Soil quality - Sampling - Part 205: Guidance on the procedure for investigation of natural, near-natural and cultivated sites

This document provides guidance on the sampling of soils of
— natural and near-natural sites,
— natural arboreal areas including forests and woods,
— areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites),
— areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments), and
— areas used for special crop-cultivation, orchards, vineyards, commercial plantations and forests, etc.
It is applicable to
— soil investigations and evaluations in the field, and
— collection of samples for chemical, geochemical, physical, and biological characterization of soil and
soil materials in the laboratory.
This document sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures
and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g.
drying, milling). It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series.
Attention is, in particular, drawn to the requirements concerning collection, handling and storage of
soil for assessment of biological functions in ISO 18400-206.
NOTE 1 Groundwater and surface water can be adversely impacted by agricultural and related activities,
such as nitrates and pesticides, and by translocation of soil particles. In turn, knowledge about water quality
can provide information about possible sources of groundwater contamination or contaminating run-off.
Investigation of groundwater and surface water quality is outside of the scope of this document; relevant
guidance is given in the ISO 5667 series of standards. ISO 15175 provides guidance on the relationship between
soil properties and groundwater quality.
NOTE 2 It could also be appropriate to investigate ambient air, vegetation, potable water supplies and a variety
of other media depending on the findings of the preliminary investigation.

Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 205: Lignes directrices pour les procédures d'investigation des sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés

Le pr�sent document fournit des recommandations pour l'�chantillonnage des sols:
— des sites naturels et quasi naturels;
— des zones arbor�es naturelles, incluant les for�ts et les bois;
— des zones utilis�es pour l'agriculture (terres arables et p�turages);
— des zones utilis�es pour l'horticulture (y compris les jardins priv�s et les jardins ouvriers); et
— des zones utilis�es pour des cultures sp�ciales, des vergers, des vignobles, des plantations et for�ts commerciales, etc.
Il s'applique:
— aux investigations et �valuations de sol sur le terrain; et
— au pr�l�vement d'�chantillons en vue de la caract�risation chimique, g�ochimique, physique et biologique des sols et des mat�riaux du sol en laboratoire.
Le pr�sent document d�crit les strat�gies appropri�es pour la conception des programmes d'�chantillonnage, les modes op�ratoires sur le terrain et le traitement ult�rieur des �chantillons en vue du transport et du stockage avant le pr�traitement des �chantillons (par exemple s�chage, broyage). Il est destin� � �tre utilis� conjointement avec les autres parties de la s�rie ISO 18400. Une attention particuli�re est notamment exig�e pour les exigences concernant la collecte, la manipulation et la conservation de sols destin�s � l'�valuation de param�tres biologiques fonctionnels, sp�cifi�es dans l'ISO 18400‑206.
NOTE 1 Les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface peuvent �tre affect�es par les activit�s agricoles et connexes, telles que les nitrates et les pesticides, ainsi que par le transfert de particules de sol. Des connaissances sur la qualit� de l'eau peuvent � leur tour fournir des informations sur les sources �ventuelles de contamination des eaux souterraines ou de ruissellement contaminant. Le pr�sent document ne couvre pas l'�tude de la qualit� des eaux souterraines et des eaux de surface; des recommandations pertinentes sont fournies dans la s�rie de normes ISO 5667. L'ISO 15175 fournit des recommandations sur la relation entre les propri�t�s du sol et la qualit� des eaux souterraines.
NOTE 2 Il peut �galement �tre opportun d'�tudier l'air ambiant, la v�g�tation, les sources d'eau potable et divers autres milieux, en fonction des r�sultats de l'investigation pr�liminaire.

Kakovost tal - Vzorčenje - 205. del: Navodilo za postopek preiskave naravnih, delno naravnih in obdelanih območij

Ta dokument podaja smernice glede vzorčenja tal za
– naravna in skoraj naravna območja,
– naravna drevesna območja, vključno z gozdovi in gozdički,
– območja, ki se uporabljajo za kmetijstvo (plodna območja in pašniki),
– območja, ki se uporabljajo za vrtnarstvo (vključno z domačimi vrtovi, parcelami),
– območja, ki se uporabljajo za posebno gojenje rastlin, sadovnjake, vinograde, komercialne nasade in gozdove itd.
Uporablja se za:
– preiskave in vrednotenje tal na terenu in
– zbiranje vzorcev za kemijsko, geokemijsko, fizikalno in biološko karakterizacijo tal in talnih materialov v laboratoriju.
Ta dokument določa ustrezne strategije za načrtovanje programov vzorčenja, terenske postopke in naknadno obdelavo vzorcev za prevoz in shranjevanje pred pripravo vzorcev (npr. sušenje, mletje). Uporabljati ga je treba v povezavi z drugimi deli skupine standardov ISO 18400.
Pozornost je še posebej treba usmeriti na zahteve glede zbiranja, ravnanja in shranjevanja vzorcev tal za oceno bioloških funkcij v standardu ISO 18400-206.
OPOMBA 1: Na podzemno in površinsko vodo lahko negativno vplivajo kmetijske in sorodne dejavnosti, kot so nitrati in pesticidi, ter prenos delcev tal. Vendar pa je mogoče z znanjem o kakovosti vode zagotoviti informacije o možnih virih onesnaženja podzemne vode ali onesnaževalnih odplakah.
Preiskava kakovosti podzemne in površinske vode ne spada na področje uporabe dokumenta; ustrezne smernice so podane v skupini standardov ISO 5667. Standard ISO 15175 ponuja smernice glede povezave med lastnostmi tal in kakovostjo podzemne vode.
OPOMBA 2: V povezavi z ugotovitvami predhodne preiskave je morda treba raziskati tudi zrak, rastlinje, zaloge pitne vode in vrsto drugih medijev.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Mar-2018
Publication Date
29-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Jan-2019
Due Date
29-Mar-2019
Completion Date
30-Jan-2019

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-205
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 205:
Guidance on the procedure for
investigation of natural, near-natural
and cultivated sites
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 205: Recommandations relatives aux modes opératoires
d'investigation des sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés
Reference number
ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Objectives of sampling .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles, requirements and general considerations for soil sampling ..................................................2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 General strategy of site investigation .................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Conceptual site model ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.3 Preliminary investigation ......................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.4 Preliminary conceptual site model .................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.5 Scope of exploratory investigation ................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.6 Scope of detailed site investigation ................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Types of sample ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Selection of sampling locations ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.5 Number of samples — General ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.6 Sampling depths .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.7 Number of samples to be taken at discrete sampling points .......................................................................... 7

5.8 Number of samples in relation to determination of average properties .............................................. 8

5.9 Sample sizes .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.10 Sampling techniques and application ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.11 Time and frequency of sampling ............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.12 Sample containers ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.13 Sample transport ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.14 Sample storage ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.15 Safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.16 Quality assurance and control ................................................................................................................................................10

6 Taking soil samples.........................................................................................................................................................................................10

7 Sampling for particular purposes ...................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Sampling for the determination of mobile nitrogen ............................................................................................10

7.2 Forest and woodland soils .........................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Peat soils ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Saturated-zone soils ........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Special types of land use ..............................................................................................................................................................11

8 Sampling report..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Investigation report .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-205, together with ISO 18400-104 and ISO 18400-202, cancels and

replaces the first edition of ISO 10381-4:2003, which has been technically and structurally revised. The

new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to ISO 10381-1 clause

by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
Introduction

This document is one of a group of standards providing guidance on site investigation in general, and

sampling in particular, for the principal purpose of determining soil quality. It is intended to be used in

conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series. The role/position of the standards within the

total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.

This document describes investigation and sampling procedures for determination of soil quality on

natural, near natural and cultivated sites. Its structure is generally similar to that of ISO 18400-203

which provides guidance on the investigation of potentially contaminated sites. In accordance with

ISO 18400-104, it recommends that investigations should be undertaken in three phases:

— preliminary investigation (desk study and site reconnaissance) in accordance with ISO 18400-202;

— exploratory investigation (this document);
— detailed site investigation (this document).
It is recognized that:

— the preliminary investigation needs to be no more detailed than required by the task in hand

(objectives of the investigation), but some basic information is always required for reasons of

legality, safety of those carrying out site work including site reconnaissance, and protection of the

environment;

— the preliminary investigation might show that no intrusive investigation is required;

— an exploratory investigation might suffice in some cases with no requirement for a detailed

investigation;

— an exploratory investigation is not always needed in advance of a detailed investigation;

— it might be desirable to carry out each phase of an investigation in stages;

— during any phase of an investigation it might become apparent that the site should be treated as a

potentially contaminated site — decisions will then be required whether to proceed as planned, to

delay the investigation, and/or carry out an investigation in accordance with ISO 18400-203.

The guidance also calls for the formulation of a conceptual site model as described in ISO 18400-202.

This synthesis and interpretation of the available information needs to be no more detailed than

required by the task in hand but helps in the design of intrusive phases of investigation. In practice, the

investigator will always have a mental image of the site and formal development of the conceptual site

model helps to reveal what could be serious flaws in this mental image.

NOTE Clauses 4, 5 and 6 provide guidance applicable to sampling on the generality of natural, near-natural

and cultivated sites. Clause 7 provides additional guidance in relation to sampling for particular purposes (e.g.

determination of mobile nitrogen) and soil types (e.g. peat soils).
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)

NOTE 1 Numbers in circles define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 205:
Guidance on the procedure for investigation of natural,
near-natural and cultivated sites
1 Scope
This document provides guidance on the sampling of soils of
— natural and near-natural sites,
— natural arboreal areas including forests and woods,
— areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites),
— areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments), and

— areas used for special crop-cultivation, orchards, vineyards, commercial plantations and forests, etc.

It is applicable to
— soil investigations and evaluations in the field, and

— collection of samples for chemical, geochemical, physical, and biological characterization of soil and

soil materials in the laboratory.

This document sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures

and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g.

drying, milling). It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series.

Attention is, in particular, drawn to the requirements concerning collection, handling and storage of

soil for assessment of biological functions in ISO 18400-206.

NOTE 1 Groundwater and surface water can be adversely impacted by agricultural and related activities,

such as nitrates and pesticides, and by translocation of soil particles. In turn, knowledge about water quality

can provide information about possible sources of groundwater contamination or contaminating run-off.

Investigation of groundwater and surface water quality is outside of the scope of this document; relevant

guidance is given in the ISO 5667 series of standards. ISO 15175 provides guidance on the relationship between

soil properties and groundwater quality.

NOTE 2 It could also be appropriate to investigate ambient air, vegetation, potable water supplies and a variety

of other media depending on the findings of the preliminary investigation.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
ISO 18400-103, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 103: Safety
ISO 18400-104:2018, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 104: Strategies
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and ISO 18400-104 apply.

NOTE When the definitions in these two documents differ, those in ISO 18400-104 take precedence.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https: //www .electropedia .org/
4 Objectives of sampling
The investigation, sampling and analytical strategies are determined mainly by
— the objective of the investigation, and
— current and previous soil/land use.
The objective of investigations can be various but might be:

— collection of information on general soil quality with regard to preservation and improvement of

ecological soil functions;

— collection of information for evaluation of soil quality and nutrient supply or nutrient demand with

regard to preservation and improvement of the productivity of soils;

— collection of information to manage and evaluate the effects of the addition of soil amendments

materials such as sewage sludge;
— collection of information for soil mapping, classification and taxation;

— collection of information on the quality of forest and woodland (arboreal) soils in connection with

study of damaged trees or other vegetation;

— collection of information for establishment and maintenance of soil monitoring areas;

— collection of information for replicate samples used for soil specimen banks or environmental

specimen banks.

Further guidance about the setting of objectives for soil sampling is given in ISO 18400-104.

5 Principles, requirements and general considerations for soil sampling
5.1 General

This document should be used in conjunction with ISO 18400-104 which gives general guidance on the

development of site investigation strategies and detailed guidance on sampling strategies.

This clause summarizes general principles, requirements and considerations for soil sampling which

should be taken into account for natural, near-natural and cultivated sites.

The aspects in 5.3 to 5.16 should be considered when developing a sampling strategy and preparing the

sampling plan in accordance with ISO 18400-101.

NOTE 1 Clause 5 and 6 provide guidance applicable to sampling on the generality of natural, near-natural

and cultivated sites. Clause 7 provides additional guidance in relation to sampling for particular purposes (e.g.

determination of mobile nitrogen) and soil types (e.g. peat soils).
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)

NOTE 2 A supposed natural site or near-natural site (e.g. an agricultural site or a wooded site) could be

a potentially contaminated site, not only because of activities carried out on the site, but because they were

developed in the past on potentially contaminated land, for example an old refuse disposal site (landfill) or

mining waste. This could have significance for agricultural performance of a site and the health and safety of the

investigator; hence the need for a good site history to be developed as part of the preliminary investigation.

5.2 General strategy of site investigation
5.2.1 General
The principal site investigation phases are
— preliminary investigation (see 5.2.3),
— exploratory investigation (see 5.2.5), and
— detailed (main) site investigation (see 5.2.6).
The relationship between these phases is illustrated in Figure 2.

On completion of soil sampling activities during any phase or stage of investigation, a sampling report

should be prepared in accordance with ISO 18400-107 (see Clause 8).

Following completion of the investigation, a report giving its results should be prepared.

The strategy for the investigation (whether preliminary, exploratory or detailed) will be determined by

the objectives (see Clause 4).

Before embarking on any phase or stage of investigation, it is important to set data quality objectives

in terms of the type, quantity and quality (e.g. analytical quality) of the data and other information that

is to be collected. These data quality objectives will depend in part on the nature of the decisions to be

made on the basis of the investigation, and the confidence required in those decisions.

When deciding on the strategy, consideration should be given to the applicability and use of on-site

analysis and/or in situ measurement techniques (e.g. see ISO 12404 and ISO 13196).

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
NOTE This is an example of a site investigation process for agricultural sites.
Figure 2 — Site investigation process
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
5.2.2 Conceptual site model

A conceptual site model should be developed and refined as the investigation proceeds in accordance

with the guidance in ISO 18400-104. It should be presented in narrative, tabular or graphical form, or a

combination of forms. It needs to be no more complex than the objectives of the investigation require.

NOTE 1 A conceptual site model is a synthesis of all that is known about a site and its surroundings that is

relevant to the task. Preparation of the conceptual site model requires some interpretation of the information

available and explicit recognition of the uncertainties in the information. Even when a formal conceptual site

model is not prepared, investigators will have a conceptual site model of the site in their mind. This could be

dangerously misleading if a proper preliminary investigation has not been carried out and, for example, the

presence of an animal burial pit in the corner of a field is not known about.

NOTE 2 Although the conceptual site model is usually first formally prepared following a preliminary

investigation, it first comes into existence the moment the question is asked whether the site needs to be

investigated. At that stage, for example, it might be recognized that the site is agricultural land used for keeping

livestock and the investigator will immediately form an initial picture about what the site might be like and act

accordingly. Thus, it is this initial conceptual site model and the purpose of the overall investigation that guide

decisions about the scope and depth of preliminary investigation required.
5.2.3 Preliminary investigation

A preliminary investigation in accordance with ISO 18400-202 should be carried out prior to any

intrusive investigation. The depth and detail of the preliminary investigation should be tailored to

the objectives of the investigation. The preliminary investigation should lead to the development of a

preliminary conceptual site model and possibly to hypotheses that can be tested during the subsequent

investigation.

NOTE 1 The preliminary investigation needs only to be as detailed as required by the task in hand, but there

will usually be a requirement for a minimum information set relating for example to site location and setting, site

ownership, site access, safety and protection of the environment.

NOTE 2 Detailed guidance on preliminary investigations is provided in ISO 18400-202, including the type of

information that could be required in relation to particular types of site, such as agricultural and near-natural

sites, wooded sites and potentially contaminated sites. ISO 18400-202 includes reference to activities other

than normal farming activities that might give rise to contamination of farmland. Land used for horticulture,

orchards, etc. can also be contaminated.

NOTE 3 The preliminary investigation might provide information that suggests that the site, or part of the

site, is “a potentially contaminated site” requiring investigation in accordance with ISO 18400-203. A decision

might be required as to whether to proceed with an investigation in accordance with this document, to delay the

investigation, or to constrain the area to be investigated, until the results of the investigation for contamination

are available.
5.2.4 Preliminary conceptual site model

A preliminary conceptual site model should be developed from the results of the preliminary

investigation. It needs to be no more complex than the objectives of the investigation require.

Formal hypotheses about the site that can be tested during an on-site investigation should be developed

when appropriate.

NOTE During the site reconnaissance, areas of poor plant growth within an otherwise healthy looking crop

might be seen. Ideas (hypotheses) about possible causes can be postulated and tested during the subsequent on-

site investigation.
5.2.5 Scope of exploratory investigation

The exploratory investigation involves a limited on-site investigation. The data and information

produced are assessed to determine if the hypotheses from the preliminary investigation are correct,

and, where appropriate, to test other aspects of the conceptual site model. In some cases where the

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)

hypotheses are indicated as being correct, no further investigation might be needed. However, when

this is not the case, it will be necessary to either

— carry out a further stage of exploratory investigation before proceeding to the design and execution

of a detailed investigation, or

— carry out a detailed site investigation to produce sufficient information to achieve the objectives of

the investigation.

NOTE 1 Exploratory investigations typically comprise one or more judgmental (targeted) sampling exercises

although systematic sampling or composite sampling might also sometimes be carried out.

NOTE 2 In the case of an agricultural site, an exploratory investigation could be used to confirm conclusions

from the preliminary investigation about the soil type(s) present or to test a hypothesis, for example, that poor

growth of vegetation is due to compaction and/or waterlogging. With this information available, the investigator

can decide whether more detailed investigation is required, or that sufficient information is available to advise

the client (e.g. the farmer).
5.2.6 Scope of detailed site investigation

The amount and nature of the information required from a detailed site investigation (or any particular

stage of it) will vary depending on the nature of the site, and the objectives of the investigation. The

implications of the decisions on what actions should be implemented on a site will vary from site to site.

5.3 Types of sample

The type(s) of samples to be taken should be chosen according to ISO 18400-104 regarding their

applicability for particular purposes. It should be decided whether to take

— single samples (which can be disturbed or undisturbed – see Note) (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.2),

— cluster samples (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.3), or
— spatial composite samples (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.4).

Spatial composite samples are commonly used for the investigation of natural, near-natural and

cultivated sites.
NOTE Types of sample, include (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.1):

— disturbed samples (mass-proportional sampling, samples obtained without any attempt to preserve the soil

structure);

— undisturbed samples (volume-proportional sampling, samples obtained using a method designed to preserve

the soil structure).
5.4 Selection of sampling locations

Sampling locations in aggregate should be representative of the total area to be sampled. Considerations

when selecting sampling locations include
— the objectives of the investigation,
— the (expected) uniformity of soil quality,
— land use, and
— type of cultivation or natural vegetation.

Sampling patterns can be based on statistical models, numerical random distributions or systematic

patterns as described in ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.2.3 and Annex B.
6 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-205:2018(E)

A sampling pattern can be the basis for taking either single samples or incremental samples to be mixed

to provide a composite sample.

Locations such as dead patches, field margins, peat bogs, rocky sites, damp areas and other areas which

obviously deviate from the average should generally be avoided unless these are of specific interest.

NOTE For further guidance, see ISO 18400-104.
5.5 Number of samples — General
The total number of samples required in any sam
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18400-205:2019
01-marec-2019
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Soil quality - Sampling - Part 205: Guidance on the procedure for investigation of natural,

near-natural and cultivated sites

Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 205: Lignes directrices pour les procédures

d'investigation des sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18400-205:2018
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
SIST ISO 18400-205:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-205:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-205:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-205
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 205:
Guidance on the procedure for
investigation of natural, near-natural
and cultivated sites
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 205: Recommandations relatives aux modes opératoires
d'investigation des sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés
Reference number
ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST ISO 18400-205:2019
ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Objectives of sampling .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles, requirements and general considerations for soil sampling ..................................................2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 General strategy of site investigation .................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Conceptual site model ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.3 Preliminary investigation ......................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.4 Preliminary conceptual site model .................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.5 Scope of exploratory investigation ................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.6 Scope of detailed site investigation ................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Types of sample ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Selection of sampling locations ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.5 Number of samples — General ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.6 Sampling depths .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.7 Number of samples to be taken at discrete sampling points .......................................................................... 7

5.8 Number of samples in relation to determination of average properties .............................................. 8

5.9 Sample sizes .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.10 Sampling techniques and application ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.11 Time and frequency of sampling ............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.12 Sample containers ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.13 Sample transport ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.14 Sample storage ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.15 Safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.16 Quality assurance and control ................................................................................................................................................10

6 Taking soil samples.........................................................................................................................................................................................10

7 Sampling for particular purposes ...................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Sampling for the determination of mobile nitrogen ............................................................................................10

7.2 Forest and woodland soils .........................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Peat soils ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Saturated-zone soils ........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Special types of land use ..............................................................................................................................................................11

8 Sampling report..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Investigation report .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-205, together with ISO 18400-104 and ISO 18400-202, cancels and

replaces the first edition of ISO 10381-4:2003, which has been technically and structurally revised. The

new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to ISO 10381-1 clause

by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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Introduction

This document is one of a group of standards providing guidance on site investigation in general, and

sampling in particular, for the principal purpose of determining soil quality. It is intended to be used in

conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series. The role/position of the standards within the

total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.

This document describes investigation and sampling procedures for determination of soil quality on

natural, near natural and cultivated sites. Its structure is generally similar to that of ISO 18400-203

which provides guidance on the investigation of potentially contaminated sites. In accordance with

ISO 18400-104, it recommends that investigations should be undertaken in three phases:

— preliminary investigation (desk study and site reconnaissance) in accordance with ISO 18400-202;

— exploratory investigation (this document);
— detailed site investigation (this document).
It is recognized that:

— the preliminary investigation needs to be no more detailed than required by the task in hand

(objectives of the investigation), but some basic information is always required for reasons of

legality, safety of those carrying out site work including site reconnaissance, and protection of the

environment;

— the preliminary investigation might show that no intrusive investigation is required;

— an exploratory investigation might suffice in some cases with no requirement for a detailed

investigation;

— an exploratory investigation is not always needed in advance of a detailed investigation;

— it might be desirable to carry out each phase of an investigation in stages;

— during any phase of an investigation it might become apparent that the site should be treated as a

potentially contaminated site — decisions will then be required whether to proceed as planned, to

delay the investigation, and/or carry out an investigation in accordance with ISO 18400-203.

The guidance also calls for the formulation of a conceptual site model as described in ISO 18400-202.

This synthesis and interpretation of the available information needs to be no more detailed than

required by the task in hand but helps in the design of intrusive phases of investigation. In practice, the

investigator will always have a mental image of the site and formal development of the conceptual site

model helps to reveal what could be serious flaws in this mental image.

NOTE Clauses 4, 5 and 6 provide guidance applicable to sampling on the generality of natural, near-natural

and cultivated sites. Clause 7 provides additional guidance in relation to sampling for particular purposes (e.g.

determination of mobile nitrogen) and soil types (e.g. peat soils).
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NOTE 1 Numbers in circles define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-205:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 205:
Guidance on the procedure for investigation of natural,
near-natural and cultivated sites
1 Scope
This document provides guidance on the sampling of soils of
— natural and near-natural sites,
— natural arboreal areas including forests and woods,
— areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites),
— areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments), and

— areas used for special crop-cultivation, orchards, vineyards, commercial plantations and forests, etc.

It is applicable to
— soil investigations and evaluations in the field, and

— collection of samples for chemical, geochemical, physical, and biological characterization of soil and

soil materials in the laboratory.

This document sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures

and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g.

drying, milling). It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series.

Attention is, in particular, drawn to the requirements concerning collection, handling and storage of

soil for assessment of biological functions in ISO 18400-206.

NOTE 1 Groundwater and surface water can be adversely impacted by agricultural and related activities,

such as nitrates and pesticides, and by translocation of soil particles. In turn, knowledge about water quality

can provide information about possible sources of groundwater contamination or contaminating run-off.

Investigation of groundwater and surface water quality is outside of the scope of this document; relevant

guidance is given in the ISO 5667 series of standards. ISO 15175 provides guidance on the relationship between

soil properties and groundwater quality.

NOTE 2 It could also be appropriate to investigate ambient air, vegetation, potable water supplies and a variety

of other media depending on the findings of the preliminary investigation.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
ISO 18400-103, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 103: Safety
ISO 18400-104:2018, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 104: Strategies
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3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and ISO 18400-104 apply.

NOTE When the definitions in these two documents differ, those in ISO 18400-104 take precedence.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https: //www .electropedia .org/
4 Objectives of sampling
The investigation, sampling and analytical strategies are determined mainly by
— the objective of the investigation, and
— current and previous soil/land use.
The objective of investigations can be various but might be:

— collection of information on general soil quality with regard to preservation and improvement of

ecological soil functions;

— collection of information for evaluation of soil quality and nutrient supply or nutrient demand with

regard to preservation and improvement of the productivity of soils;

— collection of information to manage and evaluate the effects of the addition of soil amendments

materials such as sewage sludge;
— collection of information for soil mapping, classification and taxation;

— collection of information on the quality of forest and woodland (arboreal) soils in connection with

study of damaged trees or other vegetation;

— collection of information for establishment and maintenance of soil monitoring areas;

— collection of information for replicate samples used for soil specimen banks or environmental

specimen banks.

Further guidance about the setting of objectives for soil sampling is given in ISO 18400-104.

5 Principles, requirements and general considerations for soil sampling
5.1 General

This document should be used in conjunction with ISO 18400-104 which gives general guidance on the

development of site investigation strategies and detailed guidance on sampling strategies.

This clause summarizes general principles, requirements and considerations for soil sampling which

should be taken into account for natural, near-natural and cultivated sites.

The aspects in 5.3 to 5.16 should be considered when developing a sampling strategy and preparing the

sampling plan in accordance with ISO 18400-101.

NOTE 1 Clause 5 and 6 provide guidance applicable to sampling on the generality of natural, near-natural

and cultivated sites. Clause 7 provides additional guidance in relation to sampling for particular purposes (e.g.

determination of mobile nitrogen) and soil types (e.g. peat soils).
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NOTE 2 A supposed natural site or near-natural site (e.g. an agricultural site or a wooded site) could be

a potentially contaminated site, not only because of activities carried out on the site, but because they were

developed in the past on potentially contaminated land, for example an old refuse disposal site (landfill) or

mining waste. This could have significance for agricultural performance of a site and the health and safety of the

investigator; hence the need for a good site history to be developed as part of the preliminary investigation.

5.2 General strategy of site investigation
5.2.1 General
The principal site investigation phases are
— preliminary investigation (see 5.2.3),
— exploratory investigation (see 5.2.5), and
— detailed (main) site investigation (see 5.2.6).
The relationship between these phases is illustrated in Figure 2.

On completion of soil sampling activities during any phase or stage of investigation, a sampling report

should be prepared in accordance with ISO 18400-107 (see Clause 8).

Following completion of the investigation, a report giving its results should be prepared.

The strategy for the investigation (whether preliminary, exploratory or detailed) will be determined by

the objectives (see Clause 4).

Before embarking on any phase or stage of investigation, it is important to set data quality objectives

in terms of the type, quantity and quality (e.g. analytical quality) of the data and other information that

is to be collected. These data quality objectives will depend in part on the nature of the decisions to be

made on the basis of the investigation, and the confidence required in those decisions.

When deciding on the strategy, consideration should be given to the applicability and use of on-site

analysis and/or in situ measurement techniques (e.g. see ISO 12404 and ISO 13196).

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NOTE This is an example of a site investigation process for agricultural sites.
Figure 2 — Site investigation process
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5.2.2 Conceptual site model

A conceptual site model should be developed and refined as the investigation proceeds in accordance

with the guidance in ISO 18400-104. It should be presented in narrative, tabular or graphical form, or a

combination of forms. It needs to be no more complex than the objectives of the investigation require.

NOTE 1 A conceptual site model is a synthesis of all that is known about a site and its surroundings that is

relevant to the task. Preparation of the conceptual site model requires some interpretation of the information

available and explicit recognition of the uncertainties in the information. Even when a formal conceptual site

model is not prepared, investigators will have a conceptual site model of the site in their mind. This could be

dangerously misleading if a proper preliminary investigation has not been carried out and, for example, the

presence of an animal burial pit in the corner of a field is not known about.

NOTE 2 Although the conceptual site model is usually first formally prepared following a preliminary

investigation, it first comes into existence the moment the question is asked whether the site needs to be

investigated. At that stage, for example, it might be recognized that the site is agricultural land used for keeping

livestock and the investigator will immediately form an initial picture about what the site might be like and act

accordingly. Thus, it is this initial conceptual site model and the purpose of the overall investigation that guide

decisions about the scope and depth of preliminary investigation required.
5.2.3 Preliminary investigation

A preliminary investigation in accordance with ISO 18400-202 should be carried out prior to any

intrusive investigation. The depth and detail of the preliminary investigation should be tailored to

the objectives of the investigation. The preliminary investigation should lead to the development of a

preliminary conceptual site model and possibly to hypotheses that can be tested during the subsequent

investigation.

NOTE 1 The preliminary investigation needs only to be as detailed as required by the task in hand, but there

will usually be a requirement for a minimum information set relating for example to site location and setting, site

ownership, site access, safety and protection of the environment.

NOTE 2 Detailed guidance on preliminary investigations is provided in ISO 18400-202, including the type of

information that could be required in relation to particular types of site, such as agricultural and near-natural

sites, wooded sites and potentially contaminated sites. ISO 18400-202 includes reference to activities other

than normal farming activities that might give rise to contamination of farmland. Land used for horticulture,

orchards, etc. can also be contaminated.

NOTE 3 The preliminary investigation might provide information that suggests that the site, or part of the

site, is “a potentially contaminated site” requiring investigation in accordance with ISO 18400-203. A decision

might be required as to whether to proceed with an investigation in accordance with this document, to delay the

investigation, or to constrain the area to be investigated, until the results of the investigation for contamination

are available.
5.2.4 Preliminary conceptual site model

A preliminary conceptual site model should be developed from the results of the preliminary

investigation. It needs to be no more complex than the objectives of the investigation require.

Formal hypotheses about the site that can be tested during an on-site investigation should be developed

when appropriate.

NOTE During the site reconnaissance, areas of poor plant growth within an otherwise healthy looking crop

might be seen. Ideas (hypotheses) about possible causes can be postulated and tested during the subsequent on-

site investigation.
5.2.5 Scope of exploratory investigation

The exploratory investigation involves a limited on-site investigation. The data and information

produced are assessed to determine if the hypotheses from the preliminary investigation are correct,

and, where appropriate, to test other aspects of the conceptual site model. In some cases where the

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hypotheses are indicated as being correct, no further investigation might be needed. However, when

this is not the case, it will be necessary to either

— carry out a further stage of exploratory investigation before proceeding to the design and execution

of a detailed investigation, or

— carry out a detailed site investigation to produce sufficient information to achieve the objectives of

the investigation.

NOTE 1 Exploratory investigations typically comprise one or more judgmental (targeted) sampling exercises

although systematic sampling or composite sampling might also sometimes be carried out.

NOTE 2 In the case of an agricultural site, an exploratory investigation could be used to confirm conclusions

from the preliminary investigation about the soil type(s) present or to test a hypothesis, for example, that poor

growth of vegetation is due to compaction and/or waterlogging. With this information available, the investigator

can decide whether more detailed investigation is required, or that sufficient information is available to advise

the client (e.g. the farmer).
5.2.6 Scope of detailed site investigation

The amount and nature of the information required from a detailed site investigation (or any particular

stage of it) will vary depending on the nature of the site, and the objectives of the investigation. The

implications of the decisions on what actions should be implemented on a site will vary from site to site.

5.3 Types of sample

The type(s) of samples to be taken should be chosen according to ISO 18400-104 regarding their

applicability for particular purposes. It should be decided whether to take

— single samples (which can be disturbed or undisturbed – see Note) (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.2),

— cluster samples (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.3), or
— spatial composite samples (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.4).

Spatial composite samples are commonly used for the investigation of natural, near-natural and

cultivated sites.
NOTE Types of sample, include (see ISO 18400-104:2018, 6.4.1):

— disturbed samples (mass-proportional sampling, samples obtained without any attempt to preserve the soil

structure);
— undisturbed samples (volume-proportio
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 18400-205
Première édition
2018-10
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 205:
Recommandations relatives aux
modes opératoires d'investigation
des sites naturels, quasi naturels et
cultivés
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 205: Guidance on the procedure for investigation of natural,
near-natural and cultivated sites
Numéro de référence
ISO 18400-205:2018(F)
ISO 2018
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Objectifs de l’échantillonnage ................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Principes, exigences et facteurs généraux à considérer pour l’échantillonnage des sols .......2

5.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Stratégie générale d’investigation d’un site ................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2.2 Schéma conceptuel du site ...................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.3 Investigation préliminaire ....................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.4 Schéma conceptuel préliminaire du site ..................................................................................................... 5

5.2.5 Périmètre de l’investigation exploratoire ................................................................................................... 5

5.2.6 Périmètre de l’investigation détaillée du site .......................................................................................... 6

5.3 Types d’échantillons ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Choix des emplacements de prélèvement ....................................................................................................................... 6

5.5 Nombre d’échantillons — Généralités ................................................................................................................................ 7

5.6 Profondeurs d’échantillonnage................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.7 Nombre d’échantillons à prélever en des points d’échantillonnage isolés ......................................... 8

5.8 Nombre d’échantillons en rapport avec la détermination des propriétés moyennes ............... 8

5.9 Taille des échantillons....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.10 Techniques d’échantillonnage et leur application .................................................................................................... 9

5.11 Moment et fréquence de l’échantillonnage .................................................................................................................... 9

5.12 Conteneurs d’échantillons ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.13 Transport des échantillons ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.14 Conservation des échantillons ......... .......................................................................................................................................10

5.15 Sécurité .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.16 Assurance et contrôle de la qualité ....................................................................................................................................10

6 Prélèvement des échantillons de sol ............................................................................................................................................10

7 Échantillonnage pour des objectifs particuliers ..............................................................................................................11

7.1 Échantillonnage destiné à déterminer l’azote mobile .......................................................................................11

7.2 Sols des forêts et des bois ...........................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Sols tourbeux .........................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4 Sols de zones saturées ...................................................................................................................................................................12

7.5 Types particuliers d’utilisation des sols .........................................................................................................................12

8 Rapport d’échantillonnage .....................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Rapport d’investigation ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/iso/fr/avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 2,

Échantillonnage.

Cette première édition de l’ISO 18400-205, associée à l’ISO 18400-104 et à l’ISO 18400-202, annule

et remplace la première édition de l’ISO 10381-4:2003, qui a fait l’objet d’une révision technique

et structurelle. La nouvelle série ISO 18400 est fondée sur une structure modulaire et ne peut être

comparée, article par article, à l’ISO 10381-1.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 18400 se trouve sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/fr/members .html.
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)
Introduction

Le présent document fait partie d’un groupe de normes fournissant des recommandations pour

l’investigation de site en général, et l’échantillonnage en particulier, principalement dans le but de

déterminer la qualité du sol. Il est destiné à être utilisé conjointement avec les autres parties de la série

ISO 18400. Le rôle/la fonction des normes au sein de l’ensemble du programme d’investigation est

illustré(e) à la Figure 1.

Le présent document décrit les modes opératoires d’investigation et d’échantillonnage en vue de

déterminer la qualité du sol des sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés. Sa structure est globalement

similaire à celle de l’ISO 18400-203 qui fournit des recommandations pour l’investigation des sites

potentiellement contaminé. Conformément à l’ISO 18400-104, il convient de mener les investigations en

trois phases:

— investigation préliminaire (étude sur documents et reconnaissance de site) conformément à

l’ISO 18400-202;
— investigation exploratoire (le présent document);
— investigation détaillée du site (le présent document).
Il est admis que:

— il est inutile que l’investigation préliminaire soit plus détaillée que ce que la tâche à accomplir ne

l’exige (objectifs de l’investigation), mais certaines informations essentielles sont toujours exigées

pour des raisons de légalité, de sécurité des personnes effectuant les travaux sur le site, notamment

la reconnaissance du site, et de protection de l’environnement;

— l’investigation préliminaire peut démontrer qu’aucune investigation intrusive n’est nécessaire;

— une investigation exploratoire peut suffire dans certains cas, sans qu’il soit nécessaire de procéder

à une investigation détaillée;

— une investigation exploratoire n’est pas toujours nécessaire préalablement à une investigation

détaillée;

— il peut être souhaitable de réaliser chaque phase d’une investigation par étapes;

— toute phase d’investigation peut mettre en évidence la nécessité de traiter le site comme un site

potentiellement contaminé — des décisions devront alors être prises pour déterminer s’il faut

procéder comme prévu, différer l’investigation et/ou mener une investigation conformément à

l’ISO 18400-203.

Les recommandations imposent également de formuler un schéma conceptuel du site, tel que décrit

dans l’ISO 18400-202. Cette synthèse et cette interprétation des informations disponibles ne doivent

pas nécessairement être plus détaillées que ce que la tâche à accomplir ne l’exige, mais aident à

concevoir les phases de l’investigation intrusive. Dans la pratique, l’investigateur aura toujours une

image mentale du site et l’élaboration formelle du schéma conceptuel du site aide à mettre en évidence

ce qui pourrait constituer de graves lacunes dans cette image mentale.

NOTE Les Articles 4, 5 et 6 fournissent des recommandations applicables à l’échantillonnage portant sur les

caractéristiques générales de sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés. L’Article 7 fournit des recommandations

supplémentaires relatives à l’échantillonnage pour des objectifs particuliers (déterminer la teneur en azote

mobile, par exemple) et des types de sol spécifiques (sols tourbeux, par exemple).

© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)

NOTE 1 Les chiffres encerclés définissent les éléments clés (1 à 7) du programme d’investigation.

NOTE 2 La Figure 1 présente un processus générique qui peut être modifié si nécessaire.

Figure 1 — Liens entre les éléments essentiels d’un programme d’investigation
vi © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18400-205:2018(F)
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 205:
Recommandations relatives aux modes opératoires
d'investigation des sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés
1 Domaine d’application
Le présent document fournit des recommandations pour l’échantillonnage des sols:
— des sites naturels et quasi naturels;
— des zones arborées naturelles, incluant les forêts et les bois;
— des zones utilisées pour l’agriculture (terres arables et pâturages);

— des zones utilisées pour l’horticulture (y compris les jardins privés et les jardins ouvriers); et

— des zones utilisées pour des cultures spéciales, des vergers, des vignobles, des plantations et forêts

commerciales, etc.
Il s’applique:
— aux investigations et évaluations de sol sur le terrain; et

— au prélèvement d’échantillons en vue de la caractérisation chimique, géochimique, physique et

biologique des sols et des matériaux du sol en laboratoire.

Le présent document décrit les stratégies appropriées pour la conception des programmes

d’échantillonnage, les modes opératoires sur le terrain et le traitement ultérieur des échantillons en vue

du transport et du stockage avant le prétraitement des échantillons (par exemple séchage, broyage).

Il est destiné à être utilisé conjointement avec les autres parties de la série ISO 18400. Une attention

particulière est notamment exigée pour les exigences concernant la collecte, la manipulation et la

conservation de sols destinés à l’évaluation de paramètres biologiques fonctionnels, spécifiées dans

l’ISO 18400-206.

NOTE 1 Les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface peuvent être affectées par les activités agricoles et

connexes, telles que les nitrates et les pesticides, ainsi que par le transfert de particules de sol. Des connaissances

sur la qualité de l’eau peuvent à leur tour fournir des informations sur les sources éventuelles de contamination

des eaux souterraines ou de ruissellement contaminant. Le présent document ne couvre pas l’étude de la qualité

des eaux souterraines et des eaux de surface; des recommandations pertinentes sont fournies dans la série de

normes ISO 5667. L’ISO 15175 fournit des recommandations sur la relation entre les propriétés du sol et la qualité

des eaux souterraines.

NOTE 2 Il peut également être opportun d’étudier l’air ambiant, la végétation, les sources d’eau potable et

divers autres milieux, en fonction des résultats de l’investigation préliminaire.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).
ISO 11074, Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire
© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)
ISO 18400-103, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 103: Sécurité
ISO 18400-104:2018, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 104: Stratégies
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 11074 et

l’ISO 18400-104 s’appliquent.

NOTE Lorsque les définitions de ces deux documents diffèrent, celles de l’ISO 18400-104 prévalent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https: //www .iso .org/obp;

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http: //www .electropedia .org/.
4 Objectifs de l’échantillonnage

Les stratégies d’investigation, d’échantillonnage et d’analyse sont principalement déterminées par:

— l’objectif de l’investigation; et
— l’utilisation actuelle et passée des sols.
L’objectif des investigations peut être varié, mais peut être:

— la collecte d’informations sur la qualité générale des sols en ce qui concerne la préservation et

l’amélioration des fonctions écologiques des sols;

— la collecte d’informations en vue de l’évaluation de la qualité des sols et de l’apport nutritif ou des

besoins en nutriments en ce qui concerne la préservation et l’amélioration de la productivité des sols;

— la collecte d’informations afin de gérer et d’évaluer les effets de l’ajout de matériaux d’amendement

des sols tels que des boues d’épuration;

— la collecte d’informations en vue de la cartographie, de la classification et de la taxation des sols;

— la collecte d’informations sur la qualité des sols des forêts et des bois (arborés) en relation avec

l’étude des arbres ou autres végétaux endommagés;

— la collecte d’informations en vue de l’établissement et de l’entretien de zones de surveillance des sols;

— la collecte d’informations relatives aux échantillons répétés utilisés pour les banques d’échantillons

de sol ou les banques d’échantillons environnementaux.

L’ISO 18400-104 fournit des recommandations supplémentaires pour la définition des objectifs

d’échantillonnage des sols.
5 Principes, exigences et facteurs généraux à considérer pour l’échantillonnage
des sols
5.1 Généralités

Il convient d’utiliser le présent document conjointement avec l’ISO 18400-104 qui donne des

recommandations générales pour l’élaboration des stratégies d’investigation de site ainsi que des

recommandations détaillées sur les stratégies d’échantillonnage.
2 © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)

Le présent article récapitule les principes généraux, les exigences et les facteurs qu’il convient de

prendre en compte pour l’échantillonnage des sols des sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés.

Il convient de tenir compte des aspects mentionnés de 5.3 à 5.16 lors de l’élaboration d’une stratégie

d’échantillonnage et de la préparation du plan d’échantillonnage conformément à l’ISO 18400-101.

NOTE 1 Les Articles 5 et 6 fournissent des recommandations applicables à l’échantillonnage portant sur les

caractéristiques générales de sites naturels, quasi naturels et cultivés. L’Article 7 fournit des recommandations

supplémentaires relatives à l’échantillonnage pour des objectifs particuliers (déterminer la teneur en azote

mobile, par exemple) et des types de sol spécifiques (sols tourbeux, par exemple).

NOTE 2 Un site présumé naturel ou quasi naturel (par exemple un site agricole ou boisé) peut être

potentiellement contaminé, non seulement en raison des activités pratiquées sur le site, mais aussi parce que

ces activités se sont autrefois développées sur un terrain potentiellement contaminé, par exemple un ancien

site d’élimination des déchets (décharge) ou de stockage de déchets miniers. Cette information peut revêtir de

l’importance au regard des performances agricoles d’un site ainsi que pour la santé et la sécurité de l’investigateur.

Il est donc nécessaire d’établir un historique satisfaisant du site dans le cadre de l’investigation préliminaire.

5.2 Stratégie générale d’investigation d’un site
5.2.1 Généralités
Les principales phases d’investigation d’un site sont:
— l’investigation préliminaire (voir 5.2.3);
— l’investigation exploratoire (voir 5.2.5); et
— l’investigation détaillée (approfondie) du site (voir 5.2.6).
La relation entre ces phases est illustrée à la Figure 2.

À l’issue des activités d’échantillonnage du sol pendant toute phase ou étape d’investigation, il convient

de préparer un rapport d’échantillonnage conformément à l’ISO 18400-107 (voir l’Article 8).

À l’issue de l’investigation, il convient de préparer un rapport donnant ses résultats.

La stratégie d’investigation (qu’elle soit préliminaire, exploratoire ou détaillée) sera déterminée par les

objectifs (voir l’Article 4).

Avant de s’engager dans une phase ou étape d’investigation, il est important d’établir des objectifs de

qualité des données en termes de type, de quantité et de qualité (par exemple qualité analytique) des

données et autres informations à collecter. Ces objectifs de qualité des données dépendront en partie

de la nature des décisions à prendre sur la base de l’investigation, ainsi que de la confiance nécessaire

dans ces décisions.

Pour décider de la stratégie, il convient de prendre en compte l’applicabilité et l’utilisation des

techniques d’analyse et/ou de mesure sur site (e.g. voir ISO 12404 et ISO 13196).

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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)

NOTE Cet exemple porte sur un processus d’investigation destiné à des sites agricoles.

Figure 2 — Processus d’investigation de site
5.2.2 Schéma conceptuel du site

Il convient d’élaborer et d’affiner un schéma conceptuel du site à mesure que l’investigation progresse,

conformément aux recommandations de l’ISO 18400-104. Il y a lieu de le présenter sous forme de texte,

4 © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)

de tableau ou de graphique, ou d’une combinaison de ces formes. Il est inutile qu’il soit plus complexe

que ce que les objectifs de l’investigation ne le nécessitent.

NOTE 1 Un schéma conceptuel de site est une synthèse de toutes les connaissances relatives à un site et ses

alentours qui est pertinent pour la tâche. L’élaboration du schéma conceptuel du site nécessite une certaine

interprétation des informations disponibles et une reconnaissance explicite des incertitudes associées à ces

informations. Même lorsqu’un schéma conceptuel formel du site n’est pas élaboré, les investigateurs ont à

l’esprit un schéma conceptuel du site. Cela peut être dangereusement trompeur si une investigation préliminaire

appropriée n’a pas été réalisée et, par exemple, si la présence d’une fosse d’enfouissement de carcasses d’animaux

dans le coin d’un champ n’est pas connue.

NOTE 2 Bien que le schéma conceptuel du site soit généralement d’abord élaboré de manière formelle suite

à une investigation préliminaire, il n’existe de façon effective qu’à l’instant où la question de savoir si le site

nécessite une investigation est posée. À ce stade et à titre d’exemple, il est possible de reconnaître si le site est un

terrain agricole utilisé pour l’élevage de bétail; partant de là, l’investigateur dressera sans attendre un premier

tableau de l’aperçu général du site et agira en conséquence. Par conséquent, ce schéma conceptuel initial du site

ainsi que la finalité de l’investigation globale orientent les décisions relatives au périmètre et à la profondeur de

l’investigation préliminaire nécessaires.
5.2.3 Investigation préliminaire

Il convient de réaliser une investigation préliminaire conformément à l’ISO 18400-202 avant toute

investigation intrusive. Il convient que la profondeur et le niveau de détail de l’investigation préliminaire

soient adaptés aux objectifs de l’investigation. Il convient que l’investigation préliminaire conduise à

l’élaboration d’un schéma conceptuel préliminaire du site et éventuellement à des hypothèses pouvant

être vérifiées pendant l’investigation ultérieure.

NOTE 1 Il est inutile que l’investigation préliminaire soit plus détaillée que ce que la tâche à accomplir

ne le nécessite, mais il sera généralement exigé de réunir un ensemble minimal d’informations concernant,

par exemple, l’emplacement et l’environnement du site, le propriétaire du site, l’accès au site, la sécurité et la

protection de l’environnement.

NOTE 2 Des recommandations détaillées concernant les investigations préliminaires sont fournies dans

l’ISO 18400-202, y compris le type d’informations susceptibles d’être exigées par rapport à des types de sites

particuliers, par exemple des sites agricoles et quasi naturels, des sites boisés et des sites potentiellement

contaminés. L’ISO 18400-202 fait état d’activités autres que les activités agricoles normales qui peuvent donner

lieu à une contamination des terres agricoles. Les terres utilisées pour l’horticulture, les vergers, etc. peuvent

également être contaminées.

NOTE 3 L’investigation préliminaire peut fournir des informations laissant penser que le site, ou une partie

du site, est un «site potentiellement contaminé» nécessitant une investigation conformément à l’ISO 18400-203.

Il peut être nécessaire de décider de mener une investigation conformément au présent document, de différer

l’investigation ou de limiter la zone à étudier, jusqu’à ce que les résultats de l’investigation sur la contamination

soient disponibles.
5.2.4 Schéma conceptuel préliminaire du site

Il convient d’élaborer un schéma conceptuel préliminaire du site à partir des résultats de l’investigation

préliminaire. Il est inutile qu’il soit plus complexe que ce que les objectifs de l’investigation ne le

nécessitent.

Il convient, le cas échéant, d’émettre des hypothèses concernant le site qui peuvent être vérifiées lors

d’une investigation sur le site.

NOTE Lors de la reconnaissance du site, il est possible d’observer des zones de faible croissance des végétaux

au sein d’une culture paraissant par ailleurs saine. Des idées (hypothèses) concernant les causes possibles

peuvent être émises et vérifiées lors de l’investigation ultérieure sur site.
5.2.5 Périmètre de l’investigation exploratoire

L’investigation exploratoire implique une investigation sur site limitée. Les données et les informations

obtenues sont évaluées afin de déterminer si les hypothèses de l’investigation préliminaire sont

© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO 18400-205:2018(F)

correctes et, le cas échéant, évaluer d’autres aspects du schéma conceptuel du site. Dans certains cas,

lorsqu’il est déterminé que les hypothèses sont correctes, aucune investigation supplémentaire n’est

nécessaire. Toutefois, si tel n’est pas le cas, il sera nécessaire:

— soit de réaliser une étape supplémentaire d’investigation exploratoire avant de passer à la conception

et à l’exécution d’une investigation détaillée;

— soit de réaliser une investigation détaillée du site afin d’obtenir suffisamment d’informations pour

atteindre les objectifs de l’investigation.

NOTE 1 Les investigations exploratoires comprennent généralement une ou plusieurs activités

d’échantillonnage sur avis d’expert (ciblé), bien qu’un échantillonnage systématique ou composite puisse parfois

être réalisé.

NOTE 2 Dans le cas d’un site agricole, une investigation exploratoire peut être utilisée pour confirmer les

concl
...

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