Space engineering - Insert design handbook

This handbook recommends engineering inserts and practices for European programs and projects. It may be cited in contracts and program documents as a reference for guidance to meet specific program/project needs.
The target users of this handbook are engineers involved in the design, analysis and verification of launchers and spacecraft in relation to insert usage. The current know‐how is documented in this handbook in order to make expertise to all European developers of space systems.
It is a guidelines document, therefore it includes advisory information rather than requirements.

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Einsätzen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de conception d’inserts

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za oblikovanje vstavkov

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jun-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Jun-2022
Due Date
25-Aug-2022
Completion Date
30-Jun-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-22:2022
01-september-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za oblikovanje vstavkov
Space engineering - Insert design handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Einsätzen
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de conception d’inserts
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-22:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-22:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-22:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-22:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-22
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
June 2022
ICS 49.030.99; 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Insert design handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de conception d'inserts Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Einsätzen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 17 May 2022. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-22:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 27

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 28

2 References ............................................................................................................ 29

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 30

4 Insert system ........................................................................................................ 67

4.1 Insert systems and components ............................................................................. 67

4.1.1 Inserts ....................................................................................................... 67

4.1.2 Insert system components ........................................................................ 69

4.1.3 Loading modes ......................................................................................... 70

5 Insert ...................................................................................................................... 71

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 71

5.2 Types...................................................................................................................... 71

5.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 71

5.2.2 Group A .................................................................................................... 71

5.2.3 Group B .................................................................................................... 73

5.2.4 Group C .................................................................................................... 73

5.2.5 Potting methods ........................................................................................ 74

5.2.6 Injection .................................................................................................... 74

5.3 Sizes....................................................................................................................... 75

5.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 75

5.3.2 Standards ................................................................................................. 75

5.3.3 Strength .................................................................................................... 76

5.3.4 Standardised diameters ............................................................................ 77

5.3.5 Standardised heights ................................................................................ 78

5.4 Materials ................................................................................................................. 79

5.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 79

5.4.2 Aluminium alloys ....................................................................................... 80

5.4.3 Titanium alloys .......................................................................................... 80

5.4.4 Steels ........................................................................................................ 81

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5.4.5 Material selection ...................................................................................... 81

5.5 Surface protection................................................................................................... 81

5.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 81

5.5.2 Aluminium alloy ......................................................................................... 82

5.6 References ............................................................................................................. 83

5.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 83

5.6.2 ECSS standards ....................................................................................... 83

6 Sandwich panels .................................................................................................. 84

6.1 Sandwich properties ............................................................................................... 84

6.1.1 Insert load-bearing capability .................................................................... 84

6.1.2 Sandwich dimensions ............................................................................... 85

6.2 Face sheet properties ............................................................................................. 85

6.2.1 Tensile and compressive loading .............................................................. 85

6.2.2 Shear loading ............................................................................................ 87

6.2.3 Other loads ............................................................................................... 89

6.3 Core properties ....................................................................................................... 90

6.3.1 Types of cores .......................................................................................... 90

6.3.2 Hexagonal core ......................................................................................... 90

6.4 Core shear modulus ............................................................................................... 94

6.4.1 Data sources ............................................................................................. 94

6.5 Core shear strength ................................................................................................ 94

6.5.1 Data sources ............................................................................................. 95

6.6 Core tensile strength ............................................................................................... 95

6.6.1 Data sources ............................................................................................. 95

6.6.2 Aluminium core ......................................................................................... 95

6.6.3 Non-metallic cores .................................................................................... 95

6.7 Core compressive strength ..................................................................................... 96

6.8 Core to face sheet bond ......................................................................................... 96

6.9 References ............................................................................................................. 96

7 Embedding of inserts ........................................................................................... 97

7.1 Potting compounds ................................................................................................. 97

7.1.1 Commercial products ................................................................................ 97

7.1.2 Modification of properties .......................................................................... 99

7.2 Potting and equivalent dimensions ......................................................................... 99

7.2.1 Insert load capability ................................................................................. 99

7.2.2 Increasing insert tensile capability ........................................................... 101

7.3 Effective potting radius, or equivalent dimension .................................................. 101

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7.3.1 Minimum value ........................................................................................ 102

7.3.2 Average value ......................................................................................... 102

7.3.3 Relationship of minimum and average values ......................................... 103

7.4 Real potting radius, or equivalent dimension ......................................................... 104

7.4.1 Minimum value ........................................................................................ 104

7.4.2 Average value ......................................................................................... 104

7.4.3 Relationship between minimum and average values ............................... 104

7.5 Potting height ........................................................................................................ 105

7.5.1 Full potting .............................................................................................. 105

7.5.2 Partial potting .......................................................................................... 106

7.5.3 Minimum value ........................................................................................ 106

7.5.4 Average value ......................................................................................... 106

7.5.5 Relationship of minimum and average values ......................................... 106

7.6 Potting mass ......................................................................................................... 108

7.6.1 Effect of core and insert characteristics ................................................... 108

7.6.2 Total mass of insert system ..................................................................... 110

7.7 References ........................................................................................................... 110

7.7.1 General ................................................................................................... 110

7.7.2 ECSS standards ..................................................................................... 110

8 Mechanics of sandwich structures ................................................................... 111

8.1 Structural sandwich concept ................................................................................. 111

8.1.1 Properties of constituent materials .......................................................... 112

8.1.2 Fundamentals of classical ‘antiplane’ sandwich theory ............................ 113

8.2 Structural failure modes ........................................................................................ 116

8.2.1 Global failure modes ............................................................................... 117

8.2.2 Local failure modes ................................................................................. 118

8.3 Load introduction aspects and discontinuities ....................................................... 118

8.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 118

8.3.2 Local bending response .......................................................................... 119

8.3.3 Antiplane-type theory .............................................................................. 120

8.3.4 Finite element analysis ............................................................................ 120

8.3.5 Elastic foundation model ......................................................................... 120

8.3.6 Transverse flexibility ................................................................................ 120

8.3.7 Higher-order sandwich beam theory ....................................................... 120

8.4 Sandwich plates with potted inserts ...................................................................... 121

8.4.1 Classification of potted insert types ......................................................... 121

8.4.2 Load transfer ........................................................................................... 122

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8.4.3 External load cases ................................................................................. 122

8.4.4 Example .................................................................................................. 124

8.4.5 Purpose of the potting compound ............................................................ 129

8.4.6 Design guidelines .................................................................................... 129

8.5 Remarks ............................................................................................................... 130

8.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 130

8.5.2 Antiplane theories ................................................................................... 130

8.5.3 Higher-order theories .............................................................................. 131

8.5.4 ESAComp ............................................................................................. 131

8.6 References ........................................................................................................... 132

8.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 132

8.6.2 ECSS standards ..................................................................................... 134

9 Design aspects ................................................................................................... 135

9.1 Design parameters ............................................................................................... 135

9.1.1 Metal face sheets .................................................................................... 137

9.1.2 Composite face sheets ............................................................................ 137

9.2 Main load directions .............................................................................................. 138

9.2.1 Out-of-plane load .................................................................................... 138

9.2.2 In-plane load ........................................................................................... 139

9.3 References ........................................................................................................... 139

9.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 139

9.3.2 ECSS standards ..................................................................................... 139

10 Design considerations ..................................................................................... 140

10.1 Insert arrangement ............................................................................................... 140

10.1.1 Load capability ........................................................................................ 141

10.2 Load conditions .................................................................................................... 142

10.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 142

10.2.2 Design guide ........................................................................................... 144

10.3 Mounting modes ................................................................................................... 148

10.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 148

10.3.2 Flush-mounted insert .............................................................................. 148

10.3.3 Recessed insert ...................................................................................... 148

10.3.4 Protruding insert ...................................................................................... 149

10.3.5 Bonded flange ......................................................................................... 150

10.4 Junction of components ........................................................................................ 150

10.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 150

10.4.2 Minimum value ........................................................................................ 151

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10.5 Adequate insert design ......................................................................................... 152

10.5.1 Insert arrangement .................................................................................. 152

10.5.2 Typical spacecraft design ........................................................................ 152

10.5.3 Examples ................................................................................................ 153

10.6 Selection of inserts ............................................................................................... 153

10.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 153

10.6.2 Sufficient static strength .......................................................................... 154

10.6.3 Safety factor ............................................................................................ 155

10.7 Minimum and average insert capability ................................................................. 155

10.7.1 Minimum ................................................................................................. 155

10.7.2 Average .................................................................................................. 156

10.8 Pre-design ............................................................................................................ 156

10.8.1 Load path for in-plane forces ................................................................... 157

10.8.2 Load path for transverse forces ............................................................... 159

10.8.3 Transverse and in-plane load interaction ................................................. 160

10.8.4 Proximity and edge effects ...................................................................... 160

10.9 Failure modes ....................................................................................................... 160

10.9.1 General ................................................................................................... 160

10.9.2 Failures under out-of-plane loads ............................................................ 161

10.9.3 Failures under in-plane loads .................................................................. 166

10.10 References ........................................................................................................... 168

10.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 168

11 Design flow chart .............................................................................................. 169

11.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 169

11.2 Flow chart: Predefined sandwich and loads .......................................................... 169

11.3 Flow chart: Variable main parameters ................................................................... 171

11.4 References ........................................................................................................... 172

11.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 172

12 Tensile strength ................................................................................................ 173

12.1 Normal tensile load ............................................................................................... 173

12.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 173

12.1.2 Failure modes ......................................................................................... 173

12.1.3 Shear rupture: core surrounding the potting ............................................ 174

12.1.4 Tensile rupture: core underneath the potting ........................................... 175

12.1.5 Tensile rupture: potting underneath the insert ......................................... 176

12.2 Basic parameters .................................................................................................. 176

12.2.1 Out-of-plane loads: Insert strength .......................................................... 179

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12.3 Minimum and average design values .................................................................... 181

12.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 181

12.3.2 Minimum insert design values ................................................................. 181

12.3.3 Average insert values .............................................................................. 182

12.4 Safety factors ........................................................................................................ 183

12.4.1 Load capability ........................................................................................ 183

12.4.2 Failure modes ......................................................................................... 184

12.5 Permissible tensile loads ...................................................................................... 184

12.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 184

12.5.2 Insert capability graphs ........................................................................... 184

12.5.3 Design values ......................................................................................... 184

12.6 Influence of insert height ....................................................................................... 185

12.6.1 Insert capability graphs ........................................................................... 185

12.6.2 Different insert heights ............................................................................ 185

12.7 Composite face sheet ........................................................................................... 187

12.7.1 Effect of anisotropy ................................................................................. 187

12.7.2 Loading by moments ............................................................................... 187

12.8 References ........................................................................................................... 187

12.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 187

13 Compressive strength ...................................................................................... 188

13.1 Normal compressive load ..................................................................................... 188

13.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 188

13.1.2 Partially-potted inserts ............................................................................. 188

13.1.3 Potting strength ....................................................................................... 188

13.1.4 Increased face sheet thickness ............................................................... 188

13.1.5 Insert capabilities .................................................................................... 189

13.2 Permissible compressive loads ............................................................................. 189

13.2.1 Graphs of permissible static insert loads ................................................. 189

13.3 Composite face sheet ........................................................................................... 189

14 Shear strength .................................................................................................. 191

14.1 Shear (in-plane) load ............................................................................................ 191

14.1.1 Effect of in-plane load ............................................................................. 191

14.1.2 Effect of face sheet material .................................................................... 192

14.1.3 Effect of partial clamping ......................................................................... 192

14.2 Permissible shear load ......................................................................................... 192

14.3 Composite face sheet ........................................................................................... 193

14.3.1 Strength .................................................................................................. 193

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14.3.2 Face sheets ............................................................................................ 196

14.3.3 CFRP face sheets ................................................................................... 196

14.3.4 Effect of panel layout ............................................................................... 201

14.3.5 Sensitivity of insert strength in face sheets .............................................. 202

14.3.6 Effect of thin CFRP face sheet ................................................................ 203

14.4 References ........................................................................................................... 204

14.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 204

15 Bending strength .............................................................................................. 205

15.1 Bending load ......................................................................................................... 205

15.2 Permissible bending load ...................................................................................... 206

15.3 Composite face sheet ........................................................................................... 207

15.4 References ........................................................................................................... 208

15.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 208

16 Torsional strength ............................................................................................ 209

16.1 Torsional load ....................................................................................................... 209

16.2 Permissible torsion load ........................................................................................ 209

16.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 209

16.2.2 Metallic core ............................................................................................ 209

16.2.3 Non-metallic core ........
...

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