Railway applications - Communication, signalling and processing systems - European Rail Traffic Management System - Driver-Machine Interface -- Part 1: Ergonomic principles for the presentation of ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R information

This Technical Specification describes from an ergonomic point of view how ERTMS information shall be arranged and displayed. This Technical Specification describes more ergonomic details than currently provided by the ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R specifications. This Technical Specification defines the ergonomics for the Driver-Machine Interface (DMI) for the ERTMS/ETCS Train Control System, and for the integrated ERTMS/GSM-R Train Control and Train Radio Systems, and for the stand alone ERTMS/GSM-R Train Radio Systems and for other technical systems currently provided on the rolling stock. The ergonomics covers the - general arrangements (dialogue structure, sequences, layout philosophy, colour philosophy), - symbols, - audible information, - data entry arrangements. The aims of the ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R Train Control and Train Radio Systems are standardised systems facilitating interoperable movement of trains and permitting economies of scale in procurement and operations. The objective of this Technical Specification is to define the minimum requirements on the DMI that are necessary to enable these objectives to be achieved. Hence the Technical Specification is limited to ergonomic considerations and does not define the technology to be used for the implementation. The reasons for defining the ergonomics of the DMI are as follows: - achieving harmonised and coherent presentation for ERTMS/ETCS and STM information. Given the large number of STM's requiring the use the ERTMS/ETCS DMI, only a harmonised approach is feasible; - defining Driver-Machine Interface ergonomics that is compatible with agreed interoperable ERTMS specifications; .to reduce the risk of incorrect operation by a driver working with different trains fitted with ERTMS/ETCS and ERTMS/GSM-R; - facilitating train operation with a unified ergonomics, hence reducing the cost of driver training. This Technical Specification is applicable on all trains fitted with the ERTMS/ETCS and also for trains fitted with train radio (GSM-R) DMI. The scope of Part 1 of the Technical Specification CLC/TS 50459 series is to define ergonomic principles for the interface between the driver and ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R. This specification gives guidelines how to implement different technology (soft keys, touch screen device, LCD, cathode tube, etc.)

Bahnanwendungen - Telekommunikationstechnik, Signaltechnik und Datenverarbeitungssysteme - Europäisches Leitsystem für den Schienenverkehr - Mensch-Maschine Schnittstelle -- Teil 1: Ergonomische Prinzipien für die Darstellung von ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R Informationen

Applications ferroviaires - Systèmes de signalisation, de télécommunications et de traitement - Système européen de gestion du trafic ferroviaire - Interface de conduite -- Partie 1: Principes ergonomiques pour la présentation des informations ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R

Železniške naprave – Komunikacijski, signalni in procesni sistemi – Evropski sistem za vodenje železniškega prometa – Vmesnik človek-stroj – 1. del: Ergonomska načela za prikaz informacij ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
31-Dec-2005
Withdrawal Date
23-Jul-2020
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
23-Jul-2020
Due Date
15-Aug-2020
Completion Date
24-Jul-2020

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SLOVENSKI SIST-TS CLC/TS 50459-1:2006
STANDARD
januar 2006
Železniške naprave – Komunikacijski, signalni in procesni sistemi – Evropski
sistem za vodenje železniškega prometa – Vmesnik človek-stroj – 1. del:
Ergonomska načela za prikaz informacij ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R
(istoveten CLC/TS 50459-1:2005)
Railway applications - Communication, signalling and processing systems -
European Rail Traffic Management System - Driver-Machine Interface - Part 1:
Ergonomic principles for the presentation of ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R information
ICS 03.220.30; 13.180; 35.240.60 Referenčna številka
SIST-TS CLC/TS 50459-1:2006(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION CLC/TS 50459-1
SPECIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION September 2005
ICS 03.220.30; 13.180; 35.240.60
English version
Railway applications –
Communication, signalling and processing systems –
European Rail Traffic Management System –
Driver-Machine Interface
Part 1: Ergonomic principles for the presentation
of ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R information
Applications ferroviaires – Bahnanwendungen –
Systèmes de signalisation, de Telekommunikationstechnik, Signal-
télécommunications et de traitement – technik und Datenverarbeitungssysteme –
Système européen de gestion du trafic Europäisches Leitsystem für den
ferroviaire – Schienenverkehr –
Interface de conduite Mensch-Maschine Schnittstelle
Partie 1: Principes ergonomiques Teil 1: Ergonomische Prinzipien
pour la présentation des informations für die Darstellung von
ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R Informationen
This Technical Specification was approved by CENELEC on 2005-05-07.

CENELEC members are required to announce the existence of this TS in the same way as for an EN and to

make the TS available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting

national standards in force.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2005 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. CLC/TS 50459-1:2005 E
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CLC/TS 50459-1:2005 - 2 -
Foreword

This Technical Specification was prepared by SC 9XA, Communication, signalling and processing systems,

of Technical Committee CENELEC TC 9X, Electrical and electronic applications for railways.

The text of the draft was submitted to the vote and was approved by CENELEC as CLC/TS 50459-1 on

2005-05-07.
The following date was fixed:
– latest date by which the existence of the CLC/TS
has to be announced at national level (doa) 2005-11-07

This Technical Specification has been prepared under mandates M/024 and M/334 given to CENELEC by

the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
__________
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Contents
Page

Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope.......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references..............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ...............................................................................................6

3.1 Definitions................................................................................................................................................6

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms..............................................................................................................8

4 General ergonomic principles..................................................................................................................8

4.1 Principles for presentation.......................................................................................................................8

4.1.1 Presentation techniques..........................................................................................................................8

4.1.2 Text output.............................................................................................................................................12

4.1.3 Characters.............................................................................................................................................12

4.1.4 Numbers................................................................................................................................................13

4.2 Principles for dialogue ...........................................................................................................................13

4.2.1 Suitability for the task ............................................................................................................................14

4.2.2 Self-descriptiveness ..............................................................................................................................14

4.2.3 Controllability.........................................................................................................................................14

4.2.4 Conformity with user expectations ........................................................................................................14

4.2.5 Error guidance.......................................................................................................................................14

4.3 Physical parameters..............................................................................................................................14

4.3.1 General parameters...............................................................................................................................14

4.3.2 Display adjustment................................................................................................................................15

4.3.3 Loudspeaker adjustment.......................................................................................................................15

4.4 Arrangement of information...................................................................................................................16

4.4.1 Windows................................................................................................................................................16

4.4.2 Buttons..................................................................................................................................................17

4.4.3 Menu arrangement................................................................................................................................22

4.4.4 Input of data...........................................................................................................................................23

4.5 Acknowledgements ...............................................................................................................................27

4.6 Languages.............................................................................................................................................28

4.7 Prompt messages for the driver ............................................................................................................28

Bibliography........................................................................................................................................................29

Figure 1 — In approach and beyond....................................................................................................................6

Figure 2 — Button sizes on a touch screen: size-1, size-3 and size-4 ..............................................................19

Figure 3 — Button sizes on a touch screen: size-2, size-3 and size-6 ..............................................................19

Figure 4 — Button sizes on a touch screen: size-3 and size-5..........................................................................19

Figure 5 — Activation of an up-type button........................................................................................................20

Figure 6 — Activation of a down-type button .....................................................................................................21

Figure 7 — Activation of a delay-type button .....................................................................................................21

Figure 8 — Menu arrangement ..........................................................................................................................23

Figure 9 — Keyboard with numbers only ...........................................................................................................25

Figure 10 — Keyboard with predefined choices for brake type .........................................................................25

Figure 11 — List, showing an item to be selected in the middle of the display area .........................................27

Table 1 — Colour philosophy DMI .......................................................................................................................9

Table 2 — Example of a 24-bit RGB colour scheme .........................................................................................10

Table 3 — Overview of button states .................................................................................................................20

Table 4 — Keyboard examples for touch devices..............................................................................................24

Table 5 — Overview of data field states.............................................................................................................25

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CLC/TS 50459-1:2005 - 4 -
Introduction
This Technical Specification forms Part 1 of a series, the other parts being:
CLC/TS 50459-2 for ergonomic arrangements of ERTMS/ETCS information
CLC/TS 50459-3 for ergonomic arrangements of ERTMS/GSM-R information
CLC/TS 50459-4 for data entry procedure for ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R
CLC/TS 50459-5 for symbols for ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R
CLC/TS 50459-6 for audible information for ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R

These Technical Specifications contain the ergonomic arrangements of information on the ERTMS DMI

Display. Most items are illustrated with an example.
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1 Scope

This Technical Specification describes from an ergonomic point of view how ERTMS information shall be

arranged and displayed. This Technical Specification describes more ergonomic details than currently

provided by the ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R specifications.

This Technical Specification defines the ergonomics for the Driver-Machine Interface (DMI) for the

ERTMS/ETCS Train Control System, and for the integrated ERTMS/GSM-R Train Control and Train

Radio Systems, and for the stand alone ERTMS/GSM-R Train Radio Systems and for other technical

systems currently provided on the rolling stock.
The ergonomics covers the

 general arrangements (dialogue structure, sequences, layout philosophy, colour philosophy),

 symbols,
 audible information,
 data entry arrangements.

The aims of the ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R Train Control and Train Radio Systems are standardised systems

facilitating interoperable movement of trains and permitting economies of scale in procurement and

operations. The objective of this Technical Specification is to define the minimum requirements on the

DMI that are necessary to enable these objectives to be achieved. Hence the Technical Specification is

limited to ergonomic considerations and does not define the technology to be used for the implementation.

The reasons for defining the ergonomics of the DMI are as follows:

 achieving harmonised and coherent presentation for ERTMS/ETCS and STM information. Given the

large number of STM’s requiring the use the ERTMS/ETCS DMI, only a harmonised approach is

feasible;

 defining Driver-Machine Interface ergonomics that is compatible with agreed interoperable ERTMS

specifications;

 to reduce the risk of incorrect operation by a driver working with different trains fitted with

ERTMS/ETCS and ERTMS/GSM-R;

 facilitating train operation with a unified ergonomics, hence reducing the cost of driver training.

This Technical Specification is applicable on all trains fitted with the ERTMS/ETCS and also for trains

fitted with train radio (GSM-R) DMI.

The scope of Part 1 of the Technical Specification CLC/TS 50459 series is to define ergonomic principles

for the interface between the driver and ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R.

This specification gives guidelines how to implement different technology (soft keys, touch screen device,

LCD, cathode tube, etc.)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

Council Directive 96/48/EC of 23 July 1996 on the interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail

system, Official Journal L 235 , 17/09/1996 P. 0006 – 0024
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
CLC/TS 50459-1:2005 - 6 -

CLC/TS 50459-2, Railways applications – Communication, signalling and processing systems - European

Rail Traffic Management System - Driver-Machine Interface - Part 2: Ergonomic arrangements of

ERTMS/ETCS information

CLC/TS 50459-3, Railways applications – Communication, signalling and processing systems - European

Rail Traffic Management System - Driver-Machine Interface – Part 3: Ergonomic arrangement of

ERTMS/GSM-R information

CLC/TS 50459-4, Railways applications – Communication, signalling and processing systems - European

Rail Traffic Management System - Driver-Machine Interface - Part 4: Data entry for the

ERTMS/ETCS/GSM-R systems

CLC/TS 50459-5, Railways applications – Communication, signalling and processing systems - European

Rail Traffic Management System - Driver-Machine Interface - Part 5: Symbols

CLC/TS 50459-6, Railways applications – Communication, signalling and processing systems - European

Rail Traffic Management System - Driver-Machine Interface - Part 6: Audible information

UIC 651, Layout of driver's cabs in locomotives, railcars, multiple-unit trains and driving trailers

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
activated
state following a driver action
3.1.2
beyond
track location according to Figure 1
Figure 1 — In approach and beyond
3.1.3
button

object shown to the driver through which a driver action is possible. It is composed of a label and an

associated sensitive area

NOTE The sensitive area of a button can be accessed via a touch screen area or via a hard key, depending on the

chosen technology.
3.1.4
cell
basic unit to define the shape of DMI objects and the proportions of areas
NOTE The size of the cell is defined in 4.3.1
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3.1.5
dimmed
areas which appearance has been made less conspicuous than other areas
EXAMPLE When the Indication Status is activated the Planning area is dimmed

NOTE A dimmed area is used to emphasise particular information on other areas shown on the DMI during critical

situations
3.1.6
ERTMS/ETCS system

system in which ERTMS/ETCS functional, technical and the related operational specifications are

determined
3.1.7
ERTMS/GSM-R system
system in which ERTMS/EIRENE functional and system specifications are determined
3.1.8
grid array

area consisting of cells which results in a visual appearance of information in certain proportions

3.1.9
hard key

physical key not part of the display area. This key can also have a text label or symbol

3.1.10
in approach
track location according to Figure 1
3.1.11
indicator

object with a label shown to the driver for which no driver action is possible. If an indicator is surrounded

by a flashing frame, the indicator may become a button
3.1.12
input field

object shown to the driver which allows the driver to enter data and composed of a label with an

associated area to show the data
3.1.13
label
symbol or text indication on an indicator or a button
3.1.14
On-Board system

ERTMS/ETCS system and/or the ERTMS/GSM-R system or sub-system located in rolling stock

3.1.15
sensitive area

surface on which a driver can make a physical action to give input to the On-Board system

3.1.16
soft key

context-dependent key which consists of a hard key with an associated label on the display area

3.1.17
symbol
presentation of information in graphical form instead of using text
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CLC/TS 50459-1:2005 - 8 -
3.1.18
title
object with a text explaining the purpose of the window
3.1.19
window
separate area which shows information
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ACK Acknowledgement
DMI Driver-Machine Interface
EIRENE European Integrated Railways radio Enhanced Network
ERRI European Rail Research Institute
ERTMS European Rail Traffic Management System
ETCS European Train Control System
GSM-R Global System for Mobile communication – Railways
ISO International Standardisation Organisation
STM Specific Transmission Module
UIC Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer
w x h width by height
4 General ergonomic principles
4.1 Principles for presentation

This clause provides requirements for the graphical presentation and arrangement of the information

shown on the cab display.
4.1.1 Presentation techniques

A clear presentation of information of the DMI leads to better understanding of the tasks to be performed.

This will increase speed and accuracy of driver actions thus reducing the probability of human errors.

4.1.1.1 Emphasising particular information

To emphasise particular information shown on the DMI during critical situations, it shall be possible to

change the appearance of other areas to make these other areas less conspicuous.

This change of appearance shall be achieved by one or more of the following techniques:

 changing colours and grey into dark grey;
 texture large surfaces;
 changing non-dotted lines into dotted ones.
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- 9 - CLC/TS 50459-1:2005
4.1.1.2 Use of symbols

Symbols are used for frequent, common and known indications. Symbols can also be used for context

sensitive labels as part of a graphical language. In CLC/TS 50459-5 the presentation of symbols is

described.
If symbols are described in CLC/TS 50459-5 they shall be used.

If the indication is not described in CLC/TS 50459-5 a text label or message should be used. The use of a

new symbol for a new indication is not precluded.
Symbols shall not be used in a text message.
4.1.1.3 Use of colours

The main operational colours of the DMI are white, grey, yellow, orange and red. They are the basis of

DMI colour philosophy. The colours express the priority of the information presented. Priority is linked to

the expected driver reaction time.

 No immediate attention/action required (base priority): white (1) / grey (3) shall be used; the

information concerns a normal situation.

 Attention/action required (medium priority): yellow (8) shall be used; the information still concerns a

normal situation and there is no danger; after a while more attention/action may be required.

 Immediate attention/action necessary (high priority): orange (9) shall be used; the situation is

undesirable and may be unexpected; immediate action is necessary to avoid further undesirable

effects.

 Urgent attention/action necessary (highest priority): red (10) shall be used; the information concerns

an unusual, unexpected, dangerous and/or harmful situation (example: train trip, emergency call).

The use of these colours, and their number references, is summarised in Table 1.
Table 1 — Colour philosophy DMI
Colour Urgency Expected situation if not reacted in time
Speed dial Symbols

white (1) / grey (3) no danger at all normal, no immediate reaction normal, no action or no

required immediate reaction required

yellow (8) no danger yet no reaction might lead to no reaction might lead to red,

orange, be prepared to take action is required
action
orange (9) overspeeding no reaction might lead to red, not applicable
action required
red (10) danger or can lead to orange, yellow or can lead to white/grey after
unwanted situation white/grey after appropriate appropriate action, too late to
action, too late to react to the react to the displayed
displayed information, but not information, but not too late for
too late for subsequent action / subsequent action / system
system has intervened intervention is possible

For the colour definition see Table 2. The numbers in brackets refer to the number column in Table 2.

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CLC/TS 50459-1:2005 - 10 -

For symbols only grey (3), yellow (8) and red (10) colour shall be used. Text background can be grey or

dark blue (6).

The difference between the use of white and grey depends on the need for a more conspicuous

presentation.

The colour scheme based on a dark blue background shall be used, because it ensures an optimum

contrast ratio.

An additional background may be used, provided it does not interfere with the basic colour philosophy.

The contrast-ratio should be modified in order to maintain optimal readability.

As an informative example (Table 2) the following 24-bit RGB colour values are used in this standard for

the figures.
Table 2 — Example of a 24-bit RGB colour scheme
Nr Colour name Red Green Blue
1 white 255 255 255
2 black 0 0 0
3 grey 195 195 195
4 medium grey 150 150 150
5 dark grey 85 85 85
6 dark blue (background) 3 17 34
7 very dark blue 4 12 25
8 yellow 223 223 0
9 orange 234 145 0
10 red 191 0 2
11 grey blue 81 91 109
12 blue grey 37 69 93
13 117 105 0
dark yellow
14 45 144 51
light green
15 12 58 12
dark green

These colours were defined for the tests, but are not used anymore in this specification.

A monochrome display may be used for a standalone GSM-R DMI. If such display is used, a similar

ergonomic approach to ETCS shall be followed, but without the use of colour.
4.1.1.4 Use of flashing

Flashing shall be used to draw the attention of the driver to a certain part of the display or to draw

attention to a delay-type button (see 4.4.2.5).
Flashing shall only appear on frames.

When flashing is used, the related information shall change from visible to not visible (e.g. background

colour) with a nominal frequency of 2 Hz with a symmetrical mark space ratio.
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NOTE 1 If the reason for flashing disappears, the flashing shall stop (e.g. after an ACK action).

NOTE 2 the use of flashing should not be confused with the use of sound.
4.1.1.5 Use of frames
A steady frame is used for the following:
 to indicate that a function is active;
 to indicate that the relevant condition is still valid.

A flashing frame is used in combination with text messages or text labels on buttons/indicators (text

messages or text labels on buttons/indicators themselves are not allowed to flash). A flashing frame

indicates always a request for an action from the driver (e.g. an acknowledgement or raise pantograph).

The frame shall be a line of at least 2 cells in width.

Frames shall have the same colour as the object which they surround, except if a frame surrounds a text

message (see 4.1.2 for the colour of text messages).
4.1.1.6 Use of highlighting
Highlighting shall be used in the following cases:
 to mark the selected input field (see 4.4.4.2);
 to mark the latest received (text) message;
 to mark an important message;
 to mark the echoed value of the entered data and the associated label.

Highlighting is used to discriminate between selected and “new/old” information and to mark clearly the

feedback of the ERTMS/ETCS system.

Highlighted information shall contrast clearly with the background. Highlighted information shall use a

white or grey character on a dark background (e.g. for text messages) or a white or grey background with

dark characters (e.g. for data entry fields).
4.1.1.7 Use of sound
Sound is used to draw attention to the display.
There are three types of sound
 feedback sounds,
 ERTMS/ETCS sounds,
 ERTMS/GSM-R sounds.

The format of the sounds is described in CLC/TS 50459-6. When the sounds should be used is described

in CLC/TS 50459-2 for ERTMS/ETCS and in CLC/TS 50459-3 for ERTMS/GSM-R.

The sounds related to the ERTMS/ETCS system shall be the same throughout Europe. For national

application any railway can use speech.
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CLC/TS 50459-1:2005 - 12 -
4.1.1.8 Display of indicators
Whilst the condition remains, an indicator should be visible at least for 2 s.
4.1.2 Text output

The output of text on the screen, e.g. words, sentences and questions, shall meet the following

requirements to provide usability and comprehensibility:

 terminology shall be consistent, i.e. each word has one meaning and one word is used to express

one meaning;
 the terminology shall be derived from the task environment of the driver;

 to avoid overloading of the driver, not more than 5 text messages shall be presented at the same

time;

 a conditional instruction shall start with the condition, e.g. “if ... then ...”;

 an instruction shall only give one condition and only one question shall be asked in one sentence;

 the active form of verbs shall be used;
 short main sentences shall be used; a maximum of 40 characters is preferred;
 double negations and negative questions shall be avoided;

 actions that are required of the driver should be brought to the beginning of the text information (e.g.

ACK transition to level 2);
 lower and upper case characters shall be used as in text on paper;
 any abbreviation shall be in upper case;

 text shall be in a colour which permits easy readability (e.g. grey or white on a dark blue background,

or black on a white background).
4.1.3 Characters

Displays are based on pixels. To optimise readability, the chosen character font shall be optimised for

display use to compensate the relatively low resolution of display screens in comparison with printed

material.
The following items have to be taken into consideration:
 character height;
 character width;
 character stroke width;
 between-character spacing;
 between-word spacing;
 between-line spacing.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
- 13 - CLC/TS 50459-1:2005
4.1.3.1 Character type
The character type shall not use serifs.

It is strongly recommended to use bitmap based fonts optimised for screen use, e.g. Chicago or Verdana,

for all real time drawing purposes (e.g. proportional characters for labels, text messages, etc.).

Bold characters shall be used to improve readability on the screen of the text.

NOTE 1 The fonts designed especially for a display screen to maximise and enhance readability on a computer screen

are also called screen fonts or pixel fonts.

NOTE 2 Real time drawing is referring to all display information that is calculated once it is available and cannot be

prepared in advance.

Information that can be prepared in advance (e.g. numbers on the speed scale) can be drawn with any

good readable non-serif font, such as Helvetica.

In particular cases e.g. the actual speed numbers, a non-proportional special character optimised for

display use can be developed and used.
4.1.3.2 Character height
The minimum height of the characters shall be
 speed scale numbers: 14 cells,
 actual speed (digital): 17 cells,
 other characters (e.g. used for input fields, text messages, etc.)
 lower case: 7 cells,
 capital: 9 cells,
 numbers in planning area: 7 cells,
 character height in title window: 9 cells.
4.1.4 Numbers

When using numbers, leading zeros shall not be shown (e.g. show 80 km/h not 080 km/h), unless it is

essential (e.g. telephone number).

For numbers the colours shall be grey or white on a dark blue background or black or dark grey on a light

(e.g. white) background.
4.2 Principles for dialogue

This subclause deals with software aspects and describes general ergonomic principles for the dialogue

between user and system, which are independent of any specific dialogue technique.

The dialogue principles are intended to make the use of the system e
...

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