Information technology - Security techniques - Evaluation criteria for IT security - Part 1: Introduction and general model (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

EN-ISO/IEC 15408-1 establishes the general concepts and principles of IT security evaluation and specifies the general model of evaluation given by various parts of the standard which in its entirety is meant to be used as the basis for evaluation of security properties of IT products. Part one provides an overview of all parts of ISO/IEC 15408 standard. It describes the various parts of the standard; defines the terms and abbreviations to be used in all parts of the standard; establishes the core concept of a Target of Evaluation (TOE); the evaluation context and describes the audience to which the evaluation criteria are addressed. An introduction to the basic security concepts necessary for evaluation of IT products is given. It defines the various operations by which the functional and assurance components given in ISO/IEC 15408-2 and ISO/IEC 15408-3 may be tailored through the use of permitted operations. The key concepts of protection profiles (PP), packages of security requirements and the topic of conformance are specified and the consequences of evaluation, evaluation results are described. This part of ISO/IEC 15408 gives guidelines for the specification of Security Targets (ST) and provides a description of the organization of components throughout the model. General information about the evaluation methodology are given in ISO/IEC 18045 and the scope of evaluation schemes is provided.

Informationstechnik - IT-Sicherheitsverfahren - Evaluationskriterien für IT-Sicherheit - Teil 1: Einführung und allgemeines Modell (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

Technologies de l'information - Techniques de sécurité - Critères d'évaluation pour la sécurité TI - Partie 1: Introduction et modèle général (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

Informacijska tehnologija - Varnostne tehnike - Merila za vrednotenje varnosti IT - 1. del: Uvod in splošni model (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Jan-2020
Publication Date
16-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Apr-2020
Due Date
08-Jun-2020
Completion Date
17-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
01-maj-2020

Informacijska tehnologija - Varnostne tehnike - Merila za vrednotenje varnosti IT -

1. del: Uvod in splošni model (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

Information technology - Security techniques - Evaluation criteria for IT security - Part 1:

Introduction and general model (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

Informationstechnik - IT-Sicherheitsverfahren - Evaluationskriterien für IT-Sicherheit -

Teil 1: Einführung und allgemeines Modell (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

Technologies de l'information - Techniques de sécurité - Critères d'évaluation pour la

sécurité TI - Partie 1: Introduction et modèle général (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
ICS:
35.030 Informacijska varnost IT Security
SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO/IEC 15408-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2020
ICS 35.030
English version
Information technology - Security techniques - Evaluation
criteria for IT security - Part 1: Introduction and general
model (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009)

Technologies de l'information - Techniques de sécurité Informationstechnik - IT-Sicherheitsverfahren -

- Critères d'évaluation pour la sécurité TI - Partie 1: Evaluationskriterien für IT-Sicherheit - Teil 1:

Introduction et modèle général (ISO/IEC 15408- Einführung und allgemeines Modell (ISO/IEC 15408-

1:2009) 1:2009)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 March 2020.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1

"Information technology” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been

taken over as EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 13 “Cybersecurity and

Data Protection” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 15408-1
Third edition
2009-12-15
Corrected version
2014-01-15
Information technology — Security
techniques — Evaluation criteria for IT
security —
Part 1:
Introduction and general model
Technologies de l'information — Techniques de sécurité — Critères
d'évaluation pour la sécurité TI — Partie 1: Introduction et modèle
général
Reference number
ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009(E)
ISO/IEC 2009
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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2009

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................... v

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... vi

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions common in ISO/IEC 15408 ............................................................................... 2

3.2 Terms and definitions related to the ADV class ................................................................................... 9

3.3 Terms and definitions related to the AGD class ................................................................................. 13

3.4 Terms and definitions related to the ALC class .................................................................................. 13

3.5 Terms and definitions related to the AVA class .................................................................................. 17

3.6 Terms and definitions related to the ACO class ................................................................................. 17

4 Abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................................................... 18

5 Overview...................................................................................................................................................... 19

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 19

5.2 The TOE ............................................................................................................................................. 19

5.3 Target audience of ISO/IEC 15408 .................................................................................................... 20

5.4 The different parts of ISO/IEC 15408 ................................................................................................. 21

5.5 Evaluation context .............................................................................................................................. 22

6 General model ............................................................................................................................................. 22

6.1 Introduction to the general model ....................................................................................................... 22

6.2 Assets and countermeasures ............................................................................................................. 23

6.3 Evaluation ........................................................................................................................................... 27

7 Tailoring Security Requirements ................................................................................................................. 27

7.1 Operations .......................................................................................................................................... 27

7.2 Dependencies between components ................................................................................................. 30

7.3 Extended components ........................................................................................................................ 30

8 Protection Profiles and Packages ............................................................................................................... 31

8.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 31

8.2 Packages ............................................................................................................................................ 31

8.3 Protection Profiles............................................................................................................................... 31

8.4 Using PPs and packages ................................................................................................................... 34

8.5 Using Multiple Protection Profiles ....................................................................................................... 34

9 Evaluation results ........................................................................................................................................ 34

9.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 34

9.2 Results of a PP evaluation ................................................................................................................. 35

9.3 Results of an ST/TOE evaluation ....................................................................................................... 35

9.4 Conformance claim ............................................................................................................................. 35

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9.5 Use of ST/TOE evaluation results ..................................................................................................... 36

Annex A (informative) Specification of Security Targets .................................................................................. 38

Annex B (informative) Specification of Protection Profiles ............................................................................... 54

Annex C (informative) Guidance for Operations ............................................................................................... 59

Annex D (informative) PP conformance ........................................................................................................... 62

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 64

iv © ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 15408-1 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 27, IT Security techniques. The identical text of ISO/IEC 15408 is published by the

Common Criteria Project Sponsoring Organisations as Common Criteria for Information Technology Security

Evaluation. The common XML source for both publications can be found at
http://www.commoncriteriaportal.org/cc/

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 15408-1:2005), which has been

technically revised.

ISO/IEC 15408 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Security

techniques — Evaluation criteria for IT security:
 Part 1: Introduction and general model
 Part 2: Security functional components
 Part 3: Security assurance components

This corrected version of ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009 incorporates miscellaneous editorial corrections related to

the following:

 terminology: correction for the terms "security problem" and "security domains";

 clause 8.3: explanation of strict conformance, removal of former Figure 4.
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ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009(E)
Introduction

ISO/IEC 15408 permits comparability between the results of independent security evaluations. ISO/IEC 15408

does so by providing a common set of requirements for the security functionality of IT products and for

assurance measures applied to these IT products during a security evaluation. These IT products may be

implemented in hardware, firmware or software.

The evaluation process establishes a level of confidence that the security functionality of these IT products

and the assurance measures applied to these IT products meet these requirements. The evaluation results

may help consumers to determine whether these IT products fulfil their security needs.

ISO/IEC 15408 is useful as a guide for the development, evaluation and/or procurement of IT products with

security functionality.

ISO/IEC 15408 is intentionally flexible, enabling a range of evaluation methods to be applied to a range of

security properties of a range of IT products. Therefore users of the standard are cautioned to exercise care

that this flexibility is not misused. For example, using ISO/IEC 15408 in conjunction with unsuitable evaluation

methods, irrelevant security properties, or inappropriate IT products, may result in meaningless evaluation

results.

Consequently, the fact that an IT product has been evaluated has meaning only in the context of the security

properties that were evaluated and the evaluation methods that were used. Evaluation authorities are advised

to carefully check the products, properties and methods to determine that an evaluation will provide

meaningful results. Additionally, purchasers of evaluated products are advised to carefully consider this

context to determine whether the evaluated product is useful and applicable to their specific situation and

needs.

ISO/IEC 15408 addresses protection of assets from unauthorised disclosure, modification, or loss of use. The

categories of protection relating to these three types of failure of security are commonly called confidentiality,

integrity, and availability, respectively. ISO/IEC 15408 may also be applicable to aspects of IT security outside

of these three. ISO/IEC 15408 is applicable to risks arising from human activities (malicious or otherwise) and

to risks arising from non-human activities. Apart from IT security, ISO/IEC 15408 may be applied in other

areas of IT, but makes no claim of applicability in these areas.

Certain topics, because they involve specialised techniques or because they are somewhat peripheral to IT

security, are considered to be outside the scope of ISO/IEC 15408. Some of these are identified below.

a) ISO/IEC 15408 does not contain security evaluation criteria pertaining to administrative security

measures not related directly to the IT security functionality. However, it is recognised that significant

security can often be achieved through or supported by administrative measures such as organisational,

personnel, physical, and procedural controls.

b) The evaluation of some technical physical aspects of IT security such as electromagnetic emanation

control is not specifically covered, although many of the concepts addressed will be applicable to that

area.

c) ISO/IEC 15408 does not address the evaluation methodology under which the criteria should be applied.

This methodology is given in ISO/IEC 18045.

d) ISO/IEC 15408 does not address the administrative and legal framework under which the criteria may be

applied by evaluation authorities. However, it is expected that ISO/IEC 15408 will be used for evaluation

purposes in the context of such a framework.
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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
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e) The procedures for use of evaluation results in accreditation are outside the scope of ISO/IEC 15408.

Accreditation is the administrative process whereby authority is granted for the operation of an IT product

(or collection thereof) in its full operational environment including all of its non-IT parts. The results of the

evaluation process are an input to the accreditation process. However, as other techniques are more

appropriate for the assessments of non-IT related properties and their relationship to the IT security parts,

accreditors should make separate provisions for those aspects.

f) The subject of criteria for the assessment of the inherent qualities of cryptographic algorithms is not

covered in ISO/IEC 15408. Should independent assessment of mathematical properties of cryptography

be required, the evaluation scheme under which ISO/IEC 15408 is applied must make provision for such

assessments.

ISO terminology, such as "can", "informative", "may", "normative", "shall" and "should" used throughout the

document are defined in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. Note that the term "should" has an additional meaning

applicable when using this standard. See the note below. The following definition is given for the use of

“should” in ISO/IEC 15408.
should

within normative text, “should” indicates “that among several possibilities one is recommended as particularly

suitable, without mentioning or excluding others, or that a certain course of action is preferred but not

necessarily required.” (ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2).

NOTE ISO/IEC 15408 interprets “not necessarily required” to mean that the choice of another possibility requires a

justification of why the preferred option was not chosen.
© ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO/IEC 15408-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009(E)
Information technology — Security techniques — Evaluation
criteria for IT security —
Part 1:
Introduction and general model
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 15408 establishes the general concepts and principles of IT security evaluation and

specifies the general model of evaluation given by various parts of the standard which in its entirety is meant

to be used as the basis for evaluation of security properties of IT products.

Part one provides an overview of all parts of ISO/IEC 15408 standard. It describes the various parts of the

standard; defines the terms and abbreviations to be used in all parts of the standard; establishes the core

concept of a Target of Evaluation (TOE); the evaluation context and describes the audience to which the

evaluation criteria are addressed. An introduction to the basic security concepts necessary for evaluation of IT

products is given.

It defines the various operations by which the functional and assurance components given in ISO/IEC 15408-2

and ISO/IEC 15408-3 may be tailored through the use of permitted operations.

The key concepts of protection profiles (PP), packages of security requirements and the topic of conformance

are specified and the consequences of evaluation, evaluation results are described. This part of ISO/IEC

15408 gives guidelines for the specification of Security Targets (ST) and provides a description of the

organization of components throughout the model. General information about the evaluation methodology are

given in ISO/IEC 18045 and the scope of evaluation schemes is provided.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of ISO/IEC 15408 part 1. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 15408-2, Information technology — Security techniques — Evaluation criteria for IT security —

Part 2: Security functional components

ISO/IEC 15408-3, Information technology — Security techniques — Evaluation criteria for IT security —

Part 3: Security assurance components

ISO/IEC 18045, Information technology — Security techniques — Methodology for IT security evaluation

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE This clause contains only those terms which are used in a specialized way throughout ISO/IEC 15408. Some

combinations of common terms used in ISO/IEC 15408, while not meriting inclusion in this clause, are explained for clarity

in the context where they are used.
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ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009(E)
3.1 Terms and definitions common in ISO/IEC 15408
3.1.1
adverse actions
actions performed by a threat agent on an asset
3.1.2
assets
entities that the owner of the TOE presumably places value upon
3.1.3
assignment

specification of an identified parameter in a component (of ISO/IEC 15408) or requirement

3.1.4
assurance
grounds for confidence that a TOE meets the SFRs
3.1.5
attack potential

measure of the effort to be expended in attacking a TOE, expressed in terms of an attacker's expertise,

resources and motivation
3.1.6
augmentation
addition of one or more requirement(s) to a package
3.1.7
authentication data
information used to verify the claimed identity of a user
3.1.8
authorised user
TOE user who may, in accordance with the SFRs, perform an operation
3.1.9
class
set of ISO/IEC 15408 families that share a common focus
3.1.10
coherent
logically ordered and having discernible meaning

NOTE For documentation, this addresses both the actual text and the structure of the document, in terms of whether

it is understandable by its target audience.
3.1.11
complete
property where all necessary parts of an entity have been provided

NOTE In terms of documentation, this means that all relevant information is covered in the documentation, at such a

level of detail that no further explanation is required at that level of abstraction.

3.1.12
component
smallest selectable set of elements on which requirements may be based
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ISO/IEC 15408-1:2009(E)
3.1.13
composed assurance package

assurance package consisting of requirements drawn from ISO/IEC 15408-3 (predominately from the ACO

class), representing a point on ISO/IEC 15408 predefined composition assurance scale

3.1.14
confirm

declare that something has been reviewed in detail with an independent determination of sufficiency

NOTE The level of rigour required depends on the nature of the subject matter. This term is only applied to evaluator

actions.
3.1.15
connectivity
property of the TOE allowing interaction with IT entities external to the TOE

NOTE This includes exchange of data by wire or by wireless means, over any distance in any environment or

configuration.
3.1.16
consistent

relationship between two or more entities such that there are no apparent contradictions between these

entities
3.1.17
counter, verb

meet an attack where the impact of a particular threat is mitigated but not necessarily eradicated

3.1.18
demonstrable conformance

relation between an ST and a PP, where the ST provides a solution which solves the generic security problem

in the PP

NOTE The PP and the ST may contain entirely different statements that discuss different entities, use different

concepts etc. Demonstrable conformance is also suitable for a TOE type where several similar PPs already exist, thus

allowing the ST author to claim conformance to these PPs simultaneously, thereby saving work.

3.1.19
demonstrate
provide a conclusion gained by an analysis which is less rigorous than a “proof”
3.1.20
dependency

relationship between components such that if a requirement based on the depending component is included in

a PP, ST or package, a requirement based on the component that is depended upon must normally also be

included in the PP, ST or package
3.1.21
describe
provide specific details of an entity
3.1.22
determine

affirm a particular conclusion based on independent analysis with the objective of reaching a particular

conclusion

NOTE The usage of this term implies a truly independent analysis, usually in the absence of any previous analysis

having been performed. Compare with the terms “confirm” or “verify” which imply that an analysis has already been

performed which needs to be reviewed
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3.1.23
development environment
environment in which the TOE is developed
3.1.24
element
indivisible statement of a security need
3.1.25
ensure
guarantee a strong causal relationship between an action and its consequences

NOTE When this term is preceded by the word “help” it indicates that the consequence is not fully certain, on the

basis of that action alone.
3.1.26
evaluation
assessment of a PP, an ST or a TOE, against defined criteria
3.1.27
evaluation assurance level

set of assurance requirements drawn from ISO/IEC 15408-3, representing a point on the ISO/IEC 15408

predefined assurance scale, that form an assurance package
3.1.28
evaluation authority

body that sets the standards and monitors the quality of evaluations conducted by bodies within a specific

community and implements ISO/IEC 15408 for that community by means of an evaluation scheme

3.1.29
evaluation scheme

administrative and regulatory framework under which ISO/IEC 15408 is applied by an evaluation authority

within a specific community
3.1.30
exhaustive

characteristic of a methodical approach taken to perform an analysis or activity according to an unambiguous

plan

NOTE This term is used in ISO/IEC 15408 with respect to conducting an analysis or other activity. It is related to

“systematic” but is considerably stronger, in that it indicates not only that a methodical approach has been taken to

perform the analysis or ac
...

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