Aircraft ground support equipment - Specific requirements - Part 7: Aircraft movement equipment

This document specifies the technical requirements to minimize the hazards listed in Clause 4 which can arise during the commissioning, operation and maintenance of aircraft movement equipment when used as intended, including misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer, when carried out in accordance with the specifications given by the manufacturer or his authorized representative. It also takes into account some performance requirements recognized as essential by authorities, aircraft and ground support equipment (GSE) manufacturers as well as airlines and handling agencies.
This document applies to:
-   aircraft tractors with driver accommodation;
-   pedestrian controlled aircraft movement equipment;
-   moveable parts of ramp integrated systems;
-   attachment bars,
used for all operations, utilizing aircraft movement equipment, e.g.:
-   push back;
-   maintenance towing.
Designers of towbarless tractors will in addition take into account the requirements of ISO 20683-1 or ISO 20683-2 as applicable (see Bibliography).
This document does not apply to:
-   ground power installations on aircraft tractors;
-   fixed ramp integrated systems;
-   special towing equipment (e.g. for recovery);
-   dispatch towing tractors.
This document deals with vibrations and noise which are considered as significant. Vibration measurements are dealt with in EN 1915-3. Noise measurements and reduction are dealt with in EN 1915-4.
This document does not deal with hazards in respect to a standard automotive chassis and from other vehicles on the apron.
This Part of EN 12312 is not applicable to aircraft movement equipment manufactured before the date of its publication.
This part of EN 12312 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 (for vehicles) and EN 1915-4.
This part of EN 12312 when used in conjunction with EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4 provides the requirements for GSE.

Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Besondere Anforderungen - Teil 7: Luftfahrzeug-Schleppgeräte

Dieses Dokument legt die technischen Anforderungen zur Minimierung der in Abschnitt 4 aufgelisteten Gefährdungen fest, die bei der Inbetriebnahme, Betrieb und Wartung von Luftfahrzeug-Schleppgeräten auftreten können, wenn diese bestimmungsgemäß genutzt werden, einschließlich einer vom Hersteller vernünftigerweise vorhersehbaren Fehlanwendung, wenn diese in Übereinstimmung mit den Anweisungen des Herstellers oder seines Beauftragten ausgeführt werden. Sie berücksichtigt auch einige Funktions  und Gestaltungsanforderungen, die von offiziellen Stellen, Luftfahrzeug  und Boden-geräteherstellern sowie Luftverkehrs  und Abfertigungsgesellschaften als wesentlich erachtet wurden.
Dieses Dokument gilt für:
-   Flugzeugschlepper mit Fahrerplatz;
-   mitgängergeführte Luftfahrzeug-Schleppgeräte;
-   bewegliche Teile von vorfeldintegrierten Systemen;
-   Schleppstangen,
eingesetzt bei allen Vorgängen, bei denen Luftfahrzeug-Schleppgerät eingesetzt wird, z. B.:
-   Push back;
-   Wartungsschleppen.
Konstrukteure von stangenlosen Schleppern werden außerdem, falls anwendbar, die Anforderungen aus ISO 20683-1 oder ISO 20683-2 berücksichtigen (siehe Literaturhinweise).
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für:
-   Bodenstromgeräte auf Flugzeugschleppern;
-   feste vorfeldintegrierte Systeme;
-   spezielle Schleppgeräte (z. B. für die Bergung);
-   Abfertigungsschlepper.
Dieses Dokument behandelt Schwingungen und Lärm, die als signifikant betrachtet werden. Schwingungsmessungen werden in EN 1915-3 behandelt. Lärmmessungen und -reduzierung werden in EN 1915-4 behandelt.
Dieses Dokument behandelt keine Gefährdungen, die von einem Serienfahrgestell und von anderen Fahrzeugen auf dem Vorfeld ausgehen.
Dieser Teil von EN 12312 gilt nicht für Luftfahrzeug-Schleppgeräte, die vor dem Veröffentlichungsdatum dieses Teils hergestellt wurden.
Es ist beabsichtigt, diesen Teil der EN 12312 in Verbindung mit EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 (für Fahrzeuge) und EN 1915-4 anzuwenden.
Dieser Teil der EN 12312 stellt die Anforderungen für Bodengeräte bereit, wenn er in Verbindung mit EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 und EN 1915-4 anwendet wird.

Matériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences particulières - Partie 7 : Matériels de déplacement des aéronefs

Le présent document spécifie les exigences techniques pour minimiser les dangers listés à l’Article 4 qui pourraient apparaître lors de la mise en service, l’exploitation et la maintenance des matériels de déplacement d'aéronefs lorsqu’ils sont utilisés tel que préconisé, y compris la mauvaise utilisation raisonnablement prévisible par le fabricant, réalisées selon les spécifications émises par le constructeur ou son représentant autorisé. Il prend également en compte certaines exigences reconnues essentielles par les autorités, les fabricants d’aéronefs et de matériels de service au sol (GSE), ainsi que les compagnies aériennes et organismes d’assistance.
Le présent document s’applique aux types de matériels suivants :
-   tracteurs d'aéronefs avec poste de conduite ;
-   matériels de déplacement d’aéronefs à conducteur accompagnant ;
-   parties mobiles des systèmes intégrés à l’aire de trafic ;
-   barres de remorquage,
pour toutes utilisations de matériels de déplacement d’aéronefs telles que :
-   repoussage ;
-   remorquage d'entretien.
Les concepteurs de tracteurs sans barre prendront par ailleurs en compte les exigences de l’ISO 20683-1 ou l’ISO 20683-2 qui s’appliquent (voir Bibliographie).
Le présent document ne s’applique pas aux types de matériels suivants :
-   installations de génération électrique pour l'aéronef sur les tracteurs d'aéronefs ;
-   systèmes fixes intégrés à l’aire de trafic ;
-   matériels de tractage spéciaux (pour désembourbage par exemple) ;
-   tracteurs de remorquage au départ.
La présente norme traite des vibrations et du bruit qui sont considérés comme significatifs. Les mesures des vibrations sont abordées dans l’EN 1915-3. Les mesures et la réduction du bruit sont abordés dans l’EN 1915-4.
Le présent document ne traite pas des dangers relatifs à un châssis automoteur standard et provenant d’autres véhicules sur l’aire de trafic.
La présente partie de l’EN 12312 ne s'applique pas aux matériels de déplacement d’aéronefs fabriqués avant sa date de publication.
Cette partie de l’EN 12312 est destinée à être utilisée conjointement avec les EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 (pour les véhicules) et EN 1915-4.
Cette partie de l’EN 12312 lorsqu’elle est utilisée conjointement avec les EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 et EN 1915-4 fournit les exigences pour les GSE.

Podporna oprema na tleh za letalski promet - Posebne zahteve - 7. del: Oprema za premikanje letal

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
16-Jan-2019
Publication Date
21-Oct-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Oct-2020
Due Date
27-Dec-2020
Completion Date
22-Oct-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 12312-7:2020
01-december-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12312-7:2005+A1:2009
Podporna oprema na tleh za letalski promet - Posebne zahteve - 7. del: Oprema za
premikanje letal

Aircraft ground support equipment - Specific requirements - Part 7: Aircraft movement

equipment

Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Besondere Anforderungen - Teil 7: Luftfahrzeug-Schleppgeräte

Matériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences particulières - Partie 7 : Matériels de

déplacement des aéronefs
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 12312-7:2020
ICS:
49.100 Oprema za servis in Ground service and
vzdrževanje na tleh maintenance equipment
SIST EN 12312-7:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 49.100 Supersedes EN 12312-7:2005+A1:2009
English Version
Aircraft ground support equipment - Specific
requirements - Part 7: Aircraft movement equipment

Matériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences particulières Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Besondere Anforderungen -

- Partie 7 : Matériels de déplacement des aéronefs Teil 7: Luftfahrzeug-Schleppgeräte

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 September 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12312-7:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 List of hazards ............................................................................................................................................... 10

5 Safety requirements and/or measures ................................................................................................ 10

5.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................ 10

5.2 Driver's cabin ................................................................................................................................................ 11

5.3 Seats .................................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.4 Steering devices ............................................................................................................................................ 12

5.5 Brakes............................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.6 Operating speeds .......................................................................................................................................... 12

5.7 Lights and reflectors ................................................................................................................................... 13

5.8 Aircraft related requirements ................................................................................................................. 13

5.9 Fire protection .............................................................................................................................................. 14

5.10 Attachment devices ..................................................................................................................................... 14

5.11 Vibrations ....................................................................................................................................................... 15

6 Information for use ..................................................................................................................................... 16

6.1 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 16

6.2 Additional marking ..................................................................................................................................... 16

6.3 Instructions .................................................................................................................................................... 17

7 Verification of requirements ................................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) List of significant hazards ......................................................................................... 19

Annex B (normative) Minimum space envelope for seated operator enclosure ............................... 22

Annex C (informative) Whole body vibration ................................................................................................. 24

C.1 Typical sources of whole body vibration for aircraft tractors ..................................................... 24

C.2 Examples of technical measures suitable for whole body vibration reduction .................... 24

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC aimed to be covered ..................................................... 26

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 28

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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 12312-7:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 274 “Aircraft

ground support equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 12312-7:2005+A1:2009.

EN 12312, Aircraft ground support equipment — Specific requirements, consists of the following parts:

— Part 1: Passenger stairs;
— Part 2: Catering vehicles;
— Part 3: Conveyor belt vehicles;
— Part 4: Passenger boarding bridges;
— Part 5: Aircraft fuelling equipment;
— Part 6: Deicers and de-icing/anti-icing equipment;
— Part 7: Aircraft movement equipment (this document);
— Part 8: Maintenance or service stairs and platforms;
— Part 9: Container/Pallet loaders;
— Part 10: Container/Pallet transfer transporters;
— Part 11: Container/Pallet dollies and loose load trailers;
— Part 12: Potable water service equipment;
— Part 13: Lavatory service equipment;
— Part 14: Disabled/incapacitated passenger boarding vehicles;
— Part 15: Baggage and equipment tractors;
— Part 16: Air start equipment;
— Part 17: Air conditioning equipment;
— Part 18: Nitrogen or Oxygen units;
— Part 19: Aircraft jacks, axle jacks and hydraulic tail stanchions;
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
— Part 20: Electrical ground power units.
Annexes A and C are informative, Annex B is normative.
The main changes compared to the previous edition EN 12312-7:2005+A1:2009 are:
a) Amendment A1:2009 was incorporated;

b) the Introduction was updated in relation to the deviation from recommended criteria;

c) the Scope was updated to cover reasonably foreseeable misuse and an informative reference was

added;
d) Clause 2, Normative references, was updated;

e) in Clause 3, Terms and definitions, the definition for vibrations, tractor categories, the operator's

seat and the SEAT factor were clarified;

f) the List of hazards was updated to exclude hazards due to traffic and repair and was moved to

Annex A;
g) Subclause 5.3 for the requirements of seats was added.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC on

machinery.

For relationship with EU Directive 2006/42/EC on machinery, see informative Annex ZA, which is an

integral part of this document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
Introduction

This document specifies health and safety requirements, as well as some functional and performance

requirements for aircraft movement equipment intended for use on all aircraft types commonly in

service in civil air transport.

The minimum essential criteria are considered to be of primary importance in providing safe,

serviceable, economical and practical aircraft movement equipment. Deviations should occur only after

careful consideration, extensive testing, risk assessment and thorough service evaluation have shown

alternative methods or conditions to be satisfactory. Such deviations are outside the scope of this

document and a manufacturer should be able to demonstrate an equivalent level of protection.

This document is a type-C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the

market players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organizations, market surveillance, etc.).

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e.g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises);
— consumers (in case of machinery intended for use by consumers).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and events are

covered are indicated in the scope of this document.

When provisions of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or type-B

standards, the provisions of this type-C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other

standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type-C

standard. Deviations from requirements do not fall within the presumption of conformity given by the

document.
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the technical requirements to minimize the hazards listed in Clause 4 which

can arise during the commissioning, operation and maintenance of aircraft movement equipment when

used as intended, including misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer, when carried out in

accordance with the specifications given by the manufacturer or his authorized representative. It also

takes into account some performance requirements recognized as essential by authorities, aircraft and

ground support equipment (GSE) manufacturers as well as airlines and handling agencies.

This document applies to:
— aircraft tractors with driver accommodation,
— remote controlled aircraft movement equipment, and
— attachment devices
used for all operations utilizing aircraft movement equipment, e.g.:
— push back, and
— maintenance towing.
This document does not apply to:
— ground power installations on aircraft tractors,
— fixed ramp integrated systems,
— special towing equipment (e.g. for recovery),
— dispatch towing tractors, or
— tractors with a standing driver.

This document deals with vibrations and noise which are considered as significant hazards. Vibration

measurements are dealt with in EN 1915-3:2004+A1:2009. Noise measurements and reduction are

dealt with in EN 1915-4:2004+A1:2009.

This document does not deal with hazards in respect to a standard automotive chassis or from hazards

arising from potential interaction with other vehicles on the apron.

This part of EN 12312 is not applicable to aircraft movement equipment manufactured before the date

of its publication.
This part of EN 12312 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1915-1:2013,

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009, EN 1915-3:2004+A1:2009 (for vehicles) and EN 1915-4:2004+A1:2009.

This part of EN 12312 when used in conjunction with EN 1915-1:2013, EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009,

EN 1915-3:2004+A1:2009 and EN 1915-4:2004+A1:2009 provides the requirements for aircraft

movement equipment.
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1005-2:2003+A1:2008, Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 2: Manual handling

of machinery and component parts of machinery

EN 1175-1:1998+A1:2010, Safety of industrial trucks - Electrical requirements - Part 1: General

requirements for battery powered trucks
EN 1837:1999+A1:2009, Safety of machinery - Integral lighting of machines

EN 1915-1:2013, Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 1: Basic safety

requirements

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009, Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 2: Stability

and strength requirements, calculations and test methods

EN 1915-3:2004+A1:2009, Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 3: Vibration

measurement methods and reduction

EN 1915-4:2004+A1:2009, Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 4: Noise

measurement methods and reduction

EN 13490:2001+A1:2008, Mechanical vibration - Industrial trucks - Laboratory evaluation and

specification of operator seat vibration

EN ISO 2860:2008, Earth-moving machinery - Minimum access dimensions (ISO 2860:1992)

EN ISO 2867:2011, Earth-moving machinery - Access systems (ISO 2867:2011)

EN ISO 5353:1998, Earth-moving machinery, and tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry -

Seat index point (ISO 5353:1995)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment and risk

reduction (ISO 12100:2010)

EN ISO 13849-1:2015, Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General

principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2015)

EN ISO 13854:2019, Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body

(ISO 13854:2017)

ISO 8267-1:2015, Aircraft — Tow bar attachment fittings interface requirements — Part 1: Main line

aircraft

ISO 8267-2:2019, Aircraft — Tow bar attachment fittings interface requirements — Part 2: Regional

aircraft
Document under correction.
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
ISO 9667:2017, Aircraft ground support equipment — Tow bars

ISO 24135-1:2006, Industrial trucks — Specifications and test methods for operator restraint systems —

Part 1: Lap-type seat belts
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1915-1:2013,

EN ISO 12100:2010 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
aircraft tractor

mobile machinery specially developed and designed for aircraft movement operations

3.2
towbar tractor

aircraft tractor which needs a supplementary apparatus for aircraft movement operations

3.3
towbarless tractor

aircraft tractor which can carry out aircraft movement operations without the aid of any supplementary

apparatus
3.4
nose landing gear operation

operation where a tractor or movement device is connected to the nose landing gear of the aircraft in

order to move the aircraft
Note 1 to entry: Aircraft and tractor form a manoeuvrable unit.
3.5
main landing gear operation

operation where a tractor is connected to the main landing gear of the aircraft in order to move the

aircraft
Note 1 to entry: Steering of the aircraft is performed by the nose landing gear.
3.6
attachment device
apparatus for aircraft movement operations by hand or tractor
EXAMPLE towbar, steering bar
3.7
towbar
device coupled between towbar tractor and towing lug of the nose landing gear
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
3.8
steering bar

device coupled to the nose landing gear used for steering the aircraft externally during movement

3.9
push back
moving of an aircraft from the parking position at the terminal
EXAMPLE to the taxiway

Note 1 to entry: A push back basically consists of a rear movement of the aircraft after which a short forward

movement can be performed, e.g. for alignment.
3.10
maintenance towing
moving of an aircraft for maintenance purposes
EXAMPLE between the terminal and a maintenance hangar
Note 1 to entry: Maintenance towing is characterized by:
— unladen aircraft with or without fuel;
— engines of the aircraft are out of operation.
3.11
whole body vibration

vibration transmitted to the body as a whole through the buttocks of a seated operator

[SOURCE: EN 13490:2001+A1:2008, 3.1.1]
3.12
SEAT factor
Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility factor

ratio of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. (root mean square) acceleration at the seat and the frequency-

weighted r.m.s. acceleration values at the platform
Note 1 to entry: See EN 13490:2001+A1:2008.
3.13
SIP
Seat Index Point

point on the central vertical plane of the seat as determined by EN ISO 5353:1998

[SOURCE: EN ISO 3164:2013, 3.2]
3.14
dispatch towing

towing of a loaded (passengers, cargo, fuel) revenue flight airplane between the terminal gate or remote

parking area and a location near the departure runway
3.15
tractor categories

Note 1 to entry: The following definitions are consistent with EN 13490:2001+A1:2008.

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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)

Note 2 to entry: Mean wheel diameter might be meaningless on e.g. towbarless tractors.

3.15.1
category A

tractors with wheel (mean) diameter equal to or below 800 mm and solid rubber or pneumatic tyres

3.15.2
category B
tractors with wheel (mean) diameter above 800 mm
3.16
braking ratio
ratio of the braking force against the wheels to the vehicle weight
4 List of hazards

The list of risks and hazards (given in Table A.1 of Annex A) is based on EN ISO 12100:2010 and

contains the hazards and hazardous situations, as far as they are dealt with in this document, identified

by risk assessment as significant for aircraft movement equipment and which require action to

eliminate or reduce risks. Not covered are hazards due to the traffic and repair.

5 Safety requirements and/or measures
5.1 General requirements

5.1.1 Aircraft movement equipment shall conform to the relevant requirements of EN 1915-1:2013,

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009, EN 1915-3:2004+A1:2009 and EN 1915-4:2004+A1:2009 unless otherwise

specified in this document. It shall also conform to the specific requirements of this document.

5.1.2 Machinery shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction

measures of this clause. In addition, the machine shall be designed according to the principles of

EN ISO 12100:2010 for relevant but not significant hazards which are not dealt with by this document.

Stability and strength calculations shall be carried out in accordance with EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009.

5.1.3 Where electronic braking control systems are used, the control system shall achieve

Performance Level “d” according to EN ISO 13849-1:2015, but performance level “c” when the

travelling speed is limited to a maximum of 6 km/h (see EN 1915-1:2013, 5.23.1).

5.1.4 A tractor shall be capable of being equipped with a communication system, where there is a

need for communication from the operator’s position to the cockpit or between operating positions

(see EN 1915-1:2013, Introduction, f) – negotiation).

5.1.5 The body of aircraft tractors shall be designed to facilitate easy access for the removal of wheels

and tyres by using suitable lifting equipment.

5.1.6 Where an aircraft tractor is provided with a tow-hitch lift, this shall be secured against

unintended movements, e.g. by a positive mechanical locking pin.

5.1.7 Structural parts of remote controlled aircraft movement equipment shall not obstruct the

operating range of the tiller.

5.1.8 The electrical system of battery powered aircraft movement equipment shall conform to

EN 1175-1:1998+A1:2010 with the exception of standard automotive chassis.
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SIST EN 12312-7:2020
EN 12312-7:2020 (E)

5.1.9 Safety related parts of control systems shall be designed in accordance with EN 1915-1:2013,

5.26.1.
5.2 Driver's cabin

5.2.1 When operated in weather conditions that impact safety, driver’s cabins shall be provided and

shall meet the minimum space envelope requirements in Figure B.1 of Annex B.

The above requirements should be stipulated between manufacturer and user (see EN 1915-1:2013,

Introduction, f) – negotiation)

5.2.2 For fully enclosed cabins, in addition to the requirements in EN 1915-1:2013, 5.3.1 and 5.3.2,

where rear windscreen(s) is (are) provided it shall have at least one power-operated wiper with

windscreen washer.

5.2.3 A fully enclosed cabin shall have at least one door conforming to the requirements of

EN ISO 2867:2011, plus an emergency exit conforming to the requirements of EN ISO 2860:2008,

allowing escape in another direction, which may be a window. It shall be positioned as far as possible

away from the normal exit.

5.2.4 For fully enclosed cabins with heater/de-mister, or air conditioning, in addition to the

requirements in EN 1915-1:2013, 5.3.2, the air intake of a heater/de-mister, air conditioning shall be

connected to a fresh air inlet. The position of the air intake shall prevent the intake of emissions, e.g.

exhaust gas or electrolytic gas.
5.3 Seats

5.3.1 Aircraft tractors shall be equipped with an adjustable seat for the driver in order to minimize

fatigue during the intended work period, see also EN 1915-1:2013, 5.2.1.

For seat type selection criteria for whole body vibration reduction see Figure B.1 of Annex B.

5.3.2 Seat mountings shall withstand the forces which could occur during operation, e.g. braking or

coupling forces, minor collisions with other equipment.
NOTE For the applicable forces, see ISO 24135-1:2006.
5.3.3 It shall be possible to adjust the driver’s seat without using tools.

5.3.4 Where a weight adjustable suspension seat is fitted, the adjustment shall cater for a weight

range of at least 55 kg to 110 kg. The correct adjustment of the seat to the driver’s weight shall be easily

performed and clearly visible for the seated driver, e.g. a weight scale, an index or an automatic means

(pneumatic seat).

5.3.5 A seat belt shall be fitted to all seats and comply with ISO 24135-1:2006 when of a lap type.

5.3.6 The driver seat shall be selected to achieve the requirements specified in Table 1. Input spectral

classes (IT) and SEAT factors shall be in accordance with EN 13490:2001+A1:2008.
Table 1 — IT Class and SEAT factor
Category Wheel (mean) diameter Input spectral classes SEAT factor
A D ≤ 800 mm IT 2 < 0,8
B 800 mm < D IT 3 < 0,9
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EN 12312-7:2020 (E)
5.3.7 Driver’s seat shall comply with the requirements specified in C.2 f).
5.4 Steering devices

5.4.1 For tractors designed with more than one steering mode, it shall not be possible to change the

steering mode unless all wheels are in the straight ahead position and unless travelling speed is 5 km/h

or less. The control system shall achieve Performance Level “a” according to EN ISO 13849-1:2015. The

steering mode chosen shall be clearly indicated to the operator in the driving position.

5.4.2 Hydraulic steering systems shall be capable of ensuring that the steering supply is given priority

over any other hydraulic equipment supplied by the same power source.

5.4.3 Where electronic steering controls are used, it shall be ensured that the operator is provided

with an indication of any failure which adversely affects the performance of the steering system. The

control system shall achieve Performance Level “d” according to EN ISO 13849-1:2015.

If Aircraft movement vehicle speed is limited to 6 km/h max, then the control system shall achieve

Performance Level “c” according to EN ISO 13849-1:2015.
5.5 Brakes

5.5.1 The service brake of aircraft tractors shall reach a minimum braking ratio of 30 %.

5.5.2 The brake force distribution shall be such that the tractor and aircraft combination decelerates

in a stable condition whilst travelling in a straight line.

5.5.3 Aircraft tractors shall be provided with a secondary brake which in the event of failure of the

service brake system shall be able to stop the tractor travelling at maximum operating speed with a

minimum braking ratio of 20 %.

5.5.4 The secondary brake can be an integral part of the service brake or if mechanically applied, it

can be combined with the parking brake. Where combined with the parking brake it shall also conform

to 5.5.5 and 5.5.6.

5.5.5 Aircraft tractors shall be equipped with a parking brake that secures the tractor itself against

rolling away with a braking ratio of at least 18 %.

5.5.6 Where simultaneous actuation of both service and parking brake can result in an overload of the

aircraft nose landing gear, this shall be prevented by the design of the braking systems, except in the

event of a recordable emergency braking procedure, which is to be followed by a nose landing gear

inspection.
5.6 Operating speeds

5.6.1 Aircraft tractors shall be designed so that the travelling speed of the tractor or the tractor and

aircraft combination does not exceed 32 km⋅h

NOTE Circumstances where a tractor and aircraft combination can exceed 32 km⋅h (“dispatch” towing) are

not dealt with in this document.

5.6.2 The raising and lowering speed of liftable driver’s cabins shall not exceed 0,2 m/s.

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