Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for surface mount, mixed technology and hand-mounted electrical connections

This standard defines:
- the basic requirements for the verification and approval of automatic machine w ave soldering for use in spacecraft hardware. The process requirements for w ave soldering of doublesided and multilayer boards are also defined.
- the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of manuallysoldered, high-reliability electrical connections.
- the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits based on surface mounted device (SMD) and mixed technology.
- the acceptance and rejection criteria for high reliability manufacture of manually-soldered electrical connections intended to w ithstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g-loads and environment imposed by space flight.
- the proper tools, correct materials, design and w orkmanshipt. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination betw een proper and improper work.
SCOPE
This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits of surface mount, through hole and solderless assemblies.
The Standard defines w orkmanship requirements, the acceptance and rejection criteria for high-reliability assemblies intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the environment imposed by space flight.
The mounting and supporting of components, terminals and conductors specified in this standard applies only to assemblies designed to continuously operate over the mission w ithin the temperature limits of -55 °C to +85 °C at solder joint level.
Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70-60 (equivalent to EN 16602-70-60) and ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 (equivalent to EN 16602-70-12).
This Standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of the EQM and FM equipment w ith high-reliability electronic circuits of surface mount, through hole and solderless assemblies.
This Standard does not cover verification of thermal properties for component assembly.
This Standard does not cover pressfit connectors.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance w ith this Standard are covered by ECSS-EST-10-03 (equivalent to EN 16603-10-03).

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässige Montage von Oberflächen-Befestigungen und Durchgangslochverbindungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudure haute fiabilité pour les connexions électriques à montage en surface, à technologie combinée et montées à la main

La présente norme définit les exigences techniques et les dispositions relatives à l'assurance qualité pour la fabrication et la vérification de circuits électroniques de haute fiabilité, montés en surface avec trou traversant, assemblés sans soudure, et pour le brasage d'interconnexions de fils et de faisceaux de fils.
Cette norme définit les exigences d'exécution et les critères d'acceptation et de rejet pour les assemblages de haute fiabilité destinés à résister aux conditions d'essai au sol, y compris le LTS (stockage à long terme) et l'environnement imposé par les vols spatiaux et les lanceurs.
Le montage et le support des composants, bornes et conducteurs spécifiés dans la présente norme ne s'appliquent qu'aux assemblages conçus pour fonctionner en continu pendant toute la mission dans des limites de température de -55 °C à +85 °C au niveau des joints de soudure.
Les exigences relatives aux circuits imprimés figurent dans l'ECSS-Q-ST-70-60 et l'ECSS-Q-ST-70-12.
La présente norme ne couvre pas le brasage sans queue et les exigences associées.
La présente norme ne couvre pas la qualification et l'acceptation des équipements EQM et FM avec des assemblages de circuits électroniques à haute fiabilité avec montage en surface, trou traversant et sans brasure.
La présente norme ne couvre pas la vérification des propriétés thermiques pour l'assemblage des composants.
La présente norme ne couvre pas les connecteurs à ajustement forcé, à cause des risques d'endommager le PCB qui ne sont pas évalués dans le cadre de cette exigence d'essai.
Les essais de qualification et d'acceptation des équipements fabriqués conformément à la présente norme sont couverts par l'ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d'un projet spatial, conformément à l'ECSS-S-ST-00.

Zagotavljanje varnih proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Visoko zanesljivo spajkanje za površinsko namestitev, mešano tehnologijo in ročno pritrjene električne priključke

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Nov-2021
Publication Date
14-Nov-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Nov-2022
Due Date
15-Jan-2023
Completion Date
15-Nov-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
01-december-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 16602-70-07:2015
SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
SIST EN 16602-70-38:2019

Zagotavljanje varnih proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Visoko zanesljivo spajkanje

za površinsko namestitev, mešano tehnologijo in ročno pritrjene električne
priključke

Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for surface mount, mixed technology

and hand-mounted electrical connections
Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässige Montage von Oberflächen-
Befestigungen und Durchgangslochverbindungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudure haute fiabilité pour les connexions

électriques à montage en surface, à technologie combinée et montées à la main
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-61:2022
ICS:
25.160.50 Trdo in mehko lotanje Brazing and soldering
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 16602-70-61
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2022
ICS 25.160.50; 49.140
Supersedes EN 16602-70-07:2014, EN 16602-70-
08:2015, EN 16602-70-38:2019
English version
Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for
surface mount, mixed technology and hand-mounted
electrical connections

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudure haute Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässige

fiabilité pour les connexions électriques à montage en Montage von Oberflächen-Befestigungen und

surface, à technologie combinée et montées à la main Durchgangslochverbindungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 August 2022.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16602-70-61:2022 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EN 16602-70-61:2022 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 13

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 14

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 21

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 22

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 24

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 24

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 24

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 29

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 31

4 Principles of reliable soldered connections ....................................................... 32

5 Preparatory conditions ........................................................................................ 33

5.1 Facility cleanliness .................................................................................................. 33

5.2 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................ 33

5.3 Lighting requirements ............................................................................................. 34

5.4 Precautions against static discharges ..................................................................... 34

5.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 34

5.4.2 General ..................................................................................................... 35

5.4.3 ESD Protected Area .................................................................................. 35

5.4.4 Precautions against ESD during manufacturing ........................................ 36

5.4.5 Protective packaging and ESD protection ................................................. 37

5.5 Equipment and tools ............................................................................................... 37

5.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 37

5.5.2 Brushes ..................................................................................................... 38

5.5.3 Cutters and pliers ...................................................................................... 38

5.5.4 Bending tools ............................................................................................ 39

5.5.5 Clinching tools ........................................................................................... 39

5.5.6 Insulation strippers .................................................................................... 40

5.5.7 Hot air blower ............................................................................................ 41

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SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EN 16602-70-61:2022 (E)

5.5.8 Soldering tools .......................................................................................... 41

5.5.9 Baking and curing ovens ........................................................................... 42

5.5.10 Solder deposition equipment ..................................................................... 43

5.5.11 Automatic component placement equipment ............................................. 43

5.5.12 Dynamic wave-solder machines ................................................................ 43

5.5.13 Selective wave solder equipment .............................................................. 44

5.5.14 Reflow process equipment ........................................................................ 45

5.5.15 Depanelization tool.................................................................................... 47

5.5.16 Cleanliness testing equipment .................................................................. 47

5.5.17 Optical microscope .................................................................................... 47

5.5.18 Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) equipment .......................................... 47

5.5.19 X-ray inspection equipment ....................................................................... 47

6 Material selection ................................................................................................. 49

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 49

6.2 Solder ..................................................................................................................... 49

6.2.1 Form ......................................................................................................... 49

6.2.2 Composition .............................................................................................. 50

6.2.3 Storage and handling of paste purity ......................................................... 52

6.3 Fluxes ..................................................................................................................... 52

6.3.1 Rosin based fluxes .................................................................................... 52

6.4 Solvents .................................................................................................................. 53

6.5 Flexible insulation materials .................................................................................... 54

6.6 Terminals ................................................................................................................ 54

6.6.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 54

6.6.2 Tin, silver, and gold-plated terminals ......................................................... 54

6.7 Wires ...................................................................................................................... 55

6.8 Sculptured flex ........................................................................................................ 55

6.9 Printed circuits substrates ....................................................................................... 55

6.9.1 Substrates selection .................................................................................. 55

6.9.2 Gold finish on PCBs footprint .................................................................... 55

6.9.3 PCB design requirements for wave and selective wave soldering ............. 56

6.10 Components ........................................................................................................... 56

6.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 56

6.10.2 Moisture sensitive components ................................................................. 57

6.11 Adhesives, potting, underfill and conformal coatings ............................................... 57

7 Preparations prior to mounting and soldering .................................................. 58

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SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EN 16602-70-61:2022 (E)

7.1 General handling .................................................................................................... 58

7.2 Storage ................................................................................................................... 58

7.2.1 Components.............................................................................................. 58

7.2.2 PCBs......................................................................................................... 58

7.2.3 Materials requiring segregation ................................................................. 58

7.3 Baking conditions of PCBs ...................................................................................... 59

7.4 Baking and storage of moisture sensitive components ........................................... 59

7.5 Preparation of components, wires, terminals, and solder cups................................ 60

7.5.1 Damage to insulation ................................................................................ 60

7.5.2 Damage to conductors and braid .............................................................. 60

7.5.3 Cleaning before soldering ......................................................................... 61

7.5.4 Insulation clearance .................................................................................. 61

7.5.5 Wire lay ..................................................................................................... 61

7.6 Degolding and pretinning ........................................................................................ 61

7.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 61

7.6.2 Solder baths method for degolding and pretinning of components

terminations and terminals ........................................................................ 62

7.6.3 Solder iron method for degolding and pretinning ....................................... 64

7.6.4 Pretinning processes ................................................................................. 64

7.7 Preparation of the soldering tip ............................................................................... 65

8 Components mounting requirements prior to soldering .................................. 67

8.1 General requirements ............................................................................................. 67

8.2 Mounting of through hole components .................................................................... 67

8.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 67

8.2.2 Heavy components ................................................................................... 68

8.2.3 Metal-case components ............................................................................ 68

8.2.4 Glass-encased components ...................................................................... 68

8.2.5 Stress relief of components with bendable leads ....................................... 68

8.2.6 Stress relief of components with non-bendable leads ................................ 71

8.2.7 Bending of component leads ..................................................................... 72

8.2.8 Lead attachment to PCBs ......................................................................... 73

8.2.9 Mounting of through hole connectors to PCBs .......................................... 76

8.2.10 Mounting of swage terminals to PCBs ....................................................... 77

8.2.11 Mounting of components to terminals ........................................................ 78

8.3 Mounting of surface mount components ................................................................. 79

8.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 79

8.3.2 Lead forming ............................................................................................. 80

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SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EN 16602-70-61:2022 (E)

8.3.3 Inspection of solder paste deposition ........................................................ 80

9 Attachment of conductors to terminals, solder cups and cables .................... 81

9.1 General ................................................................................................................... 81

9.2 Wire termination ..................................................................................................... 81

9.2.1 Breakouts from cables .............................................................................. 81

9.2.2 Insulation clearance .................................................................................. 82

9.3 Turret and straight-pin terminals ............................................................................. 82

9.4 Bifurcated terminals ................................................................................................ 83

9.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 83

9.4.2 Bottom route ............................................................................................. 83

9.4.3 Side route ................................................................................................. 84

9.4.4 Top route .................................................................................................. 85

9.4.5 Combination of top and bottom routes....................................................... 86

9.4.6 Combination of side and bottom routes ..................................................... 86

9.5 Hook terminals ........................................................................................................ 86

9.6 Pierced terminals .................................................................................................... 87

9.7 Solder cups for connector ....................................................................................... 87

9.8 Insulation sleeving .................................................................................................. 88

9.9 Wire and cable interconnections ............................................................................. 89

9.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 89

9.9.2 Preparation of wires .................................................................................. 89

9.9.3 Preparation of shielded wires and cables .................................................. 90

9.9.4 Pre-assembly of wires ............................................................................... 90

9.10 Connection of wires to PCBs .................................................................................. 91

9.11 Connection of coaxial cables to PCBs .................................................................... 93

10 Assembly to terminals and to PCBs ................................................................. 94

10.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 94

10.2 General soldering conditions .................................................................................. 94

10.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 94

10.2.2 Positioning ................................................................................................ 95

10.2.3 Application of flux ...................................................................................... 96

10.2.4 Flux controls for wave-soldering equipment .............................................. 97

10.2.5 Soldering temperatures ............................................................................. 97

10.2.6 Soldering of conductors in terminals ......................................................... 99

10.3 Soldering of components, terminals, and wires into PCB through holes ................ 100

10.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 100

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SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EN 16602-70-61:2022 (E)

10.3.2 Solder fillets for wires and terminations ................................................... 100

10.3.3 Solder fillets for component leads in plated or non-plated through

holes ....................................................................................................... 101

10.4 Soldering of surface mount components ............................................................... 102

10.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 102

10.4.2 Rectangular and square end-capped or end-metallized leadless chip ..... 104

10.4.3 Cylindrical and square end-capped components with cylindrical or

oval body ................................................................................................ 106

10.4.4 Bottom terminated chip components ....................................................... 107

10.4.5 L-Shape inwards components ................................................................. 109

10.4.6 Leadless component with plane termination ............................................ 110

10.4.7 Leaded component with plane termination .............................................. 110

10.4.8 Leadless castellated ceramic chip carrier components ............................ 112

10.4.9 No lead Quad Flat Pack .......................................................................... 113

10.4.10 Flat pack and gull-wing leaded components with round, rectangular,

ribbon leads ............................................................................................ 115

10.4.11 Components with “J” leads ...................................................................... 116

10.4.12 Components with ribbon terminals without stress relief ........................... 117

10.4.13 Stacked modules components with leads protruding vertically from

bottom ..................................................................................................... 119

10.4.14 Area array devices .................................................................................. 120

10.5 Rework and repair ................................................................................................ 122

10.5.1 Removal of solder on unpopulated PCB .................................................. 122

10.5.2 Rework, repair and modifications ............................................................ 122

10.6 High-voltage connections...................................................................................... 123

10.7 Solderless components ........................................................................................ 125

11 Post soldering process requirements ............................................................ 126

11.1 Cleaning of PCB assemblies ................................................................................ 126

11.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 126

11.1.2 Verification of cleanliness ........................................................................ 127

11.1.3 Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) testing ............................................ 127

11.1.4 Sodium chloride (NaCl) equivalent ionic contaminants testing ................ 128

11.1.5 Monitoring of cleanliness ......................................................................... 129

11.2 Staking and bonding ............................................................................................. 129

11.3 Conformal coating, potting and underfill ................................................................ 130

12 Final inspection ................................................................................................ 132

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 132

12.2 Visual acceptance criteria ..................................................................................... 132

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SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EN 16602-70-61:2022 (E)

12.3 Visual rejection criteria .......................................................................................... 133

12.4 X-ray rejection criteria ........................................................................................... 135

12.5 Warp and twist of populated boards ...................................................................... 136

12.6 Inspection records ................................................................................................ 136

13 Verification procedure...................................................................................... 137

13.1 Verification approval procedure ............................................................................ 137

13.1.1 Request for verification ........................................................................... 137

13.1.2 Technology sample ................................................................................. 137

13.1.3 Audit of assembly processing .................................................................. 138

13.1.4 Verification programme documentation ................................................... 138

13.1.5 Verification samples and testing .............................................................. 139

13.1.6 Final verification review ........................................................................... 140

13.1.7 Approval status of assembly line ............................................................. 140

13.1.8 Withdrawal of approval status ................................................................. 141

13.2 Verification programme ......................................................................................... 141

13.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 141

13.2.2 Verification for PTH manual soldering ..................................................... 147

13.2.3 Additional verification for wave soldering ................................................. 147

13.2.4 Soldering log ........................................................................................... 147

13.3 Special verification testing for ceramic area array components ............................. 149

13.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 149

13.3.2 Evaluation of AAD capability samples ..................................................... 151

13.3.3 Electrical verification of AAD assembly ................................................... 151

13.4 Assembly verification with electrical testing procedure .......................................... 152

13.5 Verification programme with reduced temperature range ...................................... 155

13.6 Verification for solderless process ........................................................................ 156

13.7 Conditions for delta verification ............................................................................. 158

13.8 Verification by similarity ........................................................................................ 160

13.8.1 General conditions for similarity .............................................................. 160

13.8.2 Conditions for similarity for PTH components .......................................... 160

13.8.3 Conditions for similarity for SMD ............................................................. 161

13.8.4 Conditions for similarity for solderless components ................................. 164

14 Environmental tests conditions ...................................................................... 165

14.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 165

14.2 Visual inspection ................................................................................................... 165

14.3 X-ray inspection .................................................................................................... 165

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SIST EN 16602-70-61:2022
EN 16602-70-61:2022 (E)

14.4 Cleanliness test .................................................................................................... 165

14.5 Warp and twist of PCB .......................................................................................... 165

14.6 Electrical continuity measurement ........................................................................ 166

14.7 Electrical continuity for wave soldered multilayers PCB ........................................ 166

14.8 Vibration ............................................................................................................... 167

14.9 Mechanical shock ................................................................................................. 169

14.10 Damp heat test ..................................................................................................... 171

14.11 Temperature cycling test....................................................................................... 171

14.12 Temperature cycling test with reduced temperature range .................................... 172

14.13 Life test ................................................................................................................. 174

14.14 Final visual inspection ........................................................................................... 174

14.15 Microsection ......................................................................................................... 175

14.15.1 Microsection facilities .............................................................................. 175

14.15.2 Microsections location ............................................................................. 175

14.15.3 Microsection acceptance criteria ............................................................. 176

14.15.4 Microsection acceptance criteria for ceramic chip capacitors .................. 189

14.16 Anomalies in PCB and sculptured flex during verification.....................................

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16602-70-61:2021
01-november-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 16602-70-07:2015
SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
SIST EN 16602-70-38:2019
Zagotavljanje vesoljskih izdelkov - visoko zanesljivo spajkanje za površinski
nosilec, mešano tehnologijo in ročno vgrajene električne priključke

Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for surface mount, mixed technology

and hand-mounted electrical connections

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässiges Löten von Oberflächen-Befestigungen

und Durchgangslochverbindungen

Assurance produit spatiale - Assamblage haute fiabilité pour technologies à montage de

surface et connexions traversantes
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16602-70-61
ICS:
25.160.50 Trdo in mehko lotanje Brazing and soldering
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16602-70-61:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-61:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-61:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16602-70-61
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2021
ICS 25.160.50; 49.140
Will supersede EN 16602-70-07:2014, EN 16602-70-
08:2015, EN 16602-70-38:2019
English version
Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for
surface mount, mixed technology and hand-mounted
electrical connections

Assurance produit spatiale - Assamblage haute fiabilité Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässiges

pour technologies à montage de surface et connexions Löten von Oberflächen-Befestigungen und

traversantes Durchgangslochverbindungen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-61:2021
prEN 16602-70-61:2021 (E)
Table of contents

Table of contents ....................................................................................................... 2

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 13

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 14

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 21

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 22

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 24

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 24

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 24

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 29

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 30

4 Principles of reliable soldered connections ....................................................... 32

5 Preparatory conditions ........................................................................................ 33

5.1 Facility cleanliness .................................................................................................. 33

5.2 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................ 33

5.3 Lighting requirements ............................................................................................. 34

5.4 Precautions against static discharges ..................................................................... 34

5.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 34

5.4.2 General ..................................................................................................... 35

5.4.3 ESD Protected Area .................................................................................. 35

5.4.4 Precautions against ESD during manufacturing ........................................ 36

5.4.5 Protective packaging and ESD protection ................................................. 37

5.5 Equipment and tools ............................................................................................... 37

5.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 37

5.5.2 Brushes ..................................................................................................... 38

5.5.3 Cutters and pliers ...................................................................................... 38

5.5.4 Bending tools ............................................................................................ 39

5.5.5 Clinching tools ........................................................................................... 39

5.5.6 Insulation strippers .................................................................................... 39

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oSIST prEN 16602-70-61:2021
prEN 16602-70-61:2021 (E)

5.5.7 Hot air blower ............................................................................................ 41

5.5.8 Soldering tools .......................................................................................... 41

5.5.9 Baking and curing ovens ........................................................................... 42

5.5.10 Solder deposition equipment ..................................................................... 42

5.5.11 Automatic component placement equipment ............................................. 42

5.5.12 Dynamic wave-solder machines ................................................................ 43

5.5.13 Selective wave solder equipment .............................................................. 43

5.5.14 Reflow process equipment ........................................................................ 44

5.5.15 Depanelisation tool.................................................................................... 46

5.5.16 Cleanliness testing equipment .................................................................. 46

5.5.17 Optical microscope .................................................................................... 46

5.5.18 Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) equipment .......................................... 46

5.5.19 X-ray inspection equipment ....................................................................... 47

6 Material selection ................................................................................................. 48

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 48

6.2 Solder ..................................................................................................................... 48

6.2.1 Form ......................................................................................................... 48

6.2.2 Composition .............................................................................................. 49

6.2.3 Maintenance of paste purity ...................................................................... 51

6.3 Fluxes ..................................................................................................................... 51

6.3.1 Rosin based fluxes .................................................................................... 51

6.3.2 Application of flux ...................................................................................... 52

6.3.3 Flux controls for wave-soldering equipment .............................................. 52

6.4 Solvents .................................................................................................................. 53

6.5 Flexible insulation materials .................................................................................... 53

6.6 Terminals ................................................................................................................ 54

6.6.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 54

6.6.2 Tin, silver, and gold-plated terminals ......................................................... 54

6.7 Wires ...................................................................................................................... 55

6.8 Sculptured flex ........................................................................................................ 55

6.9 Printed circuits substrates ....................................................................................... 55

6.9.1 Substrates selection .................................................................................. 55

6.9.2 Gold finish on PCBs footprint .................................................................... 55

6.10 Components ........................................................................................................... 56

6.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 56

6.10.2 Moisture sensitive components ................................................................. 56

6.11 Adhesives, potting, underfill and conformal coatings ............................................... 57

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7 Preparations prior to mounting and soldering .................................................. 58

7.1 General handling .................................................................................................... 58

7.2 Storage ................................................................................................................... 58

7.2.1 Components.............................................................................................. 58

7.2.2 PCBs......................................................................................................... 58

7.2.3 Materials requiring segregation ................................................................. 58

7.3 Baking conditions of PCBs ...................................................................................... 59

7.4 Baking and storage of moisture sensitive components ........................................... 59

7.5 Preparation of components, wires, terminals, and solder cups................................ 60

7.5.1 Insulation removal ..................................................................................... 60

7.5.2 Surfaces to be soldered ............................................................................ 61

7.6 Degolding and pretinning ........................................................................................ 62

7.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 62

7.6.2 Solder baths method for degolding and pretinning of components

terminations and terminals ........................................................................ 62

7.6.3 Solder iron method for degolding and pretinning ....................................... 63

7.6.4 Pretinning processes ................................................................................. 64

7.7 Preparation of the soldering tip ............................................................................... 65

8 Components mounting requirements prior to soldering .................................. 66

8.1 General requirements ............................................................................................. 66

8.2 Mounting of through hole components .................................................................... 66

8.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 66

8.2.2 Heavy components ................................................................................... 66

8.2.3 Metal-case components ............................................................................ 67

8.2.4 Glass-encased components ...................................................................... 67

8.2.5 Stress relief of components with bendable leads ....................................... 67

8.2.6 Stress relief of components with non-bendable leads ................................ 70

8.2.7 Bending of component leads ..................................................................... 70

8.2.8 Lead attachment to PCBs ......................................................................... 71

8.2.9 Mounting of swage terminals to PCBs ....................................................... 73

8.2.10 Mounting of through hole connectors to PCBs .......................................... 73

8.2.11 Clinching of components in non-plated through holes ............................... 74

8.2.12 Mounting of components to terminals ........................................................ 76

8.3 Mounting of surface mount components ................................................................. 77

8.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 77

8.3.2 Lead forming ............................................................................................. 78

8.3.3 Mounting components in solder paste ....................................................... 78

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8.3.4 Leadless components ............................................................................... 78

9 Attachment of conductors to terminals, solder cups and cables .................... 80

9.1 General ................................................................................................................... 80

9.2 Wire termination ..................................................................................................... 80

9.2.1 Breakouts from cables .............................................................................. 80

9.2.2 Insulation clearance .................................................................................. 80

9.2.3 Stress relief ............................................................................................... 81

9.3 Turret and straight-pin terminals ............................................................................. 81

9.3.1 Side route ................................................................................................. 81

9.3.2 Bottom route ............................................................................................. 81

9.4 Bifurcated terminals ................................................................................................ 82

9.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 82

9.4.2 Bottom route ............................................................................................. 82

9.4.3 Side route ................................................................................................. 83

9.4.4 Top route .................................................................................................. 84

9.4.5 Combination of top and bottom routes....................................................... 85

9.4.6 Combination of side and bottom routes ..................................................... 85

9.5 Hook terminals ........................................................................................................ 85

9.6 Pierced terminals .................................................................................................... 85

9.7 Solder cups for connector ....................................................................................... 86

9.8 Insulation sleeving .................................................................................................. 87

9.9 Wire and cable interconnections ............................................................................. 88

9.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 88

9.9.2 Preparation of wires .................................................................................. 88

9.9.3 Preparation of shielded wires and cables .................................................. 88

9.9.4 Pre-assembly ............................................................................................ 89

9.9.5 Soldering of conductors onto terminals except cup terminals .................... 90

9.9.6 Soldering of conductors onto cup terminals ............................................... 90

9.10 Connection of wires to PCBs .................................................................................. 91

9.11 Connection of coaxial cables to PCBs .................................................................... 93

10 Assembly to terminals and to PCBs ................................................................. 94

10.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 94

10.2 General soldering conditions .................................................................................. 94

10.3 Soldering of components, terminals, and wires into PCB through holes .................. 97

10.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 97

10.3.2 Solder fillets for wires and terminations ..................................................... 98

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10.3.3 Solder fillets for component leads in plated through-holes......................... 98

10.3.4 Solder fillets for component leads in non-plated through-holes ................. 99

10.3.5 PCB design requirements for wave and selective soldering .................... 100

10.4 Soldering of surface mount components ............................................................... 100

10.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 100

10.4.2 Rectangular and square end-capped or end-metallized leadless chip ..... 101

10.4.3 Cylindrical and square end-capped components with cylindrical or

oval body ................................................................................................ 102

10.4.4 Bottom terminated chip components ....................................................... 105

10.4.5 L-Shape inwards components ................................................................. 106

10.4.6 Leadless component with plane termination ............................................ 106

10.4.7 Leaded component with plane termination .............................................. 107

10.4.8 Leadless castellated ceramic chip carrier components ............................ 108

10.4.9 No lead Quad Flat Pack .......................................................................... 109

10.4.10 Flat pack and gull-wing leaded components with round, rectangular,

ribbon leads ............................................................................................ 111

10.4.11 Components with “J” leads ...................................................................... 112

10.4.12 Components with ribbon terminals without stress relief ........................... 113

10.4.13 Stacked modules components with leads protruding vertically from

bottom ..................................................................................................... 114

10.4.14 Area array devices .................................................................................. 115

10.5 Rework and repair ................................................................................................ 116

10.5.1 Removal of solder on unpopulated PCB .................................................. 116

10.5.2 Rework , repair and modifications ........................................................... 116

10.6 High-voltage connections...................................................................................... 117

10.7 Solderless components ........................................................................................ 118

11 Post soldering process requirements ............................................................ 120

11.1 Cleaning of PCB assemblies ................................................................................ 120

11.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 120

11.1.2 Verification of cleanliness ........................................................................ 120

11.1.3 Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) testing ............................................ 121

11.1.4 Monitoring of cleanliness ......................................................................... 121

11.1.5 Sodium chloride (NaCl) equivalent ionic contaminants testing ................ 122

11.2 Staking and bonding ............................................................................................. 122

11.3 Conformal coating, potting and underfill ................................................................ 123

12 Final inspection ................................................................................................ 124

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 124

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12.2 Visual acceptance criteria ..................................................................................... 124

12.3 Visual rejection criteria .......................................................................................... 125

12.4 X-ray rejection criteria ........................................................................................... 127

12.5 Warp and twist of populated boards ...................................................................... 127

12.6 Inspection records ................................................................................................ 128

13 Verification procedure...................................................................................... 129

13.1 Verification approval procedure ............................................................................ 129

13.1.1 Request for verification ........................................................................... 129

13.1.2 Technology sample ................................................................................. 129

13.1.3 Audit of assembly processing .................................................................. 130

13.1.4 Verification programme documentation ................................................... 130

13.1.5 Verification samples and testing .............................................................. 130

13.1.6 Final verification review ........................................................................... 131

13.1.7 Approval of assembly line ....................................................................... 132

13.1.8 Withdrawal of approval status ................................................................. 132

13.2 Verification programme ......................................................................................... 132

13.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 132

13.2.2 Verification for PTH manual soldering ..................................................... 138

13.2.3 Additional verification for wave soldering ................................................. 138

13.2.4 Soldering log ........................................................................................... 138

13.3 Special verification testing for ceramic area array components ............................. 141

13.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 141

13.3.2 Evaluation of capability samples ............................................................. 143

13.3.3 Electrical verification ............................................................................... 143

13.4 Component verification with electrical testing procedure ....................................... 144

13.5 Verification programme with reduced temperature range ...................................... 147

13.6 Verification for solderless process ........................................................................ 147

13.7 Conditions for delta verification ............................................................................. 149

13.8 Verification by similarity ........................................................................................ 152

13.8.1 General conditions for similarity .............................................................. 152

13.8.2 Conditions for similarity for PTH components .......................................... 152

13.8.3 Conditions for similarity for SMD ............................................................. 153

13.8.4 Conditions for similarity for solderless components ................................. 156

14 Environmental tests conditions ...................................................................... 157

14.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 157

14.2 Visual inspection ................................................................................................... 157

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14.3 X-ray inspection .................................................................................................... 157

14.4 Cleanliness test .................................................................................................... 157

14.5 Warp and twist of PCB .......................................................................................... 157

14.6 Electrical continuity measurement ........................................................................ 157

14.7 Electrical continuity for wave soldered multilayers PCB ........................................ 158

14.8 Vibration ............................................................................................................... 159

14.9 Mechanical shock ................................................................................................. 161

14.10 Damp heat test ..................................................................................................... 162

14.11 Temperature cycling test....................................................................................... 162

14.12 Temperature cycling test with reduced temperature range .................................... 163

14.13 Final visual inspection ........................................................................................... 165

14.14 Microsection ......................................................................................................... 165

14.14.1 Microsection facilities .............................................................................. 165

14.14.2 Microsections location ............................................................................. 166

14.14.3 Microsection acceptance and rejection criteria ........................................ 166

14.14.4 Microsection acceptance and rejection criteria for cera
...

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