Textile slings - Safety - Part 4: Lifting slings for general service made from natural and man-made fibre ropes

This European Standard specifies the requirements related to safety, including methods of rating and testing single-, two-, three-, four-leg and endless slings, with or without fittings, made of sisal, hemp and manila 3- and 4-strand laid construction natural fibre ropes and polyamide, polyester and polypropylene 3- and 4-strand laid construction and 8-strand plaited construction man-made fibre ropes having a reference number in the range of 16 to 48 inclusive.
The fibre rope slings covered by this part of EN 1492 are intended for general purpose lifting operations, i.e. when used for lifting objects, materials or goods which require no deviations from the requirements, safety factors or working load limits specified. Lifting operations not covered by this standard would include the lifting of persons, potentially dangerous materials such as molten metal and acids, glass sheets, fissile materials, nuclear reactors and where special conditions apply.
Fibre rope slings conforming to this European Standard are suitable for use and storage in the following temperature ranges:
a) polyester and polyamide -40 °C to 100 °C,
b) manila, sisal, hemp and polypropylene -40 °C to 80 °C.
This European Standard does not apply to fibre rope sling assemblies rated by the trigonometric method.
This European Standard deals with the technical requirements to minimize the hazards listed in clause 4 which can arise during the use of fibre rope slings when carried out in accordance with the instructions and specification given by the manufacturer or authorized representative.

Textile Anschlagmittel - Sicherheit - Teil 4: Anschlag-Faserseile für allgemeine Verwendung aus Natur- und Chemiefaserseilen

Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen an die Sicherheit sowie Verfahren zur Bewertung und Prüfung von
1-, 2-, 3-, 4-strängigen und endlosen Anschlagseilen, mit oder ohne Endbeschlagteilen aus Sisal, Hanf und
Manila in 3- und 4-litziger gedrehter Faserseilmachart aus Polyamid, Polyester, und Polypropylen in 3- und
4-litziger gedrehter Machart sowie in 8-litziger geflochtener Chemiefaserseilmachart mit einem Seil-
Nenndurchmesser im Bereich von 16 mm bis einschließlich 48 mm fest.
Die in diesem Teil von EN 1492 erfassten Anschlag-Faserseile sind für allgemeine Hebevorgänge vorgesehen,
d. h., wenn sie zum Anheben von Gegenständen, Werkstoffen oder Gütern verwendet werden, die
keine Abweichungen von den festgelegten Anforderungen, Sicherheitsfaktoren oder Tragfähigkeiten
erfordern. In dieser Norm nicht festgelegt werden das Anheben von Personen, von möglicherweise
gefährlichen Werkstoffen wie geschmolzenem Metall und Säuren, Glasscheiben, spaltbarem Material, Teilen
von Kernreaktoren und alle Hebevorgänge, für die Sonderbedingungen gelten.
Anschlag-Faserseile nach dieser Europäischen Norm sind für die Benutzung und Lagerung in den folgenden
Temperaturbereichen geeignet:
a) Polyester und Polyamid − 40 °C bis 100 °C;
b) Manila, Sisal, Hanf und Polypropylen − 40 °C bis 80 °C.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für Anschlag-Faserseileinheiten, die nach dem trigonometrischen
Verfahren bewertet sind.
Diese Europäische Norm betrifft die technischen Anforderungen, um die in Abschnitt 4 aufgeführten
Gefährdungen zu minimieren, die während der Verwendung von Anschlag-Faserseilen auftreten können,
wenn nach den Anweisungen und Festlegungen, die vom Hersteller oder einem rechtmäßigen Vertreter
angegeben werden, verfahren wird.

Elingues textiles - Sécurité - Partie 4: Elingues de levage en cordage en fibres naturelles et chimiques pour service général

Tekstilne obese - Varnost - 4. del: Dvigalne obese iz naravnih in umetnih vlaken za splošno uporabo

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Dec-2008
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Dec-2008
Due Date
12-Feb-2009
Completion Date
10-Dec-2008

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Tekstilne obese - Varnost - 4. del: Dvigalne obese iz naravnih in umetnih vlaken za splošno uporaboTextile Anschlagmittel - Sicherheit - Teil 4: Anschlag-Faserseile für allgemeine Verwendung aus Natur- und ChemiefaserseilenElingues textiles - Sécurité - Partie 4: Elingues de levage en cordage en fibres naturelles et chimiques pour service généralTextile slings - Safety - Part 4: Lifting slings for general service made from natural and man-made fibre ropes53.020.30Pribor za dvigalno opremoAccessories for lifting equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009en,fr,de01-januar-2009SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1492-4:2004+A1
November 2008 ICS 53.020.30 Supersedes EN 1492-4:2004 English Version

Textile slings - Safety - Part 4: Lifting slings for general service made from natural and man-made fibre ropes

Elingues textiles - Sécurité - Partie 4: Elingues de levage en cordage en fibres naturelles et chimiques pour service général

Textile Anschlagmittel - Sicherheit - Teil 4: Anschlag-Faserseile für allgemeine Verwendung aus Natur- und Chemiefaserseilen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 February 2004 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 11 September 2008.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels © 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008: ESIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................5 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................5 3 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................6 4 Hazards...................................................................................................................................................8 5 Safety requirements..............................................................................................................................9 6 Verification...........................................................................................................................................18 7 Marking.................................................................................................................................................20 8 Manufacturer’s certificate...................................................................................................................21 9 Instructions for use.............................................................................................................................21 Annex A (normative)

Information for use and maintenance to be provided by the manufacturer..........22 Annex B (informative)

Working load limits for various modes of use........................................................24 Annex C (informative)

Suggested content of information to be provided by the manufacturer with fibre rope slings...................................................................................................................................36 Annex ZA (informative)

!!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC"""".......................................................................................40 Annex ZB (informative)

!!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC""""...................................................................................41 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................42

SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 168 “Chains, ropes, webbing, slings and accessories - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2009 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2009. This document supersedes EN 1492-4:2004. This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2008-09-11. The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !". This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). !For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA and ZB, which are integral parts of this document." This European Standard is one of a series of standards related to safety for textile slings as listed below: Part 1: Specification for flat woven webbing slings, made of man-made fibres, for general purpose use Part 2: Specification for roundslings, made of man-made fibres, for general purpose Part 4: Specification for lifting slings for general service made from natural and man-made fibre rope

In this standard: Annex A is normative, and gives the requirements for information on use and maintenance to be provided by the manufacturer with fibre rope slings conforming to this standard. Annex B is informative, and gives the working load limits for different configurations and types of material for fibre rope slings to this standard. Annex C is informative, and provides some detailed information for use and maintenance which may be appropriate in compiling the information in accordance with annex A. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 4 Introduction This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard providing one means of complying with the essential safety requirements of the Machinery Directive and associated EFTA regulations. This European Standard is a type C standard as specified in EN ISO 12100-2. The lifting accessories concerned and the extent to which hazards are covered is indicated in the scope of this standard. NOTE For hazards that are not covered by this standard, lifting accessories should be in accordance with

EN ISO 12100-2. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the requirements related to safety, including methods of rating and testing single-, two-, three-, four-leg and endless slings, with or without fittings, made of sisal, hemp and manila 3- and 4-strand laid construction natural fibre ropes and polyamide, polyester and polypropylene 3- and 4-strand laid construction and 8-strand plaited construction man-made fibre ropes having a reference number in the range of 16 to 48 inclusive. The fibre rope slings covered by this part of EN 1492 are intended for general purpose lifting operations, i.e. when used for lifting objects, materials or goods which require no deviations from the requirements, safety factors or working load limits specified. Lifting operations not covered by this standard would include the lifting of persons, potentially dangerous materials such as molten metal and acids, glass sheets, fissile materials, nuclear reactors and where special conditions apply. Fibre rope slings conforming to this European Standard are suitable for use and storage in the following temperature ranges: a) polyester and polyamide -40°C to 100°C, b) manila, sisal, hemp and polypropylene -40°C to 80°C. This European Standard does not apply to fibre rope sling assemblies rated by the trigonometric method. This European Standard deals with the technical requirements to minimize the hazards listed in clause 4 which can arise during the use of fibre rope slings when carried out in accordance with the instructions and specification given by the manufacturer or authorized representative. 2 Normative references This European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments). EN 696, Fibre ropes for general service – Polyamide EN 697, Fibre ropes for general service – Polyester EN 698, Fibre ropes for general service – Manila and sisal EN 699, Fibre ropes for general service - Polypropylene EN 1050:1996, Safety of machinery – Principles of risk assessment EN 1261, Fibre ropes for general service - Hemp EN 1677-1, Components for slings – Safety – Part 1: Forged steel components, Grade 8 EN 1677-2, Components for slings – Safety – Part 2: Forged steel lifting hooks with latch, Grade 8 EN 1677-3, Components for slings – Safety – Part 3: Forged steel self-locking hooks, Grade 8 EN 1677-4, Components for slings – Safety – Part 4: Links, Grade 8 EN 1677-5, Components for slings – Safety – Part 5: Forged steel lifting hooks with latch, Grade 4 SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 6 EN 1677-6, Components for slings – Safety – Part 6: Links, Grade 4 EN 13411-1, Terminations for steel wire ropes – Safety – Part 1: Thimbles for steel wire rope slings EN ISO 1968:2004, Fibre ropes and cordage - Terms and definitions (ISO 1968:2004 EN ISO 7500-1:1999, Metallic materials - Verification of static uniaxial testing machines - Part 1: Tension/compression testing machines (ISO 7500-1:1999) EN ISO 12100-2, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 2: Technical principles (ISO 12100-2:2003)

3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 1968:2004 and the following apply.

3.1 fibre rope sling flexible sling comprising one or more parts of identical fibre rope, terminating in spliced eyes with or without thimbles and fittings, or in the case of an endless sling, joined to itself with a splice

3.2 multi-leg sling fibre rope sling assembly, consisting of two, three or four identical legs attached to a master link

3.3 splice specified method of laying the tail end strands of the rope into the strands of the standing part of the rope to form an eye or join the ends of the rope together

3.4 soft eye eye made by forming the end of the rope into a loop and by splicing the free end to the standing part

3.5 thimbled or hard eye spliced eye containing a rigid thimble SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 7

3.6 thimble rigid, shaped component for insertion into an eye for the purpose of protecting the eye from contact damage, abrasion and deformation, see Figure 1

a) Heart shaped b) Reeving Figure 1 — Thimble 3.7 fitting loadbearing metal component, designed to be fitted and supplied as part of the sling, so as to permit the sling to be attached to other lifting accessories or connected to the load NOTE Thimbles are not included within the term ‘fitting’. 3.8 master link link, or link assembly, forming the upper terminal fitting of a multi-leg sling assembly by means of which the sling assembly is attached to the hook of a crane, other lifting machine or accessory

3.9 reference number number quoted in documentation which specifies the mass/metre, breaking force and other parameters of the fibre rope. The reference number corresponds to the approximate diameter in millimetres; minimum breaking force in daN. NOTE See EN 696, 697, 698, 699 and 1261. 3.10 nominal diameter specified diameter of the rope, which is usually used as the reference value for a given product

3.11 nominal length specified length of the sling, inclusive of fittings, from bearing point to bearing point NOTE See figures 2 to 5.

3.12 effective working length (EWL) actual finished length of the fibre rope sling, inclusive of fittings, from bearing point to bearing point SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 8

3.13 coefficient of utilization ratio of the specified tensile strength of the rope to the WLL of the single part of spliced rope, taking into account the acceleration due to gravity (9,80665 m/s2) and is equal to 7 NOTE 1 Fittings may have a different coefficient of utilization from that of the rope to which they are connected. NOTE 2 This term has the same meaning as the term ‘working coefficient’ used in the Machinery Directive. 3.14 Assembly Factor (A) factor used in the calculation of the WLL of the sling assembly that takes into account the assembly of the sling, the number of legs and the inclination angles (β), see Figure 10

3.15 Mode Factor (M) factor to be applied by the user to the WLL of a fibre rope sling in order to arrive at the maximum load that maybe lifted for a given mode of use 3.16 Working load limit (WLL) maximum mass which a fibre rope sling is designed to sustain in straight pull or at the rated angle, in general service 3.17 competent person designated person, suitably trained and qualified by knowledge and practical experience, and with the necessary instructions to enable the required tests and examination to be carried out 4 Hazards The accidental release of a load, or release of a load due to failure of a component puts at risk, either directly or indirectly, the safety or health of those persons within the danger zone. In order to provide the necessary strength and durability of lifting accessories this part of EN 1492 specifies requirements for the design, manufacture and testing to ensure the specified levels of performance are met. Endurance has not been identified as a hazard when fibre rope slings having the specified levels of performance given in this part of EN 1492 are used in general lifting service. Since failure can be caused by the incorrect choice of WLL and specification of lifting accessory. This Part of EN 1492 also gives the requirements for marking and the manufacturer’s certificate. Aspects of safe use associated with good practice are given in annex A (normative) and annex C (informative). Table 1 lists those hazards in so far as they are dealt with in this standard that require action to reduce those risks identified by risk assessment as being specific and significant for fibre rope slings made of sisal, hemp, manila, polyamide, polyester and polypropylene. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 9
Table 1 — Hazards and associated requirements

Hazards identified in annex A of EN 1050: 1996 Relevant clause of annex A of EN ISO 12100-2:2003 Relevant clause/sub-clause of this part of EN 1492 1.e) Mechanical hazard due to inadequacy of strength 1.3.2 4.1.2.3 4.1.2.5 4.2.4 1.7.3 4.3.2 4.2.4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 15 Error of fitting hazard 1.5.4 5 17 Falling or ejected objects hazard 1.3.3 annex A 26 Insufficient instruction for the driver/operator 1.7.4 4.4.1 9, annex A 9, annex A 27.1.5 Inadequate holding devices/accessories hazard 4.4.1 5.7 27.6 Inadequate selection of lifting accessories hazard 4.1.2.5 4.3.2 5.7 and 6 7

5 Safety requirements 5.1 Materials The fibre rope from which the sling is manufactured shall be from one of the materials and to the specification given in Table 2. Table 2 — Types of fibre rope for sling manufacture Type of fibre rope Specification Manila (Ma) EN 698

Hemp (Ha) EN 1261 Sisal (Si) EN 698
Polyamide (PA) EN 696
Polyester (PES) EN 697
Polypropylene (PP) EN 699

NOTE 1 The definitions of these fibres are given in ISO 2076 and ISO 6938. The constituent materials may be determined in accordance with ISO 1833. NOTE 2 Attention is drawn to the differing resistance of fibres to chemicals, which is summarized in annex C. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 10 5.2 General requirements for types of fibre rope sling 5.2.1 Single leg sling

A single leg sling shall be formed from a single piece of rope and shall have eyes, with or without thimbles and fittings, spliced at each end. Figure 2 shows three typical examples of single leg slings.

Figure 2 — Typical single leg slings 5.2.2 Endless sling

An endless sling shall be formed from a single piece of rope and shall have the ends joined together by a single splice. Figure 3 shows an endless sling. l1 Figure 3 — Endless sling Alternatively, an endless sling shall be laid as a grommet from a single strand of rope (see 5.5.5). SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 11 5.2.3 Two leg sling

A two leg sling shall comprise two identical sling legs, with or without thimbles and terminal fittings; the eye of one end of each leg shall be made around a master link. Figure 4 shows a typical two leg sling.

Figure 4 — Typical two leg sling 5.2.4 Three and four leg slings

A four leg sling shall comprise four identical sling legs, with or without thimbles and terminal fittings, the eye of one end of each leg shall be made around an intermediate link so that two legs are attached to each intermediate link. The intermediate links shall be attached to a master link. Three leg slings shall be produced in the same way, but two legs shall be attached to one intermediate link and one leg to the other. Figure 5 shows a typical four leg sling. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 12 βl1 Figure 5 — Typical four leg sling 5.3 Sling construction 5.3.1 Splicing shall be the only method used for joining or producing eyes. Endless slings shall have only a single splice. Other sling legs shall be spliced at each end to produce an eye and no other splices shall be permitted. 5.3.2 Multi-leg slings shall be constructed so that all corresponding items are identical in respect of rope construction, size, material and fittings. 5.4 Eyes 5.4.1 Soft eyes The minimum internal length, l2, of a soft eye (see Figure 6) measured with a steel tape or rule graduated in increments of 1 mm when closed by hand shall not be less than the appropriate value given in Table 3. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 13 h Figure 6 — Soft eye Table 3 — Minimum internal length of soft eyes Reference number of rope Min. internal length of soft eye (mm) 16 18 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 150 155 160 170 185 195 210 220 232 245

5.4.2 Thimbled or hard eyes The thimbles used to form thimbled, or hard, eyes (see Figure 7) shall comply with EN 13411-1 and have a corrosion resistant finish. NOTE 1 Steel thimbles should not be black finish but should be suitably plated or galvanised to resist corrosion.

Figure 7 — Thimbled or hard eye NOTE 2 The use of thimbled (hard) eyes is recommended when fittings form part of the fibre rope sling. NOTE 3 The fitting of heart shaped thimbles will prevent the sling being used in choke hitch. In such cases, either a soft eye or thimbles of a shape and size suitable for reeving may be used. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 14 5.5 Splicing 5.5.1 General

All splicing shall be carried out by a trained and competent splicer, samples of whose splices have been successfully verified by type testing in accordance with 6.3. 5.5.2 Splices Where 3 and 4 strand laid ropes are spliced by short splices, the splice shall comply with the following requirements: a) All the tucks of the splice shall be against the lay of the rope. b) For polyamide, polyester multifilament ropes and polypropylene monofilament ropes, either five full tucks shall be made; alternatively four full tucks with all of the yarns in the strands shall be made, followed by a further tuck with not more than half of the material cut out of each strand and a final tuck with not less than a quarter of the original strand material. c) For polypropylene fibrillated film and staple ropes and for natural fibre ropes, not less than four full tucks shall be made, each with all of the yarns in the strands. d) After completion of splicing, the protruding strands, or parts of strands, shall be cut at a distance of not less than one nominal rope diameter from the standing part of rope. As an alternative to c), for polypropylene fibrillated film and staple fibre ropes and for natural fibre ropes, one fewer full tuck is permissible, in which case the length of the protruding strands after completion of the splicing shall not be less than three times the nominal diameter of the rope. e) In the case of endless slings, the splicing requirements given in a) to d) shall apply to each side of the marrying point of the rope (see Figure 8)

Figure 8 — Marrying point of splice for endless slings

f) Where the protruding parts of the strands are contained, e.g. by binding, gluing, tapering etc, to improve the appearance of the finished splice, such finishing shall not affect the performance of the splice. In the case of full strands an alternative method of finishing the splice, known as dogging, where the emergent strands are separated into identical proportions and then bound (seized) one half of the emergent strand to the adjacent half of the next emergent strand and so on around the rope (see Figure 9) is permissible. Tapered splices shall not be subject to dogging. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 15

Figure 9 — Dogging (three strand rope) g) Long splicing of endless rope slings is permissible but, where used, the circumference of the sling shall not be less than 400 times the reference number of the rope and the length of the splice shall not be less than 100 times the reference number of the rope. The working load limit of the sling shall not be greater than 60% of the value as calculated in accordance with 5.8 and for modes of use as given in Tables B2, B4, B6, B10 and B12. 5.5.3 Alternative splicing methods The method of splicing known as the ‘Liverpool splice’ where the tucks are made with the lay of the rope shall not be used. In the case of 8 strand plaited ropes, the rope manufacturer’s written splicing procedures shall be obtained and strictly followed. 5.5.4 Length between splices For single leg slings and the individual legs of multi-leg slings, there shall be a minimum length of rope between the emergence of the final tucks of the splice of 20 times the nominal diameter of the rope. 5.5.5 Endless Grommet Where an endless sling of 3 or 4 strand laid rope is made as a grommet, it shall meet the following requirements: a) The parent strand of which the grommet is laid shall not contain any joints or splices. b) The ends of the parent strand shall be spliced by turning them at least 4 times around each other in the case of polypropylene fibrillated film, staple ropes or natural fibre ropes and at least 5 times in the case of polyamide, polyester multifilament or polypropylene monofilament ropes. c) The protruding parent strand ends shall be laid through one or two neighboring strands of the grommet to prevent the splice unravelling. Thereafter the strand ends shall be cut not shorter than 1,5 times the parent strand diameter. d) The working load limit for endless grommet slings produced in accordance with these requirements shall be identical to that of endless slings made by short splicing. e) Endless grommet slings produced in accordance with these requirements shall be type tested in accordance with 6.3.

5.6 Effective working length (EWL) The effective working length (l1) of a fibre rope sling (see Figures 2 to 5 inclusive) shall not differ from the nominal length by more than 3%, when laid flat under hand tension and measured with a steel tape or rule graduated in increments of 1 mm. The length of each leg of a multi-leg sling shall not differ from the lengths of the other legs by more than 2,5%. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 16 5.7 Fittings 5.7.1 Fittings shall conform to the appropriate part or parts of EN 1677. 5.7.2 The seating of a fitting in contact with the rope shall be so finished that, when tested in accordance with clause 6: a) there shall be no damage to the area of the rope in contact with the fitting; b) the sling shall sustain the load. 5.7.3 If the part of the fitting with which the rope is in contact has a profile of engagement less than the nominal diameter of the rope, a thimble shall be placed in the eye. Fittings made into soft eyes shall be of such dimensions that the included angle between the two parts of rope at the splice shall not exceed 30°. NOTE The use of thimbles is recommended for all applications when fittings form part of the fibre rope sling as they offer protection from contact damage, friction, abrasion and assist to maintain the shape of the eye. 5.7.4 Welded fittings shall be placed so that the welds remain visible when the sling is in use. SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 17

5.8 Calculation of working load limit (WLL) The working load limit of a fibre rope sling shall be calculated as follows:

90% of specified breaking force of fibre rope
WLL of spliced rope =
-----------------------------------------------------------
x assembly factor A
Coefficient of utilization
Where: the breaking force is expressed in kN
the coefficient of utilization is 7
the assembly factor is as given in Figure 10
NOTE For mode factors and use see annex B a) Single strop
1) straight pull
A = 1,0
b) Multiple fibre rope leg sling

2a) 2-leg fibre rope sling 2b) 3-leg fibre rope sling 3) 4-leg fibre rope sling A = 1,4

β = 0° - 45° A = 2,1
β = 0° - 45° A = 2,1
β = 0° - 45°
c) Endless sling
1) straight pull
A = 2,0

NOTE A = assembly factor Figure 10 — Assembly factors for single, multi-leg and endless fibre rope slings SIST EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2009

EN 1492-4:2004+A1:2008 (E) 18 5.9 Traceability code The traceability code, which is to be included in the marking (see 7.1.1), shall enable at least the following basic elements of the manufacturing record to be traced:

a) identification of rope, including nominal size;
b) identification of manufacturer’s control/identification of splicer;

c) identification and grade of fittings. 6 Verification 6.1 General 6.1.1 All testing and examination shall be carried out using a tensile test machine conforming to the requirements of class 1 of EN ISO 7500-1:1999 and, where applicable, a steel tape or rule graduated in increments of 1 mm. 6.1.2 During load tests, the force shall be applied to the test pieces so that the elongation of the specimen takes place at a maximum rate of 110 mm/min per 1000 mm length of the specimen. 6.1.3 The test piece shall not be pre-loaded prior to testing, unless all of the slings of that type are subject to identical pre-loading, in which case they shall not be pre-loaded to more than two times the WLL. NOTE During load testing procedures, considerable energy is stored in the rope under tension. If the sample breaks, this energy will be suddenly released. Suitable precautions should therefore be taken to protect the safety of persons in the danger zone. 6.2 Qualification of personnel All testing and examination shall be carried out by a competent person. 6.3 Type test to verify sling legs 6.3.1 For the purposes of type test verification, ropes are grouped in the following range of rope sizes: a) 16 mm to 24 mm; b) greater than 24 mm to 32 mm; c) greater than 32 mm.

6.3.2 For each type of rope (including change of source of material), size range and splicing method to be used in the manufacture of slings, two test pieces shall be produced by each splicer. The rope size selected shall be representative of the middle of the relevant group, or in the case of ropes larger than 32 mm, in the middle of the range of ropes for which the splicer will be splicing eyes. Each of the tw

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