Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and classification of soil - Part 1: Identification and description (ISO 14688-1:2017)

This document specifies the rules for the identification and description of soils and is intended to
be read in conjunction with ISO 14688-2, which outlines the basis of classification of those material
characteristics most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. The relevant characteristics
could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions of the
descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate.
This document specifies procedures for the identification and description of soils based on a flexible
system for use by experienced persons, covering both material and mass characteristics by visual
and manual techniques. Details are given of the individual characteristics for identifying soils and the
descriptive terms in regular use, including those related to the results of hand tests carried out in the
field as part of the descriptive process.
This document is applicable to the description of soils for engineering purposes which can be those laid
by natural processes, those laid by man or comprise synthetic materials.
NOTE 1 The identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689-1. Identification and description
of materials intermediate between soil and rocks are carried out using the procedures in this document,
ISO 14688-2 and ISO 14689-1 as appropriate.
NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of
measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Boden - Teil 1: Benennung und Beschreibung (ISO 14688-1:2017)

Dieses Dokument legt zusammen mit ISO 14688-2 die Grundprinzipien für die Benennung und Beschreibung sowie die Klassifizierung von Boden auf der Basis von charakteristischen Eigenschaften fest, die üblicherweise für die Behandlung bautechnischer Fragestellungen benötigt werden. Da die maßgebenden Eigenschaften variieren könnten, kann es sein, dass für besondere Projekte und Bodenmaterialien detailliertere Untergliederungen der beschreibenden und klassifizierenden Begriffe erforderlich werden.
Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren für die Benennung und Beschreibung von Bodenmaterialen mit visuellen und manuellen Methoden fest, die auf einem flexiblen System für den Einsatz durch erfahrene Personen beruhen, welches sowohl die Eigenschaften von Boden als auch von Bodenbestandteilen umfasst. Es werden typische kennzeichnende Eigenschaften beschrieben, anhand derer Bodenmaterialien identifiziert werden können, und allgemein übliche, beschreibende Begriffe eingeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Feldversuche sind Teil des beschreibenden Verfahrens.
Dieses Dokument findet Anwendung für die Beschreibung von Bodenmaterialien im Bauingenieurwesen, die auf natürliche oder auf künstliche Weise entstanden sind, oder auch künstliche Bestandteile enthalten.
ANMERKUNG 1   Die Benennung und Beschreibung von Fels wird in der ISO 14689 1 behandelt. Die Benennung und Beschreibung von Materialien, die zwischen Boden und Fels einzuordnen sind, wird je nach Beschaffenheit nach den Regeln dieses Dokumentes, der ISO 14688-2 und nach ISO 14689-1 durchgeführt.
ANMERKUNG 2   Die Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Böden für pedologische Zwecke sowie im Rahmen von Maßnahmen für den Bodenschutz und zur Sanierung von Altlasten erfolgt nach ISO 25177.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Identification et classification des sols - Partie 1: Identification et description (ISO 14688-1:2017)

Ce document spécifie les règles pour l'identification et la description des sols. Il est prévu pour être lu en même temps que l'ISO 14688‑2, qui décrit la base de la classification des sols selon les caractéristiques propres les plus couramment utilisées dans des projets d'ingénierie. Les caractéristiques appropriées peuvent varier, c'est pourquoi, pour des projets ou des matériaux particuliers, des subdivisions plus détaillées des termes descriptifs et de classification pourraient être pertinents.
Ce document spécifie les procédures pour l'identification et la description des sols basées sur un système souple à l'usage de personnes expérimentées, qui porte à la fois sur les caractéristiques des constituants et de leur ensemble recueillies grâce à des techniques visuelles et manuelles. Des détails sont donnés sur les caractéristiques propres permettant de dénommer les sols et sur les termes descriptifs régulièrement usités, y compris ceux qui se rapportent aux résultats des essais manuels sur site en tant qu'élément du processus de description.
Ce document s'applique à la description des sols pour les projets d'ingénierie, sols mis en place par des processus naturels, par l'homme ou qui contiennent des matériaux synthétiques.
NOTE 1    L'identification et la description des roches sont couvertes par l'ISO 14689‑1. L'identification et la description des matériaux intermédiaires entre le sol et les roches sont effectuées suivant les procédures les plus adaptées parmi celles de ce présent document, de l'ISO 14688‑2 et de l'ISO 14689‑1.
NOTE 2    L'identification et la classification des sols à des fins pédologiques, ainsi que dans le cadre de mesures pour la protection des sols ou pour la remédiation des secteurs pollués, sont traitées par l'ISO 25177.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Prepoznavanje in razvrščanje zemljin - 1. del: Prepoznavanje in opisovanje (ISO 14688-1:2017)

Ta dokument določa pravila za prepoznavanje in opisovanje zemljin ter ga je treba brati v povezavi s standardom ISO 14688-2, ki določa podlago za razvrstitev značilnosti materialov, ki se najpogosteje uporabljajo za zemljine, namenjene za uporabo v gradbeništvu. Pomembne značilnosti materialov se lahko razlikujejo, zato sta pri nekaterih projektih in materialih primerna podrobnejši opis in opredelitev.
Ta dokument določa postopke za prepoznavanje in opisovanje zemljin na podlagi prilagodljivega sistema, ki ga uporabljajo izkušene osebe, ter zajema značilnosti materiala in mase z uporabo vizualnih ter ročnih tehnik. Podane so podrobnosti posameznih značilnosti za prepoznavanje zemljin in opisni izrazi v redni uporabi, vključno s tistimi, ki so povezani z rezultati ročnih preskusov, izvedenih na terenu kot del opisnega postopka.
Ta dokument se uporablja za opisovanje zemljin, namenjenih za uporabo v gradbeništvu, pri čemer se lahko nanesejo prek naravnih procesov oziroma jih nanese človek ali pa zajemajo sintetične materiale.
OPOMBA 1: Prepoznavanje in opisovanje kamnin sta zajeta v standardu ISO 14689-1. Prepoznavanje in opisovanje vmesnih materialov med zemljinami in kamninami sta izvedena z ustreznimi postopki v tem dokumentu ter standardih ISO 14688-2 in ISO 14689-1.
OPOMBA 2: Prepoznavanje in razvrščanje zemljin za pedološke namene ter v okviru meritev za zaščito zemljin in za sanacijo kontaminiranih območij sta zajeta v standardu ISO 25177.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Sep-2016
Publication Date
19-Mar-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Feb-2018
Due Date
28-Apr-2018
Completion Date
20-Mar-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
01-april-2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2004
SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2004/A1:2013
SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2004/AC:2008
*HRWHKQLþQRSUHLVNRYDQMHLQSUHVNXãDQMH3UHSR]QDYDQMHLQUD]YUãþDQMH]HPOMLQ
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Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and classification of soil - Part 1:

Identification and description (ISO 14688-1:2017)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Benennung, Beschreibung und

Klassifizierung von Boden - Teil 1: Benennung und Beschreibung (ISO 14688-1:2017)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Identification et classification des sols - Partie

1: Identification et description (ISO 14688-1:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
EN ISO 14688-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.05; 93.020 Supersedes EN ISO 14688-1:2002
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and
classification of soil - Part 1: Identification and description
(ISO 14688-1:2017)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Identification Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

et classification des sols - Partie 1: Identification et Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von

description (ISO 14688-1:2017) Boden - Teil 1: Benennung und Beschreibung (ISO
14688-1:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 November 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14688-1:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
EN ISO 14688-1:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
EN ISO 14688-1:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14688-1:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

“Geotechnics” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2018, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14688-1:2002.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14688-1:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14688-1:2018 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14688-1
Second edition
2017-12
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Identification and
classification of soil —
Part 1:
Identification and description
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Identification et
classification des sols —
Partie 1: Identification et description
Reference number
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1  Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2  Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4  General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5  Identification of soil .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Mineral soil ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Composite soils ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.3 Plasticity .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.1.4 Organic content in mineral soils ......................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Organic soils .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3 Carbonate soils .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Sulfide soils .............................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Volcanic soils ..........................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.6 Loess .............................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.7 Glacial soils ..............................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.8 Anthropogenic soil ......... ...................................................................................................................................................................10

5.9 Origin of deposit .................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.9.2 Depositional environment ....................................................................................................................................11

5.9.3 Geological unit ................................................................................................................................................................11

6  Description of soil ............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 Description of soil properties .................................................................................................................................................11

6.1.1 Particle size distribution ........................................................................................................................................11

6.1.2 Particle shape ..................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1.3 Particle strength ............................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.4 Mineral composition ........................................................................................................................................... .......12

6.1.5 Fines content ....................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.6 Consistency ........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.7 Soil colours .........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.1.8 Organic content ..............................................................................................................................................................14

6.1.9 Carbonate content .......................................................................................................................................................14

6.1.10 Degree of decomposition of peat ....................................................................................................................14

6.2 Description of different soil types .......................................................................................................................................15

6.2.1 Volcanic soils ....................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2.2 Loess ........................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2.3 Glacial soils ........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2.4 Anthropogenic soil ......................................................................................................................................................16

7  Description of bedding and discontinuities ..........................................................................................................................16

7.1 Bedding .......................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2 Discontinuities .....................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.3 Interbedding and mixed soils ..................................................................................................................................................17

8  Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Procedures for identification of the primary fraction in mineral soils ...........19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14688-1:2002), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendment ISO 14688-1:2002/Amd 1:2013.

A list of all parts in the ISO 14688 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
Introduction

This document gives details of the procedures to be followed in the identification and description of

soils. Clauses 4 and 5 provide the rules for soil identification which are used at all stages of ground

investigation and geotechnical design. Clauses 6 and 7 give details of the procedures to be followed

by those actually describing soils in the field or laboratory. This comprises the description of the soil

material in all aspects and the description of the soil mass characteristics in terms of the bedding and

discontinuities.

The level of detail in a description will depend on the characteristics of the soil, the size and quality of

the soil exposure or sample, and the needs of the particular project. The person carrying out the field

identification and description should be suitably qualified, skilled and experienced to make a correct

and appropriate description and experienced in the geological materials involved in the investigation.

Practice in soil identification and description varies from country to country, in part reflecting

significant differences in geological conditions. In addition, the quality of samples available for

description vary due to the investigation methods employed, as methods of investigation have been

developed in response to the ground conditions present.

Following identification and description, ISO 14688-2 gives the means by which soils can be classified

into groups of similar composition and geotechnical properties based on the results of field and

laboratory tests with respect to their suitability for geotechnical engineering purposes. Test results

provide a means of checking the accuracy of the field or laboratory descriptions.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and
classification of soil —
Part 1:
Identification and description
1  Scope

This document specifies the rules for the identification and description of soils and is intended to

be read in conjunction with ISO 14688-2, which outlines the basis of classification of those material

characteristics most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. The relevant characteristics

could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions of the

descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate.

This document specifies procedures for the identification and description of soils based on a flexible

system for use by experienced persons, covering both material and mass characteristics by visual

and manual techniques. Details are given of the individual characteristics for identifying soils and the

descriptive terms in regular use, including those related to the results of hand tests carried out in the

field as part of the descriptive process.

This document is applicable to the description of soils for engineering purposes which can be those laid

by natural processes, those laid by man or comprise synthetic materials.

NOTE 1 The identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689-1. Identification and description

of materials intermediate between soil and rocks are carried out using the procedures in this document,

ISO 14688-2 and ISO 14689-1 as appropriate.

NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of

measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

2  Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-2, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 2:

Principles for a classification

ISO 14689-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of rock — Part 1:

Identification and description
3  Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14688-2 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at www.electropedia.org
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
3.1
anthropogenic soil

soil (3.17) placed by human activity which can be divided into those composed of reworked natural

soils and those composed of synthetic materials
3.2
carbonate soil
soil (3.17) with a significant proportion of calcium carbonate
3.3
description of soil

description of the type of material, the characteristics of the mineral (inorganic) and/or organic

constituents and any fabric, bedding or discontinuities
3.4
discontinuities
bedding planes, joints, fissures, faults and shear planes
3.5
fill
anthropogenic soil or rock materials placed with engineering control
3.6
geological structure
variation in composition including bedding and discontinuities (3.4)
3.7
grading
measure of the particle sizes of a soil (3.17) and their distribution
Note 1 to entry: See 3.13.
3.8
identification of soil

naming of a soil (3.17) on the basis of its mineral composition, grading (3.7) and/or plasticity (3.16)

and/or organic content

Note 1 to entry: The identification may include geological information, such as depositional environment,

geological age and geological formation.
3.9
loess
windblown (aeolian) sediment
3.10
made ground
reconstituted ground
anthropogenic soil (3.1) or rock materials placed without engineering control
3.11
mineral soil
soil (3.17) composed largely or entirely of mineral (inorganic) constituents
3.12
organic soil

soil (3.17) containing a high proportion of plant and/or animal organic materials and the conversion

products of those materials

Note 1 to entry: Organic soil has a very low density and usually a very high water content.

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
3.13
particle size distribution
measure of the particle sizes of a soil (3.17) and their distribution
Note 1 to entry: See 3.7.
3.14
particle size fraction
size fraction
portion of a soil (3.17) defined by a range of particle sizes
3.15
plastic behaviour

propensity of fine soil (3.17) to undergo permanent deformation when kneaded by hand

Note 1 to entry: This behaviour, often referred to as the plasticity, depends on water content, mineral composition

and particle size fractions.

Note 2 to entry: Plasticity can be measured by the Atterberg limits in the laboratory (see ISO 14688-2).

3.16
plasticity
propensity to undergo permanent deformation when kneaded by hand
3.17
soil

aggregate of minerals and/or organic materials which can be disaggregated by hand in water

Note 1 to entry: The term is also applied to anthropogenic soil consisting of materials exhibiting similar behaviour

but reworked or artificially made, e.g. embankment fill, crushed rock, mine tailings.

Note 2 to entry: Soils may result from the weathering of rocks and have rock structures and/or textures, but are

of lower strength than rocks.
3.18
sulfide soil
soil (3.17) with a high iron sulfide content
3.19
till

original form of a glacigenic multi-graded material derived from ice sheets and glaciers

3.20
volcanic soil

unconsolidated pyroclastic sediment produced and formed by explosive volcanic eruption

4  General

Soils shall be identified and described in accordance with this document. The classification of soils

and the description of rocks shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 14688-2 and ISO 14689-1,

respectively.

Soils are categorized as natural soils or anthropogenic soils. Natural soils are either mineral soils

(including carbonate soils, volcanic soils, loess and till) or organic soils.

The characteristics of soils are identified in accordance with the rules given in Annex A which are

based on the particle size grading of very coarse and coarse particles, the plasticity of fine particles,

the content of organic matter (for organic soils) and the content of carbonate (for carbonate soils) all of

which play a major role in determining the engineering properties of the soil and form the basis of the

soil’s identification. The soils shall be identified in the field following the guidance given in Clause 5.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)

This comprises decisions as to the primary soil fraction, the secondary and tertiary fractions, the

carbonate and organic contents (if present) and the origin of the deposit where possible.

NOTE Other chemical constituents such as salt, sulfate, gypsum can be described where present.

The description and identification of the soil can be reviewed subsequently, and adjusted if necessary,

by the results of grading, plasticity and/or laboratory tests to measure carbonate or organic contents.

Following identification, the description of the soil shall be made using the methods given in Clause 6

and Clause 7 to include relevant features.

The identification and description of soils shall conform to the flow chart in Figure 1.

The identification procedure for the mineral soils follows these steps:

a) categorization of soils into subcategories: very coarse soil, coarse soil and fine soil;

b) identification of primary, secondary and tertiary fractions;
c) naming of the soil according to the procedures outlined in this document;

d) identification of the origin of the deposit in terms of the depositional environment and geological age.

Mineral soils can contain some organic matter, but this organic content does not dominate the

engineering properties of the soil. Such soils are categorized as mineral soils with organic secondary

constituents.
5  Identification of soil
5.1  Mineral soil
5.1.1  General

Identification of very coarse and coarse mineral soils shall be made on the basis of the particle size

fractions. The identification of fine soil shall be made on the basis of the plasticity of the soil, despite

particle sizes also being defined for these soils. Table 1 shows the terms to be used for each size fraction,

together with the corresponding range of particle sizes.
Table 1 — Particle size fractions
Particle size fractions  Range of particle sizes
Soil group
(symbol) mm
Large boulder (lBo) >630
Very coarse soil Boulder (Bo) >200 to ≤630
Cobble (Co) >63 to ≤200
Gravel (Gr) >2,0 to ≤63
Coarse gravel (cGr) >20 to ≤63
Medium gravel (mGr) >6,3 to ≤20
Fine gravel (fGr) >2,0 to ≤6,3
Coarse soil
Sand (Sa) >0,063 to ≤2,0
Coarse sand (cSa) >0,63 to ≤2,0
Medium sand (mSa) >0,20 to ≤0,63
Fine sand (fSa) >0,063 to ≤0,20
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14688-1:2018
ISO 14688-1:2017(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Particle size fractions  Range of particle sizes
Soil group
(symbol) mm
Silt (Si) >0,002 to ≤0,063
Coarse silt (cSi) >0,02 to ≤0,063
Fine soil Medium silt (mSi) >0,006 3 to ≤0,02
F
...

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