for ensuring the safety of the facility during the first gas filling shall be provided. 3.7 LPG 3.7.1 Solid and liquid separation For the treatment of LPG, specific equipment, for example separators or coalescers, may be used for the removal of solid particles or water droplets. 3.7.2 Liquid transfer Liquid transfer pumps may be required for the filling of LPG storage facilities. 3.7.3 Heating LPG may be delivered to the storage facility under cryogenic conditions. To allow the fluid to be warmed to a level suitable for the storage system, the surface facilities should include the installation of gas heaters. 3.7.4 Cooling In order to maintain the pressure of the stored LPG at a suitable level, cooling of the incoming LPG or condensation of the vapour phase may be required. 3.7.5 Conditioning If the specification requires withdrawn LPG with a water content below that in saturated conditions, then dehydration of the LPG may be required. 3.7.6 Colourization Prior to delivery of LPG, the contract specification may require colourization. SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 12 4 Design 4.1 General Surface and subsurface installations shall be designed in an integrated way in order to achieve an environmentally, economically and technically optimized layout. Surface and subsurface installations shall be designed to control the process and used fluids at any combination of pressure and temperature, to which they may be subjected within a determined range of operating conditions. They shall conform to existing standards for the individual part of a storage system. The key parameters and procedures at the connection with the gas transport system and the operative cooperation with the transport system operator shall be considered. Proven technology shall be used for analysis and calculations. All relevant data should be documented. The design shall be based on written procedures and shall be carried out by competent personnel and companies. All relevant data concerning the design (such as equipment specification, operating procedures, quality assurance plan) shall be documented and made available to the owner and the operator of the storage facility. During the design phase of the UGS, the following activities and reviews related to safety will be carried out, including but not limited to: — HAZOP review or equivalent; — risk analysis and pre-construction safety study. The design should be summarized in a report which is sufficient for the purpose of demonstrating that adequate safety and reliability have been incorporated into the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the facility. This safety study will be updated at storage construction completion to take into account the actual facility to be operated. 4.2 Safety and environmental issues The design of the plant shall enable the operator to conduct its operations in such a way as to minimize the risk of harm to its employees, contractors and all others who may be affected directly or indirectly by its activities, and to comply with standards on safety, occupational health and environmental protection. For this, the following should be taken into consideration at the design stage: — selection of the least harmful process materials and intermediates; — minimization of the inventory of hazardous materials; — minimization of emissions of harmful solid, liquid and gaseous substances; — design of combustion plant and equipment such as gas turbines, diesel and petrol engines, flares and boilers to produce exhaust gas, which conforms to the authorized emission contents for oxides of nitrogen and sulphur and other pollutants; — location of plant to minimize the risk to neighbours and their property; — setting out and if necessary protection of sections of plant so that the domino effect remains the lowest reasonably practicable; — if required, an appropriate impervious sealing material, with an appropriate and impervious retaining kerb to avoid spillage; SIST EN 1918-5:2016

EN 1918-5:2016 (E) 13 — treatment and handling of harmful spills in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner; — provision for the treatment of liquid discharges to drainage systems, water courses or the sea to render them harmless or for their storage in tight tanks before removal; — safe and environmentally acceptable storage of materials; — mon

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