Natural stones - Guidance for use of natural stones

This Technical Report applies to natural stone products intended for masonry elements, wall coverings (including tiles), interior floor and stair finishes (including tiles) and exterior floor and stair finishes (including paving), as well as massive stone elements. It provides guidance for the application and the use of natural stone products in accordance with European product standards. This document does not deal with coatings or staining problems, and does not take into account treatments which may modify the performance characteristics of the materials. This document does not apply to agglomerated stones and aggregates.

Naturstein - Leitfaden für die Anwendung von Natursteinen

Pierres naturelles - Guide d'emploi des pierres naturelles

Naravni kamen - Navodila za uporabo naravnega kamna

To tehnično poročilo se uporablja za izdelke iz naravnega kamna, namenjene za zidarske elemente, stenske obloge (vključno s ploščicami), obloge za notranja tla in stopnice (vključno s ploščicami), obloge za zunanja tla in stopnice (vključno s tlakom) ter masivne kamnite elemente. Zagotavlja navodila za uporabo izdelkov iz naravnega kamna v skladu z evropskimi standardi za proizvode. Ta dokument ne obravnava premazov ali težav z madeži in ne upošteva obdelav, ki lahko spremenijo lastnosti učinkovitosti materialov. Ta dokument se ne uporablja za aglomerirane kamne in agregate.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Jul-2016
Publication Date
19-Feb-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Jan-2017
Due Date
03-Apr-2017
Completion Date
20-Feb-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17024:2017
01-marec-2017
Naravni kamen - Navodila za uporabo naravnega kamna
Natural stones - Guidance for use of natural stones
Naturstein - Leitfaden für die Anwendung von Natursteinen
Pierres naturelles - Guide d'emploi des pierres naturelles
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17024:2017
ICS:
91.100.15 Mineralni materiali in izdelki Mineral materials and
products
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17024:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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CEN/TR 17024
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
January 2017
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 91.100.15
English Version
Natural stones - Guidance for use of natural stones

Pierres naturelles - Guide d'emploi des pierres Naturstein - Leitfaden für die Anwendung von

naturelles Natursteinen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 13 September 2016. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

246.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17024:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 General specifications ................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General principles ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Characterization tests ................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2.1 Origin of the stone ........................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2.2 Petrographic analysis ................................................................................................................................. 10

4.2.3 Visual characteristics: reference sample ............................................................................................ 10

4.2.4 Apparent density .......................................................................................................................................... 11

4.2.5 Open porosity ................................................................................................................................................ 11

4.2.6 Water absorption ......................................................................................................................................... 12

4.2.7 Determination of uniaxial compressive strength............................................................................. 13

4.2.8 Determination of flexural strength ....................................................................................................... 13

4.2.9 Modulus of elasticity ................................................................................................................................... 14

4.2.10 Sound speed propagation.......................................................................................................................... 14

4.2.11 Thermal expansion coefficient ................................................................................................................ 14

4.3 Tests relating to performance in use .................................................................................................... 15

4.3.1 Resistance to breaking load at dowel hole ......................................................................................... 15

4.3.2 Rupture energy ............................................................................................................................................. 15

4.3.3 Sensitivity to staining ................................................................................................................................. 15

4.3.4 Slip resistance ............................................................................................................................................... 16

4.4 Durability tests.............................................................................................................................................. 17

4.4.1 Frost resistance............................................................................................................................................. 17

4.4.2 Determination of abrasion resistance .................................................................................................. 18

4.5 Dimensional tolerances - Corresponding standards ....................................................................... 19

4.6 Suitability for the intended use ............................................................................................................... 19

5 Delivery acceptance .................................................................................................................................... 22

5.1 Conditions of delivery acceptance ......................................................................................................... 22

5.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 22

5.1.2 Objective of the delivery acceptance process .................................................................................... 23

5.1.3 Location ........................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.1.4 Date ................................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.1.5 Staff and equipment for delivery acceptance .................................................................................... 23

5.2 Proceedings of delivery acceptance process ...................................................................................... 23

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

5.2.2 Evaluation of the delivered quantity..................................................................................................... 23

5.2.3 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.2.4 Testing of the material’s nature .............................................................................................................. 24

5.2.5 Testing of geometric characteristics ..................................................................................................... 24

5.2.6 Testing of declared performance characteristics............................................................................. 25

6 Dealing with visual and dimensional non conformities................................................................. 25

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17024:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 246

“Natural stones”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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Introduction

Product standards for natural stone are issued by the European committee for standardization and deal

with stone masonry, tiles and slabs for cladding, flooring and stairs.

Producers in countries outside the European Union might not be familiar with these product standards.

Therefore, the scope of this document is to inform and assist the user in order to provide

recommendations for the proper use of natural stone and the requirements of the product standards

regulating their being placed on the market within the countries comprising the European Union.

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1 Scope

This Technical Report applies to natural stone products intended for masonry elements, wall coverings

(including tiles), internal floor and stair finishes (including tiles) and exterior floor and stair finishes

(including paving), as well as massive stone elements.

It provides guidance for the application and use of natural stone products in accordance with European

product standards.

This Technical Report does not deal with coatings or staining problems, and does not take into account

treatments that could modify the performance characteristics of the materials.
This Technical Report does not apply to agglomerated stones and aggregates.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 771-6, Specification for masonry units — Part 6: Natural stone masonry units

EN 772-1, Test methods for masonry units — Part 1: Determination of compressive strength

EN 772-11, Methods of test for masonry units - Part 11: Determination of water absorption of aggregate

concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, manufactured stone and natural stone masonry units due to

capillary action and the initial rate of water absorption of clay masonry units

EN 1341, Slabs of natural stone for external paving - Requirements and test methods

EN 1342, Setts of natural stone for external paving - Requirements and test methods

EN 1343, Kerbs of natural stone for external paving - Requirements and test methods

EN 1467, Natural stone - Rough blocks - Requirements
EN 1468, Natural stone - Rough slabs - Requirements
EN 1469, Natural stone products - Slabs for cladding - Requirements

EN 1925, Natural stone test methods - Determination of water absorption coefficient by capillarity

EN 1926, Natural stone test methods - Determination of uniaxial compressive strength

EN 1936, Natural stone test methods - Determination of real density and apparent density, and of total

and open porosity
EN 12057, Natural stone products - Modular tiles - Requirements
EN 12058, Natural stone products - Slabs for floors and stairs - Requirements
EN 12059, Natural stone — Finished products, dimensional stone work Requirements
EN 12371, Natural stone test methods - Determination of frost resistance

EN 12372, Natural stone test methods - Determination of flexural strength under concentrated load

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EN 12407, Natural stone test methods - Petrographic examination
EN 12440, Natural stone - Denomination criteria
EN 12670, Natural stone - Terminology

EN 13364, Natural stone test methods - Determination of the breaking load at dowel hole

EN 13373, Natural stone test methods - Determination of geometric characteristics on units

EN 13755, Natural stone test methods - Determination of water absorption at atmospheric pressure

EN 14066, Natural stone test methods - Determination of resistance to ageing by thermal shock

EN 14146, Natural stone test methods - Determination of the dynamic modulus of elasticity (by measuring

the fundamental resonance frequency)
EN 14157, Natural stone test methods - Determination of the abrasion resistance
EN 14158, Natural stone test methods - Determination of rupture energy
EN 14579, Natural stone test methods - Determination of sound speed propagation

EN 14581, Natural stone test methods - Determination of linear thermal expansion coefficient

EN 16140, Natural stone test methods - Determination of sensitivity to changes in appearance produced

by thermal cycles

EN 16306, Natural stone test methods - Determination of resistance of marble to thermal and moisture

cycles

CEN/TS 16165, Determination of slip resistance of pedestrian surfaces - Methods of evaluation

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
order
all products to be delivered on the basis of the contract
3.2
order item
one of a set of products corresponding to one single order
3.3
contractual sample
reference sample which forms part of the contract
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3.4
delivery

part or all of the order arriving at the same time and at the same place, and giving rise to a delivery

order

Note 1 to entry: In addition to the requirements of CE marking, the documents accompanying the delivery shall

state the following:
— reference of the order;
— name and address of the supplier;
— nature and type of the delivered order items;
— date of collection and place of delivery;
— total weight of the load;
— quantity of delivered order items;
— weight of materials packaged in bulk (per packaging unit).
3.5
delivery acceptance

series of operations to verify compliance of the delivery with the contract specification (quantity,

tolerance specifications, appearance, mechanical properties, contractual samples, etc.)

3.6
packaging unit
term that designates for instance a pallet, a crate, a bag, a box

Note 1 to entry: Each packaging unit shall carry a marking or label allowing the identification of the batch to

which it derives.
3.7
batch
set of packaging units containing one order item in one delivery

Note 1 to entry: A batch necessarily corresponds to a single characterization sheet.

Note 2 to entry: A delivery may include one or several batches.
4 General specifications
4.1 General principles

To assess whether a stone type is suitable for a particular application, a specific testing program is

described as mentioned in Table 1. Table 1 contains a detailed overview of the most useful tests, in

particular:

— characterization tests (or identification tests): they are used to determine the intrinsic material

properties, independent of its transformation into a finished product and the environment in which

it will be used;

— tests relating to performance in use: these tests evaluate the performance of the finished product

after manufacturing. Therefore, these tests should as nearly as possible reproduce the physical

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forces and effects of weathering and contamination that act upon the element in service (taking into

account dimensions and surface conditions);

— durability tests: these tests are used to analyse the behaviour of the stone over time and thus make

it possible to evaluate the stability of the intrinsic material properties and of the initial performance

data after a period of time.

Additionally it is relevant to consider the performance of the same stone type in existing examples of its

use under similar climatic conditions.
Table 1 — Examples of stones used in structural applications and related tests
Product Structural application Test of performance in Test standard
standard use
Masonry EN 771–6 Element in elevation, with Capillarity EN 772–11
no possibility of splash
Frost resistance EN 12371
back
Compressive strength EN 772–1
Splash course
Window sill
Handrail
String course
Cornice
Pinnacles
Gargoyle
Massive slab for balcony
Plinth
Wall EN 1469 Internal cladding
cladding
Mechanically fastened Resistance to breaking EN 13364
cladding at dowel hole
Flexural strength EN 12372
(EN 13161)
External cladding
Mechanically fastened Frost resistance EN 12371
cladding
Resistance to breaking EN 13364
Elevation
at dowel hole
String course
Flexural strength EN 12372
Balcony sill
(EN 13161)
Window sill
Resistance of marble to EN 16306
Plinth
thermal and moisture
Horizontal covering
cycles
Thermal shock EN 14066
resistance
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Wall EN 1469 Internal cladding
cladding
EN 12057
Glued cladding Apparent density EN 1936
EN 12059
Open porosity
External cladding
Glued cladding and tiling Apparent density EN 1936
Elevation Open porosity
String course
Frost resistance EN 12371
Balcony sill
Thermal shock EN 14066
Window sill
resistance
Plinth
Horizontal covering
Floor EN 12058 Interior floors and stairs Abrasion resistance EN 14157
covering
EN 12057
Flexural strength EN 12372
(EN 13161)
Exterior floors and stairs Abrasion resistance EN 14157
Slip resistance CEN/TS 16165
Flexural strength EN 12372
(EN 13161)
Frost resistance EN 12371
External EN 1341 Slabs Abrasion resistance EN 14157
Paving
Flexural strength EN 12372
(EN 13161)
Slip and skip resistance EN 14231
Frost resistance EN 12371
EN 1342 Setts Abrasion resistance EN 14157
Compressive strength EN 1926
Slip and skid resistance EN 14231
Frost resistance EN 12371
EN 1343 Kerbs Abrasion resistance EN 14157
— Flexural strength EN 12372
— Frost resistance EN 12371
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4.2 Characterization tests
4.2.1 Origin of the stone

The part of the characterization record/sheet reserved to the origin of the stone shall mention,

according to EN 12440:
— the name and the address of the supplier of the stone product;
— the commercial name of the stone;

— the petrographic nature of the stone according to the standards EN 12407 and EN 12670;

— the place of origin (as precise as possible, e.g. country, city, GPS data);
— the macroscopic description of the appearance (colour, texture, etc.).
4.2.2 Petrographic analysis

Petrographic characterization (see EN 12407) allows the determination of the mineralogical

composition of the natural stone. Based on this information, the correct geological name of the stone

can be deduced. According to EN 12440, the name of the stone should state the place of origin, the

(geological) type and the colour of the stone. In this context, correct petrographic identification of the

stone is important and should prevent the use of misleading names. Besides these geological features, a

petrographic analysis can also provide useful information concerning the sensitivity of stone in specific

conditions (micro cracking, formation of expansive minerals, oxidation of metallic minerals, etc.).

4.2.3 Visual characteristics: reference sample

Stone is a natural material; its colour, veining and texture can vary. Therefore, the general visual

characteristics should be defined by means of a reference sample.

A reference sample shall comprise an adequate number of pieces of natural stone of sufficient size to

indicate the general appearance of the finished work. The dimensions of individual pieces shall be at

2 2

least 0,01 m (typical values are between 0,01 and 0,25 m in plan area but may be more), and shall

indicate the range of appearance regarding the colouring, the vein pattern, the physical structure and

the surface finish. In particular the reference sample shall show specific characteristics of the stone,

such as holes for travertine, worm holes for marble, glass seams, spots, crystalline veins and rusty spots.

The reference sample does not imply strict uniformity between the sample itself and the actual supply;

natural variations may always occur.

If the processing of the stone involves the use of patching, fillers or other similar products for natural

holes, faults or cracks, then the reference sample shall similarly display the visual impact of the same on

the finished surface.

All the characteristics as shown by the reference sample shall be considered typical of the stone and not

as flaws, therefore they shall not become a reason for rejection, unless their concentration becomes

excessive and the typical character of the stone is lost.

The reference sample should come with a characterization record/sheet (see 4.2.1).

The following information should be given on each specimen comprising the sample:

— name of the supplier;
— commercial name of the stone;
— signatures of the contracting parties;
— date of signing.
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4.2.4 Apparent density

The apparent density (see EN 1936) is a property commonly measured for natural stone. It reflects the

degree of compactness of the material and allows an assessment of the mass of a given volume. It is

expressed in kg/m . This characteristic may be used to calculate the approximate weight of a stone unit

for manual handling, for thermal and sound insulation purposes and for assumed load. For typical

values, see Table 2.
Table 2 — Example of apparent densities
Apparent density
kg/m
(EN 1936)
Compact Limestone > 2 500
Other Limestone < 2 500
Sandstone 1 900 to 2 700
Slate – Shale – Schist 2 600 to 3 000
Marble 2 600 to 2 900
Gneiss 2 400 to 2 700
Granite 2 400 to 3 000
Basalt 2 550 to 3 000
4.2.5 Open porosity

The open porosity of a stone (see EN 1936) is determined by the ratio of the voids (pores) in the stone,

which are interconnected and thus accessible to water. Usually, it is expressed in percentage of volume

and it represents the volume of open pores in proportion to the total volume of the stone. For typical

values, see Table 3.
Table 3 — Example of open porosities
Open porosity
vol.%
(EN 1936)
Compact Limestone 0,3 to 2
Other Limestone 2 to 48
Sandstone 0,4 to 25
Slate – Shale – Schist 0,1 to 6
Marble 0,1 to 2
Gneiss 0,1 to 2
Granite 0,1 to 2
Basalt 0,1 to 6
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Open porosity should not be confused with water absorption, which is expressed as percentage of mass.

If the water absorption is determined by impregnation under full vacuum (as the open porosity), the

open porosity and the water absorption can be compared using a multiplication coefficient: namely the

apparent compactness of the material (i.e. its apparent density divided by 1 000). Open porosity is

calculated using Formula (1).
()A×ρ
b b
p= (1)
1 000
where
p is the open porosity, expressed in percentage of volume;
A is the water absorption, expressed in percentage of mass;
ρ 3
b is the apparent density, expressed in kg/m .

For example, a natural stone with a water absorption of 20 % (percentage of mass) and an apparent

density of 2 000 kg/m can be characterized by an open porosity of 40 % (percentage of volume).

4.2.6 Water absorption
4.2.6.1 General

Water absorption reflects the ability of the stone to retain water in its pores due to capillary forces. This

property should be taken into consideration for building applications where the natural stone could

come in contact with water.

For some stone types used in external applications, water absorption can be a useful indicator for

susceptibility to frost damage. Internal applications, such as wall and floor coverings of bathrooms,

kitchen worktops and tile floorings may also come into contact with water. For these applications, it

should be taken into account that high water absorption can lead to:
a) a change in visual appearance in humid conditions;
b) a greater susceptibility to staining;
c) absorption of dirt in the surface texture.

Besides being determined by impregnation under full vacuum, water absorption can be determined by

the following two methods: water absorption by capillarity or by immersion at atmospheric pressure.

For typical values, see Table 4.
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Table 4 — Example of water absorptions
Water absorption
% (percentage of
mass)
(EN 13755)
Compact Limestone 0,1 to 0,8
Other Limestone 0,8 to 21
Sandstone 2 to 11
Slate – Shale – Schist < 0,1 to 2
Marble < 0,1 to 0,7
Gneiss < 0,1 to 0,8
Granite < 0,1 to 0,8
Basalt < 0,1 to 2,5
4.2.6.2 Water absorption by capillarity

This characteristic (see EN 1925 and EN 772-11) reflects the quantity of water that can be absorbed by

the stone per time and surface area, if only one plane of the element is in contact with water. It is

2 0,5

expressed in g/(m s ). It is especially important for elements and structures in contact with the

ground e.g. plinths, bases and paving.
4.2.6.3 Water absorption by immersion at atmospheric pressure

This characteristic (see EN 13755) reflects the quantity of water that is absorbed by the stone, in

relation to the stone mass in dry condition, when the element is completely immersed in water at

atmospheric pressure. It is expressed as a percentage of mass. It is an important indicator for the

characteristics described in 4.2.6.1 a) to c).
4.2.7 Determination of uniaxial compressive strength

EN 1926 and EN 772-1 specify methods to determine the uniaxial compressive strength of natural

stones that are incorporated in a structural application. Taking into account the appropriate safety

factors, this property should be considered for structural applications where stone is used as a load

bearing element.

Compressive strength is also often used as a characteristic for the identification of a stone or for

comparison with reference values, as an indicator for weathering after ageing (e.g. frost resistance test

according to EN 12371).
4.2.8 Determination of flexural strength

EN 12372 or EN 13161 specify methods to determine the flexural strength of natural stones that are

incorporated in a structural application. Taking into account the appropriate safety factors, this

property should be considered for structural applications where stone is exposed to flexural forces (e.g.

ventilated cladding, flooring and paving).

The flexural strength is also often used as a characteristic for the identification of a stone or for

comparison with reference values, as indicator for the weathering after ageing (e.g. frost resistance test

according to EN 12371).
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4.2.9 Modulus of elasticity

The modulus of elasticity of a material may be expressed as the static modulus of elasticity according to

EN 14580 or the dynamic modulus of elasticity according to EN 14146.

The static modulus of elasticity characterizes the state of deformation generated in a material in

response to an applied load.

The dynamic modulus of elasticity characterizes the response of the material to applied vibration. It is

often calculated from the results of a resonance frequency test and sound speed propagation test (see

EN 14579). The main advantage of this method is its non-destructive character. In the field of natural

stone, the dynamic modulus of elasticity is usually employed as an indicator for possible weathering of

the material by comparison of reference values.
4.2.10 Sound speed propagation

The sound speed propagation (see EN 14579) through a stone is defined by the compactness of the

material, but also by its water content, its mineralogy, possible fissures, the presence of certain salts,

etc..

It is a precise technique which nevertheless depends upon a large number of influencing parameters. It

therefore only provides useful information (e.g. about the weathering of the stone) if all these

parameters are known and controlled.
4.2.11 Thermal expansion coefficient

Like all common materials, natural stone is subjected to dimensional deformation under the influence

of temperature change. Such deformations are chara
...

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