Environmental management - Vocabulary (ISO 14050:2020)

This document defines terms used in documents in the fields of environmental management systems
and tools in support of sustainable development. These include management systems, auditing and
other types of assessment, communications, footprinting studies, greenhouse gas mitigation and
adaptation to climate change.

Umweltmanagement - Begriffe (ISO 14050:2020)

Dieses Dokument definiert Begriffe, die in Dokumenten in den Bereichen Umweltmanagementsysteme und Instrumente zur Unterstützung einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung verwendet werden. Dazu gehören Managementsysteme, Auditierung und andere Arten der Bewertung, Kommunikation, Footprinting Studien, Verringerung von Treibhausgasemissionen und Anpassung an den Klimawandel.

Management environnemental - Vocabulaire (ISO 14050:2020)

Le présent document définit les termes dans les documents relatifs aux domaines des systèmes de management environnemental et aux outils venant à l'appui du développement durable, ce qui inclut les systèmes de management, les audits et les autres types d'évaluation, les communications, les études d'empreinte, l'atténuation des gaz à effet de serre et l'adaptation au changement climatique.

Ravnanje z okoljem - Slovar (ISO 14050:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
17-Dec-2019
Publication Date
04-Oct-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Sep-2020
Due Date
07-Nov-2020
Completion Date
05-Oct-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
01-november-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 14050:2010
Ravnanje z okoljem - Slovar (ISO 14050:2020)
Environmental management - Vocabulary (ISO 14050:2020)
Umweltmanagement - Begriffe (ISO 14050:2020)
Management environnemental - Vocabulaire (ISO 14050:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14050:2020
ICS:
01.040.13 Okolje. Varovanje zdravja. Environment. Health
Varnost (Slovarji) protection. Safety
(Vocabularies)
13.020.10 Ravnanje z okoljem Environmental management
SIST EN ISO 14050:2020 en,fr,ru

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
EN ISO 14050
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.13; 13.020.10 Supersedes EN ISO 14050:2010
English Version
Environmental management - Vocabulary (ISO
14050:2020)

Management environnemental - Vocabulaire (ISO Umweltmanagement - Begriffe (ISO 14050:2020)

14050:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 July 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14050:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
EN ISO 14050:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
EN ISO 14050:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14050:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207

"Environmental management" in collaboration with CCMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14050:2010.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14050:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14050:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14050
Fourth edition
2020-07
Environmental management —
Vocabulary
Management environnemental — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 14050:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms relating to management systems ....................................................................................................... 1

3.2 General terms relating to environmental management ...................................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms relating to environmental management systems .................................................................................... 6

3.4 Terms relating to verification, validation and audit................................................................................................ 6

3.5 Terms relating to product systems .....................................................................................................................................10

3.6 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ..........................................................................................................................12

3.7 Terms relating to environmental labelling, declarations and communication .............................17

3.8 Terms relating to climate change and climate action .........................................................................................19

3.9 Terms relating to greenhouse gases ..................................................................................................................................21

3.10 Terms relating to water footprint ........................................................................................................................................25

3.11 Terms relating to carbon footprint .....................................................................................................................................27

3.12 Terms relating to economy and finance .........................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Concept relations and concept systems ............................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................57

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, in

collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/

SS S26, Environmental management, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 14050:2009), which has been technically

revised. The fourth edition is structured differently from the third edition. It presents a more generic

vocabulary of environmental management terminology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
Introduction

Communication is important in the implementation and operation of environmental management

systems. This communication will be most effective if there is a common understanding of the terms used.

To simplify the harmonization of terms and definitions in the field of environmental management, each

terminological entry in this document contains a generic term and its definition. Notes to entry and

examples have been included only in a few cases to provide additional information or clarification.

The terminology is arranged in subclauses, each representing a specific sub-domain. The sequence of

the term entries corresponds to the concept diagrams in Annex A.

This document has been developed in close cooperation with the committees and working groups

involved in the development and revision of the ISO 14000 family of standards. A list of published

documents in the ISO 14000 family of standards is presented in the Bibliography.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14050:2020(E)
Environmental management — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms used in documents in the fields of environmental management systems

and tools in support of sustainable development. These include management systems, auditing and

other types of assessment, communications, footprinting studies, greenhouse gas mitigation and

adaptation to climate change.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms relating to management systems
3.1.1
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships

to achieve its objectives (3.1.6)
3.1.2
interested party
stakeholder

person or organization (3.1.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a

decision or activity
3.1.3
top management

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.1) at the highest level

3.1.4
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.1) to establish policies (3.1.5) and

objectives (3.1.6), as well as processes (3.1.9) to achieve those objectives
3.1.5
policy

intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.1), as formally expressed by its top management (3.1.3)

3.1.6
objective
result to be achieved
3.1.7
risk
effect of uncertainty
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.1.8
hazard

potential source of injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the

environment (3.2.2)
3.1.9
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities that uses or transforms inputs to deliver a result

3.1.10
competence
ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results
3.1.11
documented information

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.1) and the medium on

which it is contained
3.1.12
performance
measurable result
3.1.13
continual improvement
recurring activity to enhance performance (3.1.12)
3.1.14
effectiveness
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
3.1.15
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory
3.1.16
conformity
fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.15)
3.1.17
nonconformity
non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.15)
3.1.18
corrective action

action to eliminate the cause(s) of a nonconformity (3.1.17) and to prevent recurrence

3.1.19
audit

systematic and independent process (3.1.9) for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively to

determine the extent to which the audit criteria (3.4.44) are fulfilled
3.1.20
measurement
process (3.1.9) to determine a value
3.1.21
monitoring
determining the status of a system, a process (3.1.9) or an activity
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.2 General terms relating to environmental management
3.2.1
environmental management

set of coordinated activities within an organization (3.1.1) related to its environmental aspects (3.2.20)

3.2.2
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.1.1) operates, including air, water, land (3.8.16), natural

resources (3.2.5), flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships
3.2.3
ecosystem

dynamic complex of communities of plants, animals and microorganisms and their non-living

environment, interacting as a functional entity
3.2.4
ecosystem service
benefit people obtain from one or several ecosystems (3.2.3)
3.2.5
natural resource
part of nature that provides benefits to humans or underpins human well-being
3.2.6
environmental baseline
state of the environment (3.2.2) without the change that is considered
3.2.7
target group

interested party (3.1.2) or interested parties selected as the focus of an organization’s (3.1.1)

environmental communication (3.7.19) activity
3.2.8
third party

person or body that is recognized as being independent of the parties involved, as concerns the issues

in question
3.2.9
sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations

to meet their own needs
3.2.10
prevention of pollution

use of processes (3.1.9), practices, techniques, materials, products (3.5.12), or energy to avoid, reduce

or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or

waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.22)
3.2.11
area of concern

aspect of the natural environment, human health or resources of interest to society

3.2.12
environmental topic area

area of interest or concern for environmental management (3.2.1) in an organization (3.1.1) in relation to

its surroundings
3.2.13
methodology
set of means or procedures (3.3.6) used for a specific purpose
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.2.14
transparency
open, comprehensive and understandable presentation of information
3.2.15
benchmark
reference point against which comparisons can be made
3.2.16
equity share

extent of the rights an organization (3.1.1) has to the risks (3.1.7) and rewards from an operation based

on its equity interest
3.2.17
local authority

public body given the authority by legislation or directives of a higher level of government to set general

policies (3.1.5), plans or requirements (3.1.15)
3.2.18
site

location with geographical boundaries and on which activities under the control of an organization

(3.1.1) can be carried out
3.2.19
facility

single installation, set of installations or production processes (3.1.9) (stationary or mobile), which can

be defined within a single geographical boundary, organizational unit or production process

3.2.20
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s (3.1.1) activities or products (3.5.12) that interacts or can interact with the

environment (3.2.2)
3.2.21
environmental impact pathway

series of consecutive, causal relationships, ultimately starting at an environmental aspect (3.2.20) and

ending at an environmental impact (3.2.22)
3.2.22
environmental impact

change to the environment (3.2.2), whether adverse or beneficial, including possible consequences,

wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental aspects (3.2.20)

3.2.23
environmental impact factor

quantity of environmental impact (3.2.22) per quantity of environmental aspect (3.2.20)

3.2.24
indicator

quantitative, qualitative or binary variable that can be measured, calculated or described, representing

the status of operations, management, conditions or impacts
3.2.25
key performance indicator
KPI

indicator (3.2.24) of performance (3.1.12) deemed by an organization (3.1.1) to be significant and giving

prominence and attention to certain aspects of operations, management, conditions or impacts

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.2.26
combined indicator

indicator (3.2.24) that includes information on more than one aspect of operations, management,

conditions or impacts
3.2.27
environmental performance
performance (3.1.12) related to the management of environmental aspects (3.2.20)
3.2.28
environmental performance evaluation
EPE

process (3.1.9) to facilitate management decisions regarding an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental

performance (3.2.27) by selecting indicators (3.2.24), collecting and analysing data, assessing

information against environmental performance criteria, reporting and communicating, and

periodically reviewing and improving this process
3.2.29
environmental performance indicator
EPI

indicator (3.2.24) that provides information about an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental performance

(3.2.27)
3.2.30
management performance indicator
MPI

environmental performance indicator (3.2.29) that provides information about the management efforts

to influence an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental performance (3.2.27)
3.2.31
operational performance indicator
OPI

environmental performance indicator (3.2.29) that provides information about the environmental

performance (3.2.27) of an organization’s (3.1.1) operation
3.2.32
environmental condition indicator

indicator (3.2.24) that provides information about the local, regional, national or global environmental

condition (3.2.33)
3.2.33
environmental condition

state or characteristic of the environment (3.2.2) as determined at a certain point in time

3.2.34
sphere of influence

range or extent of political, contractual, economic or other relationships through which an organization

(3.1.1) has the ability to affect the decisions or activities of individuals or organizations

3.2.35
trade-off

decision-making actions that select from various requirements (3.1.15) and alternative solutions on the

basis of net benefit to interested parties (3.1.2)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.3 Terms relating to environmental management systems
3.3.1
environmental management system
EMS

part of the management system (3.1.4) used to manage environmental aspects (3.2.20), fulfil compliance

obligations (3.3.4), and address risks (3.1.7) and opportunities
3.3.2
environmental policy
policy (3.1.5) related to environmental performance (3.2.27)
3.3.3
environmental objective

objective (3.1.6) set by the organization (3.1.1) and consistent with its environmental policy (3.3.2)

3.3.4
compliance obligation

legal requirement that an organization (3.1.1) has to comply with or other requirement (3.1.15) that an

organization has to or chooses to comply with
3.3.5
maturity level

level of achievement in the implementation process measured on a scale of maturity for environmental

management system (3.3.1) elements
3.3.6
procedure
specified way to carry out an activity or a process (3.1.9)
3.4 Terms relating to verification, validation and audit
3.4.1
verification
conformity assessment

confirmation through the provision of objective evidence (3.4.32), that specified requirements (3.1.15)

have been fulfilled
3.4.2
verification statement
formal declaration of the outcome of a verification (3.4.1)
3.4.3
verification team

one or more verifiers (3.4.5) conducting a verification (3.4.1), supported if needed by technical experts

(3.4.36)
3.4.4
verification body
organization (3.1.1) that performs verifications (3.4.1)
3.4.5
verifier

competent and independent person or persons with responsibility for performing and reporting on a

verification (3.4.1) process (3.1.9)
3.4.6
verification plan
planning document detailing the implementation of verification (3.4.1)
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.4.7
verification report
document detailing a verification (3.4.1) and its results
3.4.8
environmental claim verification

confirmation of the validity of an environmental claim (3.7.3) using specific predetermined criteria and

procedures (3.3.6) with an assurance of data reliability
3.4.9
technology

application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts or systems in order to solve a problem or to

achieve an objective (3.1.6), which can result in a product (3.5.12) or process (3.1.9)

3.4.10
environmental technology

technology (3.4.9) that either results in an environmental added value (3.4.12) or measures parameters

that indicate an environmental impact (3.2.22)
3.4.11
environmental technology verification

verification (3.4.1) of the performance (3.1.12) of an environmental technology (3.4.10) by a verifier (3.4.5)

3.4.12
environmental added value

more beneficial or less adverse environmental impact (3.2.22) of a technology (3.4.9) with respect to the

relevant alternative
3.4.13
intrusive investigation
sampling and testing requiring physical interference
3.4.14
professional scepticism
attitude that includes a questioning mind and a critical assessment of evidence
3.4.15
completeness check

process (3.1.9) of verifying whether information from the phases of a life cycle assessment (3.6.2) is

sufficient for reaching conclusions in accordance with the goal and scope definition

3.4.16
consistency check

process (3.1.9) of verifying that the assumptions, methods and data are consistently applied

throughout the study and are in accordance with the goal and scope definition performed before

conclusions are reached
3.4.17
sensitivity check

process (3.1.9) to determine that the information obtained from a sensitivity analysis (3.6.25) is relevant

for reaching conclusions, changing results, have influence on results and giving recommendations

3.4.18
test body

organization (3.1.1) providing an environment for testing, test implementation and means for

performing and reporting on the testing
3.4.19
test plan

planning document detailing the principles, test methods, conditions, procedures (3.3.6) and data

quality (3.6.46) required to carry out testing and to produce test data
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.4.20
test report

document describing conditions and results of testing, and usually including a description of or

reference to procedures (3.3.6)
3.4.21
validation

confirmation through the provision of objective evidence (3.4.32) that the requirements (3.1.15) for a

specific intended use or application have been fulfilled
3.4.22
validation statement
formal declaration of the outcome of a validation (3.4.21)
3.4.23
validation team

one or more validators (3.4.25) conducting a validation (3.4.21), supported if needed by technical experts

(3.4.36)
3.4.24
validation body
organization (3.1.1) that performs validations (3.4.21)
3.4.25
validator

competent and independent person or persons with responsibility for performing a validation (3.4.21)

and reporting on the results of the validation
3.4.26
complaint

expression of dissatisfaction, other than by appeal, by any person or organization (3.1.1) to another

person or organization, relating to its activities, where a response is expected
3.4.27
validation criteria

policy (3.1.5), procedure (3.3.6) or requirement (3.1.15) used as a reference against which evidence is

compared
3.4.28
level of assurance

degree of reliability the intended user requires in a validation (3.4.21) or verification (3.4.1)

3.4.29
conflict of interest

situation in which, because of other activities or relationships, impartiality in performing validation

(3.4.21) or verification (3.4.1) activities is or could be compromised
3.4.30
accreditation

third-party attestation related to a validation body (3.4.24), verification body (3.4.4) or certification body

conveying a formal demonstration of its competence (3.1.10) to carry out specific validation (3.4.21) or

verification (3.4.1) tasks
3.4.31
accreditation body
authority that performs accreditation (3.4.30)
3.4.32
objective evidence
data supporting the existence or verity of something
8 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14050:2020
ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.4.33
audit client
organization (3.1.1) or person requesting an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.34
auditee
organization (3.1.1) being audited
3.4.35
audit team

one or more persons conducting an audit (3.1.19), supported if needed by technical experts (3.4.36)

3.4.36
technical expert
person who provides specific knowledge on a specified subject
3.4.37
auditor
person who conducts an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.38
combined audit

audit (3.1.19) carried out together at a single auditee (3.4.34) on two or more management systems (3.1.4)

3.4.39
joint audit

audit (3.1.19) carried out at a single auditee (3.4.34) by two or more auditing organizations (3.1.1)

3.4.40
internal audit
audit (3.1.19) where the audit team (3.4.35) belongs to the auditee (3.4.34)
3.4.41
audit programme

set of one or more audits (3.1.19) planned for a specific time frame and directed towards a specific purpose

3.4.42
audit scope
extent and b
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Questions, Comments and Discussion

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