Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 393: Structured literature review of visually induced motion sickness during watching electronic images (ISO/TR 9241-393:2020)

This document gives the scientific summaries of visually induced motion sickness resulting from images presented visually on or by electronic display devices. Electronic displays include flat panel displays, electronic projections on a flat screen, and head-mounted displays.
Different aspects of human-system interaction are covered in other parts of the ISO 9241 series.

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 393: Titre manque (ISO/TR 9241-393:2020)

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 393. del: Pregled strukturirane literature o vizualno povzročeni gibalni bolezni med gledanjem elektronskih slik (ISO/TR 9241-393: 2020)

Ta dokument podaja znanstvene povzetke vizualno povzročene gibalne bolezni zaradi slik, ki so predstavljene vizualno oziroma prek elektronskih prikazovalnih naprav. Elektronski prikazi vključujejo ploskovne zaslone, elektronske projekcije na ploskem zaslonu in naglavne prikazovalnike.
Različni vidiki medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem so zajeti v drugih delih skupine standardov ISO 9241.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Mar-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Jan-2022
Due Date
28-Mar-2022
Completion Date
29-Mar-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022
01-maj-2022
Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 393. del: Pregled strukturirane
literature o vizualno povzročeni gibalni bolezni med gledanjem elektronskih slik
(ISO/TR 9241-393: 2020)

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 393: Structured literature review of

visually induced motion sickness during watching electronic images (ISO/TR 9241-
393:2020)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 393: Titre manque (ISO/TR 9241-

393:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022
CEN ISO/TR 9241-393
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
January 2022
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 13.180
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 393:
Structured literature review of visually induced motion
sickness during watching electronic images (ISO/TR 9241-
393:2020)
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie
393: Titre manque (ISO/TR 9241-393:2020)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 26 December 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

122.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022
CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO/TR 9241-393:2020 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

"Ergonomics” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as

CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TR 9241-393:2020 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022 without

any modification.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-393:2022
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 9241-393
First edition
2020-03
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 393:
Structured literature review of
visually induced motion sickness
during watching electronic images
Reference number
ISO/TR 9241-393:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO/TR 9241-393:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Theories of visually induced motion sickness ....................................................................................................................... 2

5 Measurement of visually induced motion sickness ......................................................................................................... 3

6 Effective factors of visually induced motion sickness.................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Effective factors: Visual image factors ................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Role of visual motion .................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Real and virtual motion ..........................................................................................................................................10

6.2.4 Constant rotation of global image motion ..............................................................................................11

6.2.5 Change of velocity of global image motion .............................................................................................14

6.2.6 Cyclic rotation of global image motion ......................................................................................................16

6.2.7 Cyclic translation of global image motion ...............................................................................................17

6.2.8 Velocity effects of forward motion with complicated motion ................................................18

6.2.9 Off-axis rotation of visual yaw rotation .................. ...................................................................................20

6.2.10 Combination of different axes of visual motion .................................................................................22

6.2.11 Anisotropy effects of back and forth translation ...............................................................................25

6.2.12 Spatial frequency of visual image ...................................................................................................................26

6.2.13 Spatial pattern of visual image .........................................................................................................................27

6.2.14 Independent visual background from visual motion ....................................................................28

6.2.15 Chromaticity of visual image ..............................................................................................................................29

6.2.16 Blur of visual image ....................................................................................................................................................30

6.2.17 Cognitive orientation cues of visual image ............................................................................................31

6.2.18 Stereoscopic image .....................................................................................................................................................32

6.2.19 Prediction signs for motion .................................................................................................................................38

6.3 Effective factors: Visual environmental factors .......................................................................................................41

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................41

6.3.2 Image size in visual field ........................................................................................................................................42

6.3.3 Perspective difference between capturing and rendering images ....................................45

6.3.4 Time delay in HMD ......................................................................................................................................................46

6.3.5 Duration and repeated exposure to visual stimulus ......................................................................48

6.3.6 Changes in illumination colour ........................................................................................................................49

6.3.7 Auditory stimulation .................................................................................................................................................51

6.3.8 Odour simulation ..........................................................................................................................................................52

6.4 Effective factors: Individual viewer factors .................................................................................................................53

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................53

6.4.2 Gender ....................................................................................................................................................................................54

6.4.3 Gender – Menstrual cycle - ...................................................................................................................................57

6.4.4 Age ........................................................................................................................................... ..................................................58

6.4.5 Active/Passive viewing ........................................................................................................................................... .59

6.4.6 Fixation .................................................................................................................................................................................60

7 Susceptibility probability of motion sickness.....................................................................................................................62

8 Scaling of VIMS severity .............................................................................................................................................................................63

9 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................65

Annex A (informative) Overview of the ISO 9241 series ...............................................................................................................66

Annex B (informative) Scaling symptoms severity induced by visual motion .......................................................67

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Annex C (informative) Effective factors from the viewpoint of image production ............................................69

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................78

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
A list of all parts in the ISO 9241 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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Introduction

Recent advancements in moving image technology have enabled us to view and interact with images

using various display devices and in various ways. Moreover, application fields are not limited to

entertainment but also to other business scenarios with the expectation to expand to more ambitious

applications.

In terms of the expansion of application fields and utility forms, the role of video images serving society

has become increasingly important. Thus, it has become necessary to consider the ergonomic aspects of

utilizing video images in view of further progressive expansions. In relation to ergonomic aspects, we

need to consider not only the specifications of devices but also those affecting image safety, including

those for reducing visually induced motion sickness, or VIMS. VIMS, which is similar to motion sickness,

is usually recognized as simply being a minor annoyance from which those being affected would recover

in the short term. However, some people experiencing this sickness suffer from vomiting or ataxia, and

thus, are incapacitated.

Yet, the ambitious production of moving images and the use of those images should not be hindered

by considerations to reduce VIMS. Major factors causing VIMS are considered to be visual motion of

various kinds in moving image. In addition, visual motion in moving images conveys various types of

information, for example, the psychology of characters captured by camera work producing various

types of visual motion. For moving images shown to the public and those produced by professional

staff, VIMS is presumed to be carefully considered based on empirical knowledge. Besides, adventurous

trials can sometimes be necessary to drive forward ambitious moving image production and the use of

those images. Moreover, in the absence of empirical knowledge, the uncharted territory of visual effects

can come into existence through technical innovations. Although image safety is naturally important,

these progressive approaches should not be fully restrained. The issue can be addressed by advancing

moving image technology based on an understanding of the characteristics of VIMS. Thus, it is highly

important to accumulate scientific knowledge on VIMS. This will encourage attempts to ambitiously

produce moving images while considering image safety, which can be expected to lead to further

development in the effective use of moving images.

With a view to international standardization for reducing the incidence of VIMS, this document attempts

to summarize the scientific knowledge of VIMS by presenting an effective procedure for developing

an advanced understanding of VIMS. This is achieved from the viewpoint of empirical knowledge on

VIMS obtained during the production of moving images. This document categorizes related scientific

knowledge on the ergonomic characteristics of VIMS, and clarifies the conditions under which VIMS can

be induced and ways to reduce it. These actions are expected to develop the basis for ambitious moving

image production and the use of these images. Furthermore, the work is expected to provide effective

and basic data to allow VIMS to be studied together with a discussion of the guidelines focusing on VIMS.

While this document basically focuses on scientific knowledge of VIMS, postural ataxia or disorientation

as an aftereffect of visual exposures especially to virtual environment, is another related issue and is

even more important from the viewpoint of safety in daily life. However, this document cannot directly

deal with the issue because of shortages of scientific reports on it. This should be further examined,

and scientific knowledge of the characteristics should be accumulated.

This document does not include any guidelines. Moreover, this document is based on up-to-date data of

the ergonomic characteristics of VIMS and can be revised as new scientific data become available.

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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 9241-393:2020(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 393:
Structured literature review of visually induced motion
sickness during watching electronic images
1 Scope

This document gives the scientific summaries of visually induced motion sickness resulting from

images presented visually on or by electronic display devices. Electronic displays include flat panel

displays, electronic projections on a flat screen, and head-mounted displays.

Different aspects of human-system interaction are covered in other parts of the ISO 9241 series (see

Annex A).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
visually induced motion sickness
VIMS

motion sickness-like symptoms induced by perceived motion within the visual environment, such as

when watching movies and screen images of video games

Note 1 to entry: The symptoms may include dizziness (3.2), vertigo (3.3), sweating, odd feelings in the stomach,

and nausea which can progress to vomiting.
3.2
dizziness
physical unsteadiness, lack of balance or light-headedness
3.3
vertigo

sensation of rotation or movement of oneself (subjective vertigo), or of rotation or movement of one’s

surroundings (objective vertigo), in any plane, caused by diseases of the inner ear, or by disturbances of

the vestibular centres or pathways in the central nervous system
3.4
postural ataxia

inability to coordinate voluntary movements for maintaining posture, caused by dysfunction to sensory

nerve inputs, motor nerve outputs, or the processing of them
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3.5
disorientation
loss of sense of direction, position or relationship with the surroundings
3.6
global image motion

wide spatial range of visual motion composed of different velocities and directions that are

systematically aligned in a moving image

Note 1 to entry: There are generally six types of global image motion that correspond to the different types of

motion of a camera during the shooting of images. These are rotation around and translation along the pitch,

yaw, and roll axes (see Figure 1).
Key
1 yaw
2 pitch
3 roll
Figure 1 — Rotations around and translation along the three axes
3.7
vection
self-motion perception induced by visual motion

Note 1 to entry: Vection can be categorized into two different types: linear vection and circular vection. Liner

vection consists of linear self-motion perception, while circular vection consists of circular self-motion perception

around either one or several of the yaw, pitch, and roll axes.
3.8
design field of view
design FOV

angular region subtending the active area of a display as designed to be observed from the viewing

position
4 Theories of visually induced motion sickness

Although the specific mechanism of VIMS has not been clarified, there are several hypotheses to explain

the cause of motion sickness (MS) including VIMS. Major hypotheses of MS are:
1) sensory conflict theory, or sensory rearrangement theory;
2) poison theory; and
3) postural instability theory.

The sensory conflict theory (Reason and Brand, 1975) explains the cause of MS as the mismatch among

different types of sensory information, and even within single modalities of this information, such as

visual, vestibular, proprioceptive, etc.
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The sensory rearrangement theory suggests that sickness occurs when the pattern of sensory

information containing signals from multi-modal senses and those within a single modal sense do not

match the patterns of those stored in the central nervous system, or CNS, from past experiences. As a

modified version of this sensory rearrangement theory, the theory that focuses on sensory mismatch

of the subjective vertical is known as subjective vertical theory. The sensory rearrangement theory

holds that the severity of sickness increases when the discrepancy between the pattern of sensory

information signals and those stored in CNS becomes larger. When we consider and clarify the meaning

of “mismatch” among different senses, it leads to the sensory rearrangement theory, which is widely

accepted among researchers. In general, the sensory rearrangement theory is often referred to as

sensory conflict theory.

The poison theory (Treisman, 1977) is used to explain why MS arises. The idea is that MS was developed

collaterally for organisms to survive in the course of evolution. According to the theory, when emesis

was established as a reaction to intoxication by poison, organisms developed a process in which

dizziness and vertigo, and then postural instability, is induced while the gastrointestinal tract is being

emptied by producing mismatch signals among the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive modalities.

Because of this process, emesis is induced without the ingestion of poison by actual mismatch between

the different types of sensory information. This theory is interesting but difficult to examine and it

generally does not contradict other theories trying to explain the mechanism of VIMS.

The postural instability theory (Riccio and Stoffregen, 1991) explains the cause of MS as the state of

postural instability. Organisms try to keep postural stability in accordance with their environment in

daily activities. The stable state can be obtained by reduce body fluctuations to the smallest, while

remaining fluctuations cannot be fully controlled. According to the theory, sickness occurs when a

stable state cannot be obtained. Moreover, the severity of sickness can be determined by the time the

body remains in the unstable state. There are various discussions, both from positive and negative

sides, on this theory.
5 Measurement of visually induced motion sickness

Measurement methods of VIMS can be mainly categorized as subjective measures of symptoms or

physiological recordings including those of autonomic nervous activities. Subjective measures can be

basically classified into two categories:
1) evaluation of sickness severity with one axis scale; and

2) evaluations of various symptoms related to the sickness, which are then used to obtain a total score

and several sub-scores.

The measurements required to evaluate one value of sickness severity can be obtained in a short time.

Then, those measurements can be carried out while participants are exposed to stimuli of VIMS during

experiments. These kinds of measurements were proposed by various researchers who used different

scales. Thus, it is rather difficult to directly compare the data obtained in different experiments by

different researchers. The scales can be different in light of:
a) the number of points of the scale,
b) the level of severity indicated by the largest score, and
c) the kind of symptom levels attributed to each score of the scale.

The number of points on the scale is inconsistent: some of them have 20, and others have 11, 7, 6,

and 4. Keshavarz and Hecht (2011a) proposed a fast motion sickness scale (FMS), which is a 20-point

rating scale ranging from zero (no sickness at all) to 20 (frank sickness). They examined and found

high correlations with the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), total score (r = 0,79) and sub-score

(r = 0,83). They also used it in another experiment (Keshavarz and Hecht, 2011b).

There are two different, but comparable, scales adopting 11-point levels of scoring. One is called the

misery scale (MISC), which has been used by Bos and his colleagues (Bos et al., 2005; Lubeck et al.,

2015; Lubeck et al., 2016). The scale was revised from the one adopted by Wertheim et al. (1998), based

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on “the knowledge that nausea is generally preceded by other symptoms such as dizziness, headache,

(cold) sweat, and stomach awareness” (Bos et al., 2005). The MISC with symptom description for each

score is shown in Table 1. The other is the sickness related scale, focusing on the symptoms felt in the

head, and of dizziness and nausea (Ujike et al., 2004; Ujike et al., 2005). The scale is presented in Table 2.

Table 1 — Misery scale (MISC)
Symptom Severity Score
No problems 0
Uneasiness (no typical symptoms) 1
Dizziness, warmth, headache, stomach awareness, sweating, and vague 2
other symptoms slight 3
fairly 4
severe 5
Nausea slight 6
fairly 7
severe 8
Retching 9
Vomiting 10
Table 2 — Sickness related scale
Symptom description Rating
No problems 0
Feeling very slight unusual sensation 1
Feeling slight unusual sensation 2
Tendency to feel unusual sense in the head 3
Sometimes feeling unusual sense in the head 4
Feeling unusual s
...

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