Eurocode 9 - Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-4: Cold-formed structural sheeting

EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures" - European Standards construction products relevant for aluminium structures - EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 - EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5 EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

Eurocode 9 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Aluminiumtragwerken -Teil 1-4: Kaltgeformte Profiltafeln

1.1.1   Anwendungsbereich von EN 1999
(1)P   EN 1999 gilt für den Entwurf, die Berechnung und die Bemessung von Bauwerken und Tragwerken aus Aluminium. Sie entspricht den Grundsätzen und Anforderungen an die Tragfähigkeit und Gebrauchs¬tauglichkeit von Tragwerken, sowie den Grundlagen für ihre Bemessung und Nachweise, die in EN 1990  Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung  enthalten sind.
(2)   EN 1999 behandelt ausschließlich Anforderungen an die Tragfähigkeit, die Gebrauchstauglichkeit, die Dauerhaftigkeit und den Feuerwiderstand von Tragwerken aus Aluminium. Andere Anforderungen, wie z. B. Wärmeschutz oder Schallschutz, werden nicht behandelt.
(3)   EN 1999 gilt in Verbindung mit folgenden Regelwerken:
   EN 1990 Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung
   EN 1991 Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke
   Europäische Normen für Bauprodukte, die für Aluminiumtragwerke Verwendung finden
   EN 1090-1   Ausführung von Stahltragwerken und Aluminiumtragwerken  Teil 1: Konformitäts¬nachweisverfahren für tragende Bauteile
   EN 1090-3   Ausführung von Stahltragwerken und Aluminiumtragwerken  Teil 3: Technische Anforderungen für Aluminiumtragwerke5
(4)   EN 1999 ist in fünf Teile gegliedert:
EN 1999-1-1   Bemessung und Konstruktion von Aluminiumtragwerken  Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln
EN 1999-1-2   Bemessung und Konstruktion von Aluminiumtragwerken  Tragwerksbemessung für den Brandfall
EN 1999-1-3   Bemessung und Konstruktion von Aluminiumtragwerken  Ermüdungsbeanspruchte Tragwerke
EN 1999-1-4   Bemessung und Konstruktion von Aluminiumtragwerken   Kaltgeformte Profiltafeln
EN 1999-1-5   Bemessung und Konstruktion von Aluminiumtragwerken  Schalen

Eurocode 9 - Calcul des structures en aluminium - Partie 1-4: Les structures a plaques formées a froid

Les États Membres de l’UE et de l’AELE reconnaissent que les Eurocodes servent de documents de référence pour les usages suivants :
   comme moyen de prouver la conformité des bâtiments et des ouvrages de génie civil aux exigences essentielles de la Directive du Conseil 89/106/CEE, en particulier a l’Exigence Essentielle N° 1  Stabilité et résistance mécanique  et a l’Exigence Essentielle N° 2  Sécurité en cas d’incendie ;
   comme base de spécification des contrats pour les travaux de construction et les services techniques associés ;
   comme cadre d’établissement de spécifications techniques harmonisées pour les produits de construction (EN et ATE).
Les Eurocodes, dans la mesure ou les ouvrages eux-memes sont concernés par eux, ont une relation directe avec les Documents Interprétatifs  ) visés a l’Article 12 de la DPC, quoiqu’ils soient d’une nature différente de celle des normes harmonisées de produits   ). En conséquence, les aspects techniques résultant des travaux effectués pour les Eurocodes nécessitent d’etre pris en considération de façon adéquate par les comités techniques du CEN et/ou les groupes de travail de l’EOTA travaillant sur les normes de produits en vue de parvenir a une complete compatibilité de ces spécifications techniques avec les Eurocodes.
Les normes Eurocodes fournissent des regles de conception structurale communes d’usage quotidien pour le calcul des structures entieres et des produits composants de nature traditionnelle ou innovatrice. Les formes de construction ou les conceptions inhabituelles ne sont pas spécifiquement couvertes, et il appartiendra en ces cas au concepteur de se procurer des bases spécialisées supplémentaires.

Evrokod 9 - Projektiranje konstrukcij iz aluminijevih zlitin - 1-4. del: Hladno oblikovane konstrukcijske pločevine

EN 1999 se uporablja na področju projektiranja zgradb in gradbeništva, ter gradbenih objektov iz aluminija. Je v skladu z načeli in zahtevami za varnost in uporabnost objektov, osnovo njihovega projektiranja in preverjanja, ki so podani v EN 1990 – Osnove projektiranja.  EN 1999 se ukvarja samo z zahtevami glede odpornosti, uporabnosti, trajnosti in požarne odpornosti aluminijevih konstrukcij. Drugih zahtev, npr. glede toplotne ali zvočne izolacije, ne obravnava. EN 1999 je namenjen uporabi v povezavi z: - EN 1990 "Osnove projektiranja", - EN 1991 "Vplivi na konstrukcije", - evropski standardi za gradbene izdelke, ki se nanašajo na aluminijeve konstrukcije, - EN 1090-1: Izvedba jeklenih in aluminijastih konstrukcij, – prvi del: Zahteve za ugotavljanje skladnosti sestavnih delov konstrukcij, - EN 1090-3: Izvedba jeklenih in aluminijastih konstrukcij – tretji del: Tehnične zahteve za aluminijaste konstrukcije EN 1999 je razdeljen v pet delov: EN 1999-1-1 Projektiranje konstrukcij iz aluminijevih zlitin: Splošna pravila za konstrukcije. EN 1999-1-2 Projektiranje konstrukcij iz aluminijevih zlitin: Projektiranje požarnovarnih konstrukcij. EN 1999-1-3 Projektiranje konstrukcij iz aluminijevih zlitin: Konstrukcije občutljive na utrujenost. EN 1999-1-4 Projektiranje konstrukcij iz aluminijevih zlitin: Hladno oblikovane konstrukcijske pločevine. EN 1999-1-5 Projektiranje konstrukcij iz aluminijevih zlitin: Lupinaste konstrukcije.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Apr-2007
Withdrawal Date
13-Dec-2011
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Apr-2007
Due Date
17-Jun-2007
Completion Date
18-Apr-2007

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Eurocode 9 - Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-4: Cold-formed structural sheetingEurocode 9 - Calcul des structures en aluminium - Partie 1-4: Les structures a plaques formées a froidEurocode 9 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Aluminiumtragwerken -Teil 1-4: Kaltgeformte ProfiltafelnTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1999-1-4:2007SIST EN 1999-1-4:2007en;fr;de91.080.10Kovinske konstrukcijeMetal structures91.010.30Technical aspectsICS:SIST ENV 1999-2:2002SIST ENV 1999-1-2:2002SIST ENV 1999-1-1:20021DGRPHãþDSLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1999-1-4:200701-maj-2007

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 1999-1-4February 2007ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.10Supersedes ENV 1999-1-1:1998, ENV 1999-1-2:1998,ENV 1999-2:1998

English VersionEurocode 9 - Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-4: Cold-formed structural sheetingEurocode 9 - Calcul des structures en aluminium - Partie 1-4: Les structures à plaques formées à froidEurocode 9 - Bemessung und Konstruktion vonAluminiumtragwerken -Teil 1-4: Kaltgeformte ProfiltafelnThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 November 2006.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as theofficial versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2007 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 1999-1-4:2007: E

EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E) 2 Contents Page

Foreword..................................................................................................................................................................4 National Annex for EN 1999-1-4...........................................................................................................................6 1 General.............................................................................................................................................................7 1.1 Scope..........................................................................................................................................................7 1.1.1 Scope of EN 1999...............................................................................................................................7 1.1.2 Scope of EN 1999-1-4........................................................................................................................7 1.2 Normative references.................................................................................................................................8 1.2.1 General references..............................................................................................................................8 1.2.2 References on structural design.........................................................................................................8 1.2.3 Materials and materials testing..........................................................................................................8 1.2.4 References on fasteners......................................................................................................................8 1.2.5 Other references..................................................................................................................................8 1.3 Terms and definitions................................................................................................................................9 1.4 Symbols....................................................................................................................................................10 1.5 Geometry and conventions for dimensions.............................................................................................10 1.5.1 Form of sections...............................................................................................................................10 1.5.2 Form of stiffeners.............................................................................................................................10 1.5.3 Cross-section dimensions.................................................................................................................11 1.5.4 Convention for member axis............................................................................................................11 2 Basis of design...............................................................................................................................................12 3 Materials........................................................................................................................................................13 3.1 General.....................................................................................................................................................13 3.2 Structural aluminium alloys.....................................................................................................................13 3.2.1 Material properties...........................................................................................................................13 3.2.2 Thickness and geometrical tolerances.............................................................................................14 3.3 Mechanical fasteners................................................................................................................................15 4 Durability.......................................................................................................................................................15 5 Structural analysis........................................................................................................................................16 5.1 Influence of rounded corners...................................................................................................................16 5.2 Geometrical proportions..........................................................................................................................17 5.3 Structural modelling for analysis.............................................................................................................17 5.4 Flange curling...........................................................................................................................................18 5.5 Local and distortional buckling...............................................................................................................19 5.5.1 General..............................................................................................................................................19 5.5.2 Plane cross-section parts without stiffeners.....................................................................................19 5.5.3 Plane cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners....................................................................20 5.5.4 Trapezoidal sheeting profiles with intermediate stiffeners.............................................................24 6 Ultimate limit states......................................................................................................................................31 6.1 Resistance of cross-sections....................................................................................................................31 6.1.1 General..............................................................................................................................................31 6.1.2 Axial tension.....................................................................................................................................31 6.1.3 Axial compression............................................................................................................................31 6.1.4 Bending moment...............................................................................................................................32 6.1.5 Shear force........................................................................................................................................34 6.1.6 Torsion..............................................................................................................................................35 6.1.7 Local transverse forces.....................................................................................................................35 6.1.8 Combined tension and bending........................................................................................................38 6.1.9 Combined compression and bending...............................................................................................39 6.1.10 Combined shear force, axial force and bending moment............................................................39 6.1.11 Combined bending moment and local load or support reaction..................................................40

EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E)

3 6.2 Buckling resistance..................................................................................................................................40 6.2.1 General..............................................................................................................................................40 6.2.2 Axial compression............................................................................................................................41 6.2.3 Bending and axial compression........................................................................................................41 6.3 Stressed skin design.................................................................................................................................42 6.3.1 General..............................................................................................................................................42 6.3.2 Diaphragm action..............................................................................................................................42 6.3.3 Necessary conditions........................................................................................................................43 6.3.4 Profiled aluminium sheet diaphragms..............................................................................................44 6.4 Perforated sheeting with the holes arranged in the shape of equilateral triangles.................................45 7 Serviceability limit states.............................................................................................................................46 7.1 General......................................................................................................................................................46 7.2 Plastic deformation...................................................................................................................................46 7.3 Deflections................................................................................................................................................46 8 Joints with mechanical fasteners................................................................................................................47 8.1 General......................................................................................................................................................47 8.2 Blind rivets...............................................................................................................................................48 8.2.1 General..............................................................................................................................................48 8.2.2 Design resistances of riveted joints loaded in shear........................................................................48 8.2.3 Design resistances for riveted joints loaded in tension....................................................................48 8.3 Self-tapping / self-drilling screws............................................................................................................49 8.3.1 General..............................................................................................................................................49 8.3.2 Design resistance of screwed joints loaded in shear........................................................................49 8.3.3 Design resistance of screwed joints loaded in tension....................................................................50 9 Design assisted by testing.............................................................................................................................52 Annex A [normative] – Testing procedures.......................................................................................................53 A.1 General......................................................................................................................................................53 A.2 Tests on profiled sheets............................................................................................................................53 A.2.1 General..............................................................................................................................................53 A.2.2 Single span test.................................................................................................................................54 A.2.3 Double span test................................................................................................................................54 A.2.4 Internal support test..........................................................................................................................54 A.2.5 End support test................................................................................................................................56 A.3 Evaluation of test results..........................................................................................................................57 A.3.1 General..............................................................................................................................................57 A.3.2 Adjustment of test results.................................................................................................................57 A.3.3 Characteristic values.........................................................................................................................58 A.3.4 Design values....................................................................................................................................59 A.3.5 Serviceability....................................................................................................................................59 Annex B [informative] – Durability of fasteners...............................................................................................60 Bibliography...........................................................................................................................................................62

EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E) 4 Foreword This European Standard (EN 1999-1-4:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 « Structural Eurocodes », the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2007, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2010. This European Standard supersedes ENV 1999-1-1:1998, ENV 1999-1-2:1998 and ENV 1999-2:1998. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard:

Austria, Bulgaria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom

Background of the Eurocode programme In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications. Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works, which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to the CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products - CPD - and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market). The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts: EN 1990 Eurocode 0: Basis of Structural Design

EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E)

5 Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State. Status and field of application of Eurocodes

The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the following purposes: - as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement No.1 – Mechanical resistance and stability, and Essential Requirement No 2 – Safety in case of fire - as a basis for specifying contracts for the execution of construction works and related engineering services

- as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction products (En’s and ETA’s)

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2 referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards3. Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construc-tion or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.

National standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National annex [informative].

The National Annex (informative)

may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e. : –

values for partial factors and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode; –

values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode; –
geographical and climatic data specific to the Member State, e.g. snow map; –

the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode; –

references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the Eurocode.

Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (EN’s and ETA’s) for products

There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4. Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the

2 According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs. 3 According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall : a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ; b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ; c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals. The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2. 4 see Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E) 6 construction products which refer to Eurocodes shall clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account.

National Annex for EN 1999-1-4 This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations for classes with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1999-1-4 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of aluminium structures to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1999-1-4 through clauses:
2(3)
2(4)
2(5)
3.1(3)
7.3(3)
A.1(1)
A.3.4(3)
EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E)
7 1 General
1.1 Scope
1.1.1 Scope of EN 1999

(1)P EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 – Basis of structural design.

(2) EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.

(3) EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: – EN 1990 “Basis of structural design” – EN 1991 “Actions on structures” – European Standards construction products relevant for aluminium structures – EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 – EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5

(4) EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

1.1.2 Scope of EN 1999-1-4

(1)P EN 1999-1-4 gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to cold-formed aluminium products made from hot rolled or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been cold-formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking. The execution of aluminium structures made of cold-formed sheeting is covered in EN 1090-3.

NOTE The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1.

(2) Methods are also given for stressed-skin design using aluminium sheeting as a structural diaphragm.

(3) This part does not apply to cold-formed aluminium profiles like C-, Z- etc profiles nor cold-formed and welded circular or rectangular hollow sections.

(4) EN 1999-1-4 gives methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for the design by calculation apply only within stated ranges of material properties and geometrical properties for which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design by testing.

(5) EN 1999-1-4 does not cover load arrangement for loads during execution and maintenance.

5 To be published
EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E) 8 1.2 Normative references

(1) The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

1.2.1 General references EN 1090-1:

Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components6 EN 1090-3:

Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures6 1.2.2 References on structural design EN 1990

Eurocode 0 - Basis of structural design EN 1991
Eurocode 1 – Action on structures – All parts EN 1995-1-1

Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-1 General rules and rules for buildings EN 1999-1-1

Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-1 General structural rules 1.2.3 Materials and materials testing EN 485-2:1994 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Sheet, strip and plate - Part 2: Mechanical properties EN 508-2:2000 Roofing products from metal sheet - Specification for self-supporting products of steel, aluminium or stainless steel sheet - Part 2: Aluminium EN 1396:1996 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Coil coated sheet and strip for general applications - Specifications EN 10002-1

Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at ambient temperature EN 10088 Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels 1.2.4 References on fasteners EN ISO 1479 Hexagon head tapping screws EN ISO 1481 Slotted pan head tapping screws EN ISO 15480 Hexagon washer head drilling screws with tapping screw thread EN ISO 15481 Cross recessed pan head drilling screws with tapping screw thread EN ISO 15973 Closed end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head EN ISO 15974 Closed end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head EN ISO 15977 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head EN ISO 15978 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head EN ISO 15981 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head EN ISO 15982 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head ISO 7049:1994 Cross recessed pan head tapping screws 1.2.5 Other references EN ISO 12944-2 Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paint systems - Part 2: Classification of environments

6 To be published
EN 1999-1-4: 2007 (E)
1.3 Terms and definitions

Supplementary to EN 1999-1-1, for the purposes of EN 1999-1-4, the following definitions apply: 1.3.1

base material the flat sheet aluminium material out of which profiled sheets are made by cold forming 1.3.2

proof strength of base material the 0,2
...

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