Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 4-6: Energy Reuse Factor

This EN specifies the so-called Energy Reuse Factor (ERF) as a KPI to quantify the reuse of the energy consumed in the data centre. The ERF does reflect the efficiency of the reuse process, however, the reuse process is not part of the data centre.

Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von Rechenzentren - Teil 4-6: Faktor der Energiewiederverwendung

Technologie de l’information - Installation et infrastructures de centres de traitement de données - Partie 4-6: Facteur d’énergie renouvelable

Le présent document: a) spécifie le facteur d’énergie renouvelable (ERF), à titre de KPI, afin de quantifier la réutilisation de l’énergie consommée dans le centre de traitement de données; b) définit le mesurage, le calcul et la génération de rapports de l’ERF; c) décrit l’application de l’ERF et sa différence par rapport à l’efficacité de l’utilisation de l’énergie (PUE). L’ERF ne reflète pas l’efficacité du processus de réutilisation, qui n’est pas pris en charge par le centre de traitement de données.

Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnih centrov - 4-6. del: Faktor ponovne uporabe energije

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jul-2019
Publication Date
19-Aug-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jul-2020
Due Date
05-Oct-2020
Completion Date
20-Aug-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 50600-4-6:2020
01-september-2020
Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnih centrov - 4-6.
del: Faktor ponovne uporabe energije

Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 4-6: Energy

Reuse Factor
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 50600-4-6:2020
ICS:
27.015 Energijska učinkovitost. Energy efficiency. Energy
Ohranjanje energije na conservation in general
splošno
35.110 Omreževanje Networking
SIST EN 50600-4-6:2020 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 50600-4-6:2020
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SIST EN 50600-4-6:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 50600-4-6
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2020
ICS 35.020; 35.110; 35.160
English Version
Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures
- Part 4-6: Energy Reuse Factor
To be completed Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von
Rechenzentren - Teil 4-6: Faktor der
Energiewiederverwendung

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2020-01-13. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 50600-4-6:2020 E
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SIST EN 50600-4-6:2020
EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)
Contents Page

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................ 7

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and symbols ............................................................................. 7

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................... 7

3.3 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................. 8

4 Applicable area of the data centre ................................................................................................... 8

5 Determination of Energy Reuse Factor (ERF) ................................................................................ 9

6 Measurement of E and E ...................................................................................................... 10

Reuse DC

7 Application of Energy Reuse Factor (ERF) ................................................................................... 11

8 Reporting and trend tracking of Energy Reuse Factor ............................................................... 11

8.1 Reporting of Energy Reuse Factor (ERF) ..................................................................................... 11

8.1.1 Standard construct for communicating ERF data ....................................................................... 11

8.1.2 Data for public reporting of ERF .................................................................................................... 11

8.2 Recommendations for trend tracking data ................................................................................... 12

8.3 ERF derivatives, interim ERF ......................................................................................................... 12

Annex A (informative) Examples of ERF use ........................................................................................ 13

Annex B (informative) Energy Conversion Factors — Energy Measurement at the Data Centre

Boundary .................................................................................................................................................... 20

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 21

List of Figures

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the EN 50600 series of documents ................................ 5

Figure 2 — Simplistic data centre components and boundary .............................................................. 9

Figure A.1 — Reuse of data centre waste heat ...................................................................................... 13

Figure A.2 — Schematic showing reuse of heat within the data centre .............................................. 14

Figure A.3 – Reuse of heat with heat pumps inside a data centre ....................................................... 16

Figure A.4 – Reuse of heat with heat pumps or heat exchangers outside a data centre only .......... 17

Figure A.5 – Reuse of waste heat with heat pumps and liquid cooled parts ...................................... 18

Figure A.6 – Reuse of waste heat with mixed arrangements ................................................................ 19

List of Tables

Table B.1 — Energy measurement methods at the data centre boundary .......................................... 20

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EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 50600-4-6:2020) has been prepared by CLC/TC 215 “Electrotechnical aspects of

telecommunication equipment”.
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which this document has (dop) 2021-01-17
to be implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2023-07-17
standards conflicting with this document
have to be withdrawn
This document is based on the text of ISO/IEC DIS 30134-6:2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.
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EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)
Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to an

exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres are housing

and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment for data processing,

data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators (delivering those services to

customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres need to provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption of data

centres has become critical both from an environmental point of view (reduction of carbon footprint) and with

respect to economic considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:

a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting, or network operator facilities);

b) security level;
c) physical size;
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and the

objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in terms of

building construction, power distribution, environmental control and physical security. Effective management

and operational information is required to monitor achievement of the defined needs and objectives.

The EN 50600 series specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties involved in

the design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of facilities and

infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:
1) owners, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) architects, consultants, building designers and builders, system and installation designers;

3) facility and infrastructure integrators, suppliers of equipment;
4) installers, maintainers.

At the time of publication of this document, the EN 50600 series comprises the following standards and

documents:

— EN 50600-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1: General

concepts;

— EN 50600-2-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-1: Building

construction;

— EN 50600-2-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-2: Power

distribution;

— EN 50600-2-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-3:

Environmental control;

— EN 50600-2-4, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-4:

Telecommunications cabling infrastructure;

— EN 50600-2-5, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-5: Security

systems;
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EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)

— EN 50600-3-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3-1:

Management and operational information;

— EN 50600-4-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-1: Overview

of and general requirements for key performance indicators;

— EN 50600-4-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-2: Power

Usage Effectiveness;

— EN 50600-4-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-3: Renewable

Energy Factor;

— EN 50600-4-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-6: Energy

Reuse Factor;

— EN 50600-4-7, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-7: Cooling

Efficiency Ratio;

— CLC/TR 50600-99-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-1:

Recommended practices for energy management;

— CLC/TR 50600-99-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-2:

Recommended practices for environmental sustainability;

— CLC/TR 50600-99-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-3:

Guidance to the application of EN 50600 series.

The inter-relationship of the standards within the EN 50600 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the EN 50600 series of documents
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EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)

EN 50600-2-X standards specify requirements and recommendations for particular facilities and

infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security” and “energy efficiency

enablement” selected from EN 50600-1.

EN 50600-3-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for data centre operations, processes

and management.

EN 50600-4-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for key performance indicators (KPIs)

used to assess and improve the resource usage efficiency and effectiveness, respectively, of a data centre.

In today’s digital society data centre growth, and power consumption in particular, is an inevitable

consequence and that growth will demand increasing power consumption despite the most stringent energy

efficiency strategies. This makes the need for key performance indicators that cover the effective use of

resources (including but not limited to energy) and the reduction of CO emissions essential.

NOTE Within the EN 50600-4-X series, the term “resource usage effectiveness” is more generally used for KPIs in

preference to “resource usage efficiency”, which is restricted to situations where the input and output parameters used to

define the KPI have the same units.

In order to enable the optimum resource effectiveness of data centres a suite of effective KPIs is needed to

measure and report on resources consumed in order to develop an improvement roadmap.

These standards are intended to accelerate the provision of operational infrastructures with improved

resource usage effectiveness.

This document specifies the Energy Reuse Factor (ERF), i.e. the reuse of the energy consumed in a data

centre.

This document is intended for use by data centre managers. The use of the Energy Reuse Factor as a key

performance indicator provides data centre managers with greater visibility into energy efficiency in data

centres that make beneficial use of any reused energy from the data centre.

Additional standards in the EN 50600-4-X series will be developed, each describing a specific KPI for

resource usage effectiveness or efficiency.

The EN 50600-4-X series does not specify limits or targets for any KPI and does not describe or imply, unless

specifically stated, any form of aggregation of individual KPIs into a combined nor an overall KPI for data

centre resource usage effectiveness or efficiency.

This document is intended for use by and collaboration between data centre managers, facility managers, ICT

managers, and main contractors.

This series of European Standards does not address the selection of information technology and network

telecommunications equipment, software and associated configuration issues.
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EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)
1 Scope
This document:

a) specifies the Energy Reuse Factor (ERF) as a KPI to quantify the reuse of the energy consumed in the

data centre;
b) defines the measurement, the calculation and the reporting of ERF;

c) describes the application of ERF and its discrimination from Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE).

The ERF does reflect the efficiency of the reuse process, which is not part of the data centre.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes

requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 50600-4-1:2016, Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 4-1: Overview of

and general requirements for key performance indicators
ISO 8601 series, Date and time - Representations for information interchange
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 50600-4-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
reuse of energy

utilization of energy used in the data centre to an alternate purpose outside the data centre boundary

Note 1 to entry: Energy ejected to the environment does not constitute reused energy.

3.1.2
handoff point

point at the boundary of the data centre where energy is measured and is handed off to another party which

utilizes the energy outside data centre boundary
Note 1 to entry: An example of another party is an energy company.
3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
ERF Energy Reuse Factor
GPU Graphics Processing Unit
HPC High Performance Computing
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SIST EN 50600-4-6:2020
EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)
KVM keyboard, video and mouse
IT Information Technology
PUE Power Usage Effectiveness
PDU Power Distribution Unit
r.m.s root mean square
UPS Uninterruptible Power System
3.3 Symbols
For the purposes of this document, the following symbols apply.

E energy used by the entire cooling system attributable to the data centre including support spaces

COOLING
(annual)
E total data centre energy consumption (annual)
EEXCESS data centre excess energy (annual)
E IT equipment energy consumption (annual)
EIN electricity delivered to the data centre at its boundary
E energy used to light the data centre and support spaces (annual)
LIGHTING

EPOWER energy lost in the power distribution system through line-loss and other infrastructure (e.g. UPS or

PDU) inefficiencies (annual)
Eren renewable energy in kWh owned and controlled by a data centre

E energy from the data centre (annual) that is used outside of the data centre and which substitutes

Reuse
partly or totally energy needed outside the data centre boundary (annual)
4 Applicable area of the data centre

For the determination of ERF, the data centre under consideration shall be viewed at as a system bounded by

interfaces through which energy flows (see Figure 2). The calculation of ERF accounts for energy crossing

this boundary. The bounded areas are the same as that used in calculations for PUE and other KPIs in the

EN 50600-4 series.

As shown in Figure 2, the data centre boundary is “drawn” around the data centre at the point of handoff from

the utility provider. This is a critical distinction when alternate energy types and mixed-use buildings are

analysed. It is equally important to ensure all energy types are included in ERF. All energy carriers (such as

fuel oil, natural gas, etc.) and energy generated elsewhere (such as electricity, chilled water, etc.) that feed the

data centre shall be included in the calculation.

Assuming there is no energy storage, conservation of energy requires that the energy into the data centre

shall equal the energy out. In the simple schematic of Figure 2, that means A + B = F. This is oversimplified,

as there are losses and heat generated at the cooling (A minus E), uninterruptible power system (UPS), and

power distribution unit (PDU) (B minus D) points as well, but this waste heat also shall leave the boundary.

Once a boundary is defined for a data centre, it can be used to properly understand the ERF concept.

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Figure 2 — Simplistic data centre components and boundary

NOTE 1 It is critical to include all energy carriers at the point of utility handoff. It is also critical to include all of the data

centre’s energy consumption in the calculations, which includes but is not limited to generators, inside and outside lighting,

fire detection and suppression, associated office/cubicle space for data centre personnel, receiving areas, storage areas,

and the same. For clarity, the diagrams only show the large components to demonstrate the ERF concept.

ERF only considers energy being reused outside the boundary of a data centre.

NOTE 2 Energy reused inside the data centre boundary is not counted towards ERF as it already is accounted for in a

lower PUE and including it in ERF is double counting. Examples of this are shown in Annex A.

NOTE 3 The PUE in this subclause is as specified in EN 50600-4-2.

In Figure 2, any portion of (F) that is reused outside the data centre boundary (such as in a mixed-use building

or a different building and not directly rejected to the atmosphere) is considered reused energy for determining

ERF.

To determine ERF, the practitioner will need to identify and account for all energy streams crossing the data

centre boundary coming in and any energy streams that will have beneficial use going out of the data centre

boundary.

The energy coming in would typically be electricity but can also be natural gas, diesel fuel, chilled water, or

conditioned air from another space.

The energy leaving the data centre boundary will most often take the form of heated water or heated airflow;

these are what this document considers to be potentially reused energy. However, any form of energy that is

reused outside of the data centre boundary shall be accounted for.

Processes that take advantage of the reused energy for other uses are outside the data centre boundary and

the benefits of that reused energy and the efficiency of the reuse process are not considered in the ERF.

Examples of ERF usage are described in Annex A.
5 Determination of Energy Reuse Factor (ERF)

ERF provides a way to determine the factor of energy reuse. Heat is the most common example, where some

of the heat produced by the data centre is utilized for beneficial purposes outside the data centre boundary

and is not regarded as waste heat.

ERF will range from 0,0 to 1,0. An ERF of 0,0 means that no energy is reused, while a value of 1,0 means,

theoretically, all the energy brought into the data centre is reused.
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The Energy Reuse Factor (ERF) is defined as:
Reuse
(1)
ERF=
where

EReuse = energy from the data centre (annual) that is used outside of the data centre and which substitutes

partly or totally energy needed outside the data centre boundary (annual)
EDC = total data centre energy consumption (annual)

Where the only energy source is from an electrical utility, EDC is determined by the energy measured at the

utility meter. ERF may be applied in mixed use buildings when measurement of the difference between the

energy used for the data centre and that for other functions is possible.

EDC includes EIT plus all the energy that is consumed to support the following infrastructures:

a) power delivery - including uninterruptible power systems (UPS), switchgear, generators, power

distribution units (PDUs), batteries, and distribution losses external to the IT equipment;

b) cooling system - including chillers, cooling towers, pumps, computer room air handling units (CRAHs),

computer room air conditioning units (CRACs), and direct expansion air handler (DX) units;

c) others including data centre lighting, elevator, security system, and fire suppression system;

d) all the infrastructure needed to transfer or to enhance the reused heat flow to the handoff point at the data

centre boundary.

EIT is the energy consumed by IT equipment (annual) that is used to capture, manage, process, store, or

transmit data within the compute space, which includes but not limited to:
1) IT equipment (e.g. compute, storage, and network equipment);

2) supplemental equipment (e.g. KVM switches, monitors, and workstations/laptops used to monitor,

manage, and/or control the data centre).
6 Measurement of E and E
Reuse DC

The measurement of the EDC shall be done at the boundary of the data centre at the handoff point, where the

data centre operator measures the power acquired from the energy supplier. If the energy is produced inside

the physical boundaries of the data centre, the point of measurement shall be at the logical boundary.

The measurement of the EReuse shall be done at the logical boundary of the data centre at the handoff point,

where the energy provided is handed off to be used by the other party. In most cases, the energy transferred

is in the form of thermal energy, measured by increase in temperature and flow with reference to incoming

provision (see Annex B). The measurements shall be converted to the equivalent units used for EDC, i.e. kWh,

in. The measurement and conversion shall be carried out at the hand off point of the data centre boundary.

Measurement of E shall be undertaken using either:
a) watt meters with the capability to report energy use or

b) kilowatt-hour (kWh) meters that report the “true” energy (true r.m.s.), via the simultaneous measurement

of the voltage, current, and power factor over time.

In case of EReuse, where the measurement is often made from the fluid or gaseous flow, where the energy is

transferred as heat, the measurement shall be undertaken with meters capable of measuring the energy

added to the flow from the data centre boundary.

NOTE Kilovolt-ampere (kVA), the product of voltage and current, is not an acceptable measurement. Though the

product of volts and amperes mathematically results in watts, “true” energy is determined by integrating a power factor

corrected value of volts and amperes. The frequency, phase variance, and load reaction causes energy calculation

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EN 50600-4-6:2020 (E)

difference between apparent energy and “true” energy. The error is inherently significant when power delivery includes

alternating current (AC). Kilovolt-ampere (kVA) measurements can be used for other functions in the data centre,

however, kVA is insufficient for these measurements.
ERF without any subscripts shall be determined as an annualized value.
7 Application of Energy Reuse Factor (ERF)

ERF can be used by data centre managers to monitor and report reused energy in relation to energy

consumption in the data centre.

This KPI can be used independently but to get a more holistic picture of the resource efficiency of the data

centre, other KPIs of the EN 50600-4 series should be considered.
8 Reporting and trend tracking of Energy Reuse Factor (ERF)
8.1 Reporting of Energy Reuse Factor (ERF)
8.1.1 Standard construct for communicating ERF data

For a reported ERF to be meaningful, the reporting organization shall provide the following information:

a) the data centre (including the boundaries of the structure) under inspection;
b) the ERF value;
c) the kind of energy reused (thermal, electrical, chemical, mechanical);

d) the termination date of the period of measurement using the format of ISO 8601 series (e.g. yyyy-mm-

dd).

As seasonal changes can affect the amount of the energy reused, the reported value shall be annualized.

8.1.2 Data for public reporting of ERF
8.1.2.1 Required information
The following data shall be provided, when publicly reporting ERF data:
a) contact information;
Only the organization’s name or contact should be displayed in public inquiries.
b) data centre location information (address, county or region);

Only state or local region information are required to be displayed in public inquiries.

c) measurement results: ERF with appropriate nomenclature;
d) the kind of energy reused (thermal, electrical, chemical, mechanical).
8.1.2.2 Supporting evidence (where required by authorities having jurisdiction)

Information on the data centre which shall be available upon request as a minimum includes:

a) organization’s name, contact information and regional environmental description;

b) measurement results: ERF with appropriate nomenclature;
c) EDC and EReuse;
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d) measurement(s) start dates and assessment completion dates;

e) the accuracy level (EN 62052 series and EN 62053 series provide a reference for measurement of

electrical energy);
f) report on the size of computer room, telecom room and control room spaces;

g) external environmental conditions consisting of minimum, maximum and average temperature, humidity

and altitude;

h) General description of the use of the energy outside the data centre boundary and name of the receiving

entity.
8.2 Recommendations for trend tracking data

The following information can be useful in tracking the ERF trends within a data centre:

a) data centre size (facility square meters);
b) total data centre design load for the facility (e.g. 10,2 MW);
c) name of the possible auditor and method used for auditing;
d) data centre contact information ;
e) data centre environmental conditions;
f) data centre’s mission;
g) data centre archetype percentages (e.g. 20 % web hosting, 80 % email);
h) data centre commissioned date;
i) numbers of servers, routers, and storage devices;
j) average and peak server CPU utilization;
k) percentage of servers using virtualization;
l) average age of IT e
...

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