Underwater acoustics - Hydrophones - Calibration in the frequency range 0,01 Hz to 1 MHz

This International Standard specifies methods for calibration of hydrophones or reversible transducers when used as a hydrophone, particularly in the frequency range from 0,01 Hz to 1 MHz. Rules for the presentation of the calibration data are established.

Wasserschall - Hydrophone - Kalibrierung im Frequenzbereich von 0,01 Hz bis 1 MHz

Acoustique sous-marine - Hydrophones - Etalonnage dans la bande de fréquences de 0,01 Hz à 1 MHz

Spécifie des méthodes pour l'étalonnage des hydrophones ou des transducteurs réversibles utilisés comme des hydrophones, en particulier dans la bande de fréquences de 0,01 Hz à 1 MHz. Les règles de présentation des résultats d'étalonnage sont établies.

Podvodna akustika - Hidrofoni - Kalibracija v frekvenčnem območju od 0,01 Hz do 1 MHz (IEC 60565:2006)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Nov-2007
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-Oct-2007
Due Date
29-Dec-2007
Completion Date
06-Nov-2007

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60565:2008
01-januar-2008
3RGYRGQDDNXVWLND+LGURIRQL.DOLEUDFLMDYIUHNYHQþQHPREPRþMXRG+]GR
0+] ,(&

Underwater acoustics - Hydrophones - Calibration in the frequency range 0,01 Hz to 1

MHz (IEC 60565:2006)

Wasserschall - Hydrophone - Kalibrierung im Frequenzbereich von 0,01 Hz bis 1 MHz

(IEC 60565:2006)
Acoustique sous-marine - Hydrophones - Etalonnage dans la bande de fréquences de
0,01 Hz a 1 MHz (IEC 60565:2006)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60565:2007
ICS:
17.140.50 Elektroakustika Electroacoustics
SIST EN 60565:2008 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 60565
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2007
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.140.50
English version
Underwater acoustics -
Hydrophones -
Calibration in the frequency range 0,01 Hz to 1 MHz
(IEC 60565:2006)
Acoustique sous-marine - Wasserschall -
Hydrophones - Hydrophone -
Etalonnage dans la bande de fréquences Kalibrierung im Frequenzbereich
de 0,01 Hz à 1 MHz von 0,01 Hz bis 1 MHz
(CEI 60565:2006) (IEC 60565:2006)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2006-12-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2007 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60565:2007 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 60565:2007 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 87/357/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60565, prepared by IEC TC 87, Ultrasonics,

was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 60565 on

2006-12-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2007-09-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2009-12-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60565:2006 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 60565:2007
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-801 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV)
Chapter 801: Acoustics and electroacoustics
IEC 60500 1974 IEC standard hydrophone - -
IEC 60866 1987 Characteristics and calibration of - -
hydrophones for operation in the frequency
range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz
Undated reference.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
60565
INTERNATIONAL
Deuxième édition
STANDARD
Second edition
2006-11
Acoustique sous-marine –
Hydrophones –
Étalonnage dans la bande de
fréquences de 0,01 Hz à 1 MHz
Underwater acoustics –
Hydrophones –
Calibration in the frequency
range 0,01 Hz to 1 MHz
© IEC 2006 Droits de reproduction réservés ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

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Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

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Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
60565 © IEC:2006 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................9

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................13

2 Normative references .....................................................................................................13

3 Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................13

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms......................................................................................25

5 Procedures for calibrations.............................................................................................29

5.1 Principles ..............................................................................................................29

5.2 Field limitations .....................................................................................................31

5.3 Schematic survey of procedures............................................................................31

5.4 Reporting of results ...............................................................................................31

5.5 Recalibration periods.............................................................................................33

5.6 Temperature and pressure considerations for calibration.......................................33

6 Preparation of transducers .............................................................................................33

6.1 Wetting..................................................................................................................33

6.2 Hydrophone support ..............................................................................................33

6.3 Influence of cable ..................................................................................................33

7 Electrical measurements ................................................................................................35

7.1 Signal type ............................................................................................................35

7.2 Earthing ................................................................................................................35

7.3 Measurement of hydrophone output voltage ..........................................................35

7.4 Measurement of projector current..........................................................................37

7.5 Measurement of transfer impedance......................................................................39

8 Free-field reciprocity calibration......................................................................................39

8.1 General principle ...................................................................................................39

8.2 Theory...................................................................................................................41

8.3 Separation distance...............................................................................................51

8.4 Minimum distance from transducers to boundary surface.......................................51

8.5 Frequency limitation ..............................................................................................51

8.6 Measurements and checks ....................................................................................53

8.7 Uncertainty............................................................................................................59

9 Free-field calibration by comparison ...............................................................................59

9.1 Principle................................................................................................................59

9.2 Comparison with a standard hydrophone...............................................................59

9.3 Calibration with a calibrated projector....................................................................61

10 Calibration by hydrostatic excitation ...............................................................................63

10.1 Principle................................................................................................................63

10.2 Determination of equivalent pressure ....................................................................63

10.3 Measurement of the sensitivity of hydrophones .....................................................71

10.4 Design of vibration system ....................................................................................73

10.5 Uncertainty............................................................................................................75

10.6 Alternative method for hydrostatic excitation .........................................................75

11 Calibration by piezoelectric compensation ......................................................................75

11.1 Principle................................................................................................................75

11.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................77

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60565 © IEC:2006 – 5 –

11.3 Design of the calibration chamber .........................................................................81

11.4 Practical limitations of the piezoelectric compensation method ..............................85

11.5 Uncertainty............................................................................................................85

12 Acoustic coupler reciprocity calibration...........................................................................85

12.1 Principle………......................................................................................................85

12.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................85

12.3 Theory……….........................................................................................................87

12.4 Acoustic compliance..............................................................................................89

12.5 High-frequency limit ..............................................................................................89

12.6 Low-frequency limit ...............................................................................................89

12.7 Measurement ........................................................................................................89

12.8 Uncertainty............................................................................................................91

12.9 Limitations.............................................................................................................91

12.10 Acoustic-coupler calibration using a reference coupler with two reciprocal

transducers and an auxiliary coupler with the same two transducers and a

hydrophone to be calibrated ..................................................................................91

12.11 Acoustic-coupler calibration using a reference coupler with two reciprocal

transducers and an auxiliary coupler with the same two transducers, a

hydrophone to be calibrated, and a sound source..................................................95

12.12 Acoustic-coupler calibration using a coupler, a reciprocal transducer, a
projector, a hydrophone to be calibrated, and a subsidiary body of known

compliance............................................................................................................99

13 Calibration with a pistonphone......................................................................................103

13.1 Principle………....................................................................................................103

13.2 Procedure ...........................................................................................................103

13.3 Limitations...........................................................................................................109

13.4 Uncertainty..........................................................................................................111

14 Calibration with a vibrating column ...............................................................................111

14.1 Principle………....................................................................................................111

14.2 Procedure ...........................................................................................................113

14.3 Expression for the pressure.................................................................................115

14.4 Determination of the sensitivity............................................................................115

14.5 Conditions of measurement .................................................................................119

14.6 Uncertainty..........................................................................................................121

Annex A (informative) Directional response of a hydrophone .............................................123

Annex B (informative) Electrical loading corrections............................................................127

Annex C (informative) Pulsed techniques in free-field calibrations ......................................131

Annex D (informative) Assessment of uncertainty in the calibration of hydrophones...........149

Annex E (informative) Equivalent circuit of the excitation system for calibration with a

vibrating column .................................................................................................................157

Bibliography........................................................................................................................159

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60565 © IEC:2006 – 7 –

Figure 1 – Left-hand co-ordinate system ...............................................................................15

Figure 2 – Measurement framework for supporting in-line the three transducers: a

projector P, a reciprocal transducer T, and a hydrophone H to be calibrated.........................49

Figure 3 – Diagram of the method of hydrostatic excitation. ..................................................65

Figure 4 – Schematic drawing of the measuring system ........................................................77

Figure 5 – Diagram of the chamber for high-frequency..........................................................83

Figure 6 – Reciprocity coupler with three transducers; a projector P , a reciprocal

transducer T , and a hydrophone H to be calibrated............................................................87

Figure 7 – Reference coupler with two transducers: a projector P and a reciprocal

transducer T .........................................................................................................................93

Figure 8 – Auxiliary coupler with three transducers: a projector P , a reciprocal

transducer T , and a hydrophone H to be calibrated............................................................93

Figure 9 – Auxiliary coupler with four transducers; a projector P , a reciprocal

transducer T , a sound source S , and a hydrophone H to be calibrated..............................97

Figure 10 – Schematic drawing of the measuring system. ...................................................103

Figure 11 – Pistonphone .....................................................................................................111

Figure 12 – Vibrating column ..............................................................................................113

Figure C.1 – Schematic diagram of a projector and receiver in a water tank showing

the main sources of reflections ...........................................................................................135

Figure C.2 – Echo arrival time in a 6 m × 6 m × 5 m tank with optimally placed

transducers.........................................................................................................................137

Figure C.3 – Hydrophone signals for a pair of spherical transducers [projector: 18 kHz

resonance frequency, Q factor of 3,5; hydrophone: 350 kHz resonance frequency;

drive frequency: 2 kHz (left) and 18 kHz (right)] ..................................................................139

Figure E.1 – Simplified equivalent circuit of the vibrating column ........................................157

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60565 © IEC:2006 – 9 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS – HYDROPHONES –
CALIBRATION IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE
0,01 Hz TO 1 MHz
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60565 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 87:

Ultrasonics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1977 and its first

supplement IEC 60565A (1980). This edition constitutes a technical revision. The significant

technical changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows:

– updating of procedures to reflect the use of digital acquisition and signal processing

techniques as opposed to the analogue techniques described in the first edition;

– inclusion of more detailed information regarding the preparation of hydrophones for

measurement, and the influences of environmental conditions on hydrophone calibration;

– revision of procedures for magnitude calibration of hydrophone response by the method of

three-transducer spherical-wave reciprocity;

– inclusion of procedures for phase calibration into the method of three-transducer

spherical-wave reciprocity;
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
60565 © IEC:2006 – 11 –

– revision of procedures for calibration of hydrophones by the comparison methods;

– inclusion of procedures for low frequency hydrophone calibration utilising the method of

hydrostatic excitation;

– revision of the procedures for low frequency hydrophone calibration utilising the method of

piezoelectric compensation;

– inclusion of procedures for low frequency hydrophone calibration utilising the method of

coupler reciprocity;

– revision of the procedures for low frequency hydrophone calibration utilising the

pistonphone method;

– revision of procedures for low frequency hydrophone calibration utilising the method of

vibrating column (previously issued as a supplement to the standard);

– deletion of Appendix A of first edition (transfer impedance by substitution method) since

method no longer used;

– deletion of Appendix B of first edition (transfer impedance by direct read-out method)

since method no longer used;

– retention of Appendix C of first edition, but now substantially updated and included as

Annex C (informative);

– retention of Appendix D of first edition, now included as Annex A (informative);

– addition of new Annex B describing methods for accounting for electrical loading of

hydrophones by pre-amplifiers;

– addition of new Annex D describing the assessment of uncertainty in free-field hydrophone

calibrations;

– addition of new Annex E describing an equivalent electrical circuit of the excitation system

for calibration with a vibrating column.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
87/357/FDIS 87/360/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60565 © IEC:2006 – 13 –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS – HYDROPHONES –
CALIBRATION IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE
0,01 Hz TO 1 MHz
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies methods for calibration of hydrophones or reversible

transducers when used as a hydrophone, particularly in the frequency range from 0,01 Hz to

1 MHz. Rules for the presentation of the calibration data are established.
2 Normative references

The following referenced data are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-801, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Chapter 801: Acoustics and

electroacoustics
IEC 60500:1974, IEC Standard hydrophone

IEC 60866:1987, Characteristics and calibration of hydrophones for operation in the

frequency range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
angular deviation loss

sensitivity level of the transducer on the principal axis minus the sensitivity level of the

transducer for a specified direction
[IEV 801-25-69]
3.2
co-ordinate system
system used to designate the directivity pattern of the transducer
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
60565 © IEC:2006 – 15 –
IEC 1994/06
Figure 1 – Left-hand co-ordinate system
Line transducer: central line of symmetry along the Z-axis;

Dipole transducer: both components equidistant from the origin, along the +Z and –Z axis;

Piston transducer: piston plane in ZOY-plane; principal axis along X-axis.

NOTE 1 The terms ’horizontal directivity pattern’ and ’vertical directivity pattern’ are often used for representation

of directivity in the XY- and XZ- (or YZ-) planes respectively.
NOTE 2 See Annex A, [1] , [2].
3.3
coupler

apparatus comprising a rigid fluid-filled chamber of small dimensions into which transducers

and hydrophones can be inserted
3.4
diffraction factor

ratio of the average pressure over the part of the hydrophone designed to receive sound to

the free-field sound pressure that would exist at the reference centre of the hydrophone

3.5
directional response

description, generally presented graphically, of the response of an electro-acoustic

transducer, as a function of the direction of propagation of the radiated or incident sound in a

specified plane through the reference centre and at a specified frequency
NOTE See Annex A.
3.6
dynamic range

ratio of the maximum free field sound pressure that produces an undistorted hydrophone

output to the equivalent noise pressure at the hydrophone
3.7
electrical impedance of a transducer

complex ratio of the instantaneous voltage applied across the electrical terminals of a

transducer at a given frequency, to the resulting instantaneous current
NOTE 1 The unit is the ohm, Ω.

NOTE 2 Because the electrical impedance depends on the field conditions, the hydrostatic pressure, water

temperature and the length of the cable attached to the transducer, these parameters, as well as the frequency and

the electrical terminals where the electrical impedance is measured should be specified.

___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the bibliography
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60565 © IEC:2006 – 17 –
3.8
electrical terminals of a reciprocal transducer

terminals across which the open circuit hydrophone voltage , as well as the projector current

are measured

NOTE If the transducer is immersed in water, the electrical terminal with the lowest electrical impedance with

respect to water is called the ’low terminal’. Consequently, the other electrical terminal is called the ‘high terminal’.

3.9
electrical transfer impedance magnitude
magnitude of the electrical transfer impedance of a transducer pair
NOTE The unit is the ohm, Ω.
3.10
electrical transfer impedance of a transducer pair

complex ratio of the open circuit instantaneous voltage U across the hydrophone electrical

terminals to the instantaneous current I through the projector, if projector and hydrophone

are mounted in a free field with their principal axes in line and directed towards each other

NOTE 1 Z = (1)
NOTE 2 The unit is the ohm, Ω.

NOTE 3 The electrical transfer impedance is a complex quantity. It has both real and imaginary components and

can be represented as a magn
...

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