Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 5: New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints

The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 5: Neue fortschrittliche Werkstoffe, fortschrittliche metallische Werkstoffe, allgemeine Konstruktionsaspekte und Lastabtragung und Auslegung von Verbindungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 5 : Matériaux avancés nouveaux, matériaux métalliques avancés, aspects généraux de conception, transferts des charges et conception des jonctions

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov

Priročnik o strukturnih materialih, SMH, združuje informacije o materialih in oblikovanju uveljavljenih polimernih matričnih kompozitov z začasnimi informacijami o nastajajočih skupinah novejših naprednih materialov in njihovih kompozitov. Opisani so vidiki oblikovanja, skupaj z dejavniki združevanja in proizvodnje. Kjer je mogoče, so podani primeri ali študije primerov.
Priročnik o strukturnih materialih vsebuje 8 delov.
Slovar izrazov, opredelitve in okrajšave izrazov za te priročnike so v 8. delu.
Deli so:
1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije                    Točke 1–9
2. del: Metode za izračun zasnove in splošni vidiki zasnove    Točke 10–22
3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij    Točke 23–32
4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja    Točke 33–45
5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov    Točke 46–63
6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov, načrtovanje in nadzor integritete ter inšpekcijski pregled    Točke 64–81
7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije   Točke 82–107
8. del: Slovar   
OPOMBA: Teh 8 delov je označenih s številkami od TR17603-32-01 do TR 17603-32-08.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Oct-2021
Publication Date
10-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
11-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-05:2022
01-marec-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 5. del: Novi napredni
materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos
obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 5: New advanced materials,

advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of

joints

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 5: Neue fortschrittliche

Werkstoffe, fortschrittliche metallische Werkstoffe, allgemeine Konstruktionsaspekte und

Lastabtragung und Auslegung von Verbindungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 5 : Matériaux avancés

nouveaux, matériaux métalliques avancés, aspects généraux de conception, transferts

des charges et conception des jonctions
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-05:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-05:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-05:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-05:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-05
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
5: New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials,
general design aspects and load transfer and design of
joints

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 5 : Matériaux avancés nouveaux, matériaux Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 5: Neue fortschrittliche

métalliques avancés, aspects généraux de conception, Werkstoffe, fortschrittliche metallische Werkstoffe,

transferts des charges et conception des jonctions allgemeine Konstruktionsaspekte und Lastabtragung

und Auslegung von Verbindungen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 29 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-05:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 25

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 26

46 Aluminium alloys and their composites ....................................................... 27

46.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 27

46.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 27

46.1.2 Conventional aluminium alloys .................................................................. 27

46.1.3 New aluminium alloys ............................................................................... 27

46.1.4 MMC - metal matrix composites ................................................................ 28

46.1.5 FML - fibre metal laminates ....................................................................... 28

46.1.6 Material availability .................................................................................... 28

46.2 Conventional aluminium alloys................................................................................ 29

46.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

46.2.2 Chemical composition ............................................................................... 29

46.2.3 Aerospace alloys ....................................................................................... 35

46.2.4 Properties ................................................................................................. 35

46.3 New aluminium alloys ............................................................................................. 36

46.3.1 Developments ........................................................................................... 36

46.3.2 Aluminium-scandium alloys ....................................................................... 36

46.4 Al-Li - Aluminium-lithium alloys ............................................................................... 37

46.4.1 Development ............................................................................................. 37

46.4.2 Processing ................................................................................................ 37

46.4.3 Applications............................................................................................... 38

46.4.4 Producers ................................................................................................. 38

46.4.5 Manufacturing processes .......................................................................... 40

46.5 Al-Li alloys: Characteristics ..................................................................................... 41

46.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 41

46.5.2 Microstructure ........................................................................................... 42

46.5.3 Further development ................................................................................. 43

46.6 Al-Li alloys: Properties ............................................................................................ 43

46.6.1 Data .......................................................................................................... 43

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46.6.2 Tensile properties ..................................................................................... 43

46.6.3 Fracture properties .................................................................................... 45

46.6.4 Fatigue properties ..................................................................................... 47

46.6.5 Design values ........................................................................................... 51

46.6.6 Further development alloys ....................................................................... 52

46.7 Al-Li alloys: Stress corrosion cracking ..................................................................... 52

46.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

46.7.2 Test ........................................................................................................... 53

46.7.3 Stress corrosion cracking resistance ......................................................... 53

46.7.4 Recent alloys ............................................................................................ 56

46.8 Al-Li alloys: Manufacturing aspects ......................................................................... 57

46.8.1 General ..................................................................................................... 57

46.8.2 Machining ................................................................................................. 57

46.8.3 Welding ..................................................................................................... 57

46.8.4 Cost implications ....................................................................................... 58

46.8.5 Applications............................................................................................... 59

46.8.6 Mass-saving .............................................................................................. 59

46.9 Al-Li alloys: Potential applications ........................................................................... 59

46.9.1 General factors ......................................................................................... 59

46.9.2 Space Shuttle external tank ...................................................................... 60

46.9.3 A380 - Floor beams ................................................................................... 62

46.10 Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys .......................................................... 63

46.10.1 Type and effect of dispersions .................................................................. 63

46.10.2 Processing ................................................................................................ 63

46.10.3 Cost factors ............................................................................................... 64

46.10.4 Applications............................................................................................... 64

46.10.5 Properties ................................................................................................. 65

46.11 Rapidly solidified powder (RSP) alloys .................................................................... 71

46.11.1 Processing ................................................................................................ 71

46.11.2 Microstructure ........................................................................................... 72

46.11.3 Development ............................................................................................. 72

46.11.4 Ambient temperature ................................................................................. 72

46.11.5 Elevated temperature ................................................................................ 74

46.12 Al-MMCs - Metal matrix composites ....................................................................... 76

46.12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 76

46.12.2 Manufacturing processes .......................................................................... 76

46.12.3 Reinforcement materials ........................................................................... 77

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46.12.4 MMC nomenclature ................................................................................... 77

46.12.5 Advantages of MMC’s ............................................................................... 78

46.12.6 Material availability .................................................................................... 78

46.12.7 Sources of further information ................................................................... 79

46.13 Discontinuously reinforced Al-MMCs ...................................................................... 80

46.13.1 Features .................................................................................................... 80

46.13.2 Development ............................................................................................. 80

46.13.3 Matrix alloys .............................................................................................. 80

46.13.4 Types of reinforcement ............................................................................. 80

46.13.5 Processing ................................................................................................ 83

46.14 Discontinuously reinforced Al-alloys: Properties ..................................................... 85

46.14.1 General ..................................................................................................... 85

46.14.2 Powder metallurgy MMCs ......................................................................... 86

46.14.3 MMC’s produced by melt infiltration processes ......................................... 92

46.14.4 Spray-formed materials ............................................................................. 99

46.14.5 Further information .................................................................................. 100

46.15 Continuously Reinforced Al-Alloy MMC ................................................................ 101

46.15.1 General ................................................................................................... 101

46.15.2 Fibres ...................................................................................................... 101

46.15.3 Matrix alloys ............................................................................................ 104

46.15.4 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 104

46.15.5 Processing .............................................................................................. 105

46.16 Continuously reinforced Al-alloy MMC: Properties .............................................. 106

46.16.1 Mechanical properties ............................................................................. 106

46.16.2 Physical properties .................................................................................. 111

46.17 Al-alloy MMC: Potential applications ..................................................................... 111

46.17.1 Benefits of Aluminium-matrix composites ................................................ 111

46.17.2 High specific strength and temperature resistance .................................. 112

46.17.3 High specific stiffness and good thermal properties................................. 112

46.17.4 High conductivity with low thermal expansion .......................................... 113

46.17.5 High specific stiffness and dimensional stability ...................................... 113

46.17.6 High specific strength and chemical resistance ....................................... 113

46.18 References ........................................................................................................... 113

46.18.1 General ................................................................................................... 113

46.18.2 Sources ................................................................................................... 122

46.18.3 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 123

46.18.4 ASTM standards ..................................................................................... 123

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46.18.5 Other standards ...................................................................................... 123

47 Titanium alloys and their composites ......................................................... 125

47.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 125

47.2 Conventional alloys ............................................................................................... 125

47.2.1 Material selection factors......................................................................... 125

47.2.2 Microstructure ......................................................................................... 126

47.2.3 Effect of alloy elements ........................................................................... 126

47.2.4 Alloy classes ........................................................................................... 127

47.2.5 Alloys for aerospace use ......................................................................... 128

47.2.6 Heat treatment ........................................................................................ 130

47.2.7 Mechanical properties ............................................................................. 130

47.2.8 Physical properties .................................................................................. 136

47.3 New alloys ............................................................................................................ 137

47.3.1 Developments ......................................................................................... 137

47.3.2 Processing techniques ............................................................................ 137

47.4 Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding .......................................................... 138

47.4.1 Superplasticity ......................................................................................... 138

47.4.2 Diffusion bonding .................................................................................... 138

47.4.3 SPF/DB fabrication.................................................................................. 138

47.4.4 Materials ................................................................................................. 139

47.5 Discontinuously reinforced Ti-alloys ...................................................................... 140

47.5.1 Difficulties ............................................................................................... 140

47.5.2 Particulate reinforcements ....................................................................... 140

47.5.3 Processing .............................................................................................. 141

47.5.4 Properties ............................................................................................... 141

47.5.5 Further development ............................................................................... 141

47.6 Continuous fibre reinforced Ti-alloy MMC ............................................................. 141

47.6.1 Composite development ......................................................................... 141

47.6.2 Monofilament reinforcements .................................................................. 142

47.6.3 Matrix selection ....................................................................................... 143

47.6.4 Composite process technologies ............................................................. 143

47.7 Continuous fibre reinforced Ti-alloy MMC: properties ........................................... 144

47.7.1 Composite optimisation ........................................................................... 144

47.7.2 Tensile strength and stiffness .................................................................. 144

47.7.3 Fatigue .................................................................................................... 146

47.7.4 Fracture toughness ................................................................................. 147

47.7.5 Elevated temperatures ............................................................................ 147

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47.7.6 Thermo-mechanical fatigue ..................................................................... 147

47.8 Titanium alloys: Effect of hydrogen ....................................................................... 149

47.8.1 Material degradation mechanisms ........................................................... 149

47.9 Titanium alloys: Effect of oxygen .......................................................................... 150

47.9.1 Oxidation ................................................................................................. 150

47.9.2 Ignition and burning ................................................................................. 151

47.10 Coatings and protection systems .......................................................................... 151

47.10.1 Requirements .......................................................................................... 151

47.10.2 Potential coatings .................................................................................... 151

47.11 Ti-alloys and MMCs: Potential applications ........................................................... 152

47.11.1 Current use ............................................................................................. 152

47.11.2 Developments ......................................................................................... 152

47.11.3 Aerospace applications ........................................................................... 153

47.12 References ........................................................................................................... 154

47.12.1 General ................................................................................................... 154

47.12.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 157

48 Superalloys and their composites .............................................................. 158

48.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 158

48.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 158

48.1.2 Alloy development ................................................................................... 158

48.1.3 Composites ............................................................................................. 158

48.1.4 Service environment ............................................................................... 159

48.1.5 Coating systems ..................................................................................... 159

48.2 Conventional alloys ............................................................................................... 159

48.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 159

48.2.2 Alloy groups ............................................................................................ 159

48.2.3 Aircraft engine applications ..................................................................... 160

48.2.4 Spacecraft engine applications ............................................................... 168

48.3 New alloys ............................................................................................................ 171

48.3.1 Developments ......................................................................................... 171

48.3.2 Directional solidification (DS) .................................................................. 172

48.3.3 Single crystal (SC) .................................................................................. 172

48.3.4 Powder metallurgy (PM) .......................................................................... 173

48.3.5 Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys ........................................... 175

48.4 Discontinuously reinforced composites ................................................................. 177

48.5 Continuously reinforced composites ..................................................................... 178

48.5.1 Composite development ......................................................................... 178

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48.6 Tungsten fibre reinforced superalloy (TFRS) composites ...................................... 179

48.6.1 Development ........................................................................................... 179

48.6.2 Matrix alloys ............................................................................................ 180

48.6.3 Mechanical properties ............................................................................. 180

48.6.4 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 186

48.7 Effect of hydrogen................................................................................................. 186

48.7.1 Degradation mechanisms........................................................................ 186

48.7.2 Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) .................................................................. 187

48.7.3 Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) ........................................... 188

48.7.4 Material sensitivity ................................................................................... 188

48.7.5 Creep in hydrogen environments ............................................................ 191

48.7.6 Fatigue in hydrogen environments .......................................................... 196

48.7.7 Fracture characteristics ........................................................................... 197

48.8 Effect of oxygen .................................................................................................... 200

48.8.1 Material selection factors......................................................................... 200

48.8.2 Oxidation ................................................................................................. 200

48.8.3 Oxidation resistance ................................................................................ 200

48.8.4 Ignition and burn ..................................................................................... 201

48.9 Coatings and protection systems .......................................................................... 202

48.9.1 Requirements .......................................................................................... 202

48.9.2 Types of coatings .................................................................................... 203

48.9.3 Coating systems ..................................................................................... 203

48.9.4 Coated components ................................................................................ 203

48.9.5 Hydrogen fuel .......................................................................................... 203

48.10 Diffusion coatings ................................................................................................. 204

48.10.1 Types of coatings .................................................................................... 204

48.11 Overlay coatings ................................................................................................... 207

48.11.1 Development ........................................................................................... 207

48.12 Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) ............................................................................. 209

48.12.1 Function .................................................................................................. 209

48.12.2 Coating construction ............................................................................... 210

48.13 Coating influence on design .................................................................................. 211

48.13.1 Factors .................................................................................................... 211

48.13.2 Effect of coatings on mechanical properties ............................................ 213

48.13.3 Chemical interaction ................................................................................ 214

48.13.4 Residual strains ...................................................................................... 215

48.13.5 Tensile behaviour .................................................................................... 217

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48.13.6 Fatigue resistance ................................................................................... 218

48.13.7 Creep and relaxation ............................................................................... 221

48.13.8 Creep fatigue .......................................................................................... 226

48.14 Coatings: Future developments ............................................................................ 227

48.14.1 Materials ................................................................................................. 227

48.14.2 Service temperature ................................................................................ 228

48.14.3 Hydrogen environments .......................................................................... 228

48.15 Superalloys: Potential applications ....................................................................... 228

48.15.1 Conventional alloys ................................................................................. 228

48.16 References ........................................................................................................... 230

48.16.1 General ................................................................................................... 230

48.16.2 ECSS doc
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05:2021
01-oktober-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 5.del: Novi napredni
materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos
obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 5: New advanced materials,

advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of

joints

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 5: Neue fortschrittliche

Werkstoffe, fortschrittliche metallische Werkstoffe, allgemeine Konstruktionsaspekte und

Lastabtragung und Auslegung von Verbindungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 5 : Matériaux avancés

nouveaux, matériaux métalliques avancés, aspects généraux de conception, transferts

des charges et conception des jonctions
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05:2021
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
August 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
5: New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials,
general design aspects and load transfer and design of
joints

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 5 : Matériaux avancés nouveaux, matériaux Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 5: Neue fortschrittliche

métalliques avancés, aspects généraux de conception, Werkstoffe, fortschrittliche metallische Werkstoffe,

transferts des charges et conception des jonctions allgemeine Konstruktionsaspekte und Lastabtragung

und Auslegung von Verbindungen

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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FprCEN/TR 17603-32-05:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 25

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 26

46 Aluminium alloys and their composites ....................................................... 27

46.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 27

46.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 27

46.1.2 Conventional aluminium alloys .................................................................. 27

46.1.3 New aluminium alloys ............................................................................... 27

46.1.4 MMC - metal matrix composites ................................................................ 28

46.1.5 FML - fibre metal laminates ....................................................................... 28

46.1.6 Material availability .................................................................................... 28

46.2 Conventional aluminium alloys................................................................................ 29

46.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

46.2.2 Chemical composition ............................................................................... 29

46.2.3 Aerospace alloys ....................................................................................... 35

46.2.4 Properties ................................................................................................. 35

46.3 New aluminium alloys ............................................................................................. 36

46.3.1 Developments ........................................................................................... 36

46.3.2 Aluminium-scandium alloys ....................................................................... 36

46.4 Al-Li - Aluminium-lithium alloys ............................................................................... 37

46.4.1 Development ............................................................................................. 37

46.4.2 Processing ................................................................................................ 37

46.4.3 Applications............................................................................................... 38

46.4.4 Producers ................................................................................................. 38

46.4.5 Manufacturing processes .......................................................................... 40

46.5 Al-Li alloys: Characteristics ..................................................................................... 41

46.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 41

46.5.2 Microstructure ........................................................................................... 42

46.5.3 Further development ................................................................................. 43

46.6 Al-Li alloys: Properties ............................................................................................ 43

46.6.1 Data .......................................................................................................... 43

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46.6.2 Tensile properties ..................................................................................... 43

46.6.3 Fracture properties .................................................................................... 45

46.6.4 Fatigue properties ..................................................................................... 47

46.6.5 Design values ........................................................................................... 51

46.6.6 Further development alloys ....................................................................... 52

46.7 Al-Li alloys: Stress corrosion cracking ..................................................................... 52

46.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

46.7.2 Test ........................................................................................................... 53

46.7.3 Stress corrosion cracking resistance ......................................................... 53

46.7.4 Recent alloys ............................................................................................ 56

46.8 Al-Li alloys: Manufacturing aspects ......................................................................... 57

46.8.1 General ..................................................................................................... 57

46.8.2 Machining ................................................................................................. 57

46.8.3 Welding ..................................................................................................... 57

46.8.4 Cost implications ....................................................................................... 58

46.8.5 Applications............................................................................................... 59

46.8.6 Mass-saving .............................................................................................. 59

46.9 Al-Li alloys: Potential applications ........................................................................... 59

46.9.1 General factors ......................................................................................... 59

46.9.2 Space Shuttle external tank ...................................................................... 60

46.9.3 A380 - Floor beams ................................................................................... 62

46.10 Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys .......................................................... 63

46.10.1 Type and effect of dispersions .................................................................. 63

46.10.2 Processing ................................................................................................ 63

46.10.3 Cost factors ............................................................................................... 64

46.10.4 Applications............................................................................................... 64

46.10.5 Properties ................................................................................................. 65

46.11 Rapidly solidified powder (RSP) alloys .................................................................... 71

46.11.1 Processing ................................................................................................ 71

46.11.2 Microstructure ........................................................................................... 72

46.11.3 Development ............................................................................................. 72

46.11.4 Ambient temperature ................................................................................. 72

46.11.5 Elevated temperature ................................................................................ 74

46.12 Al-MMCs - Metal matrix composites ....................................................................... 76

46.12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 76

46.12.2 Manufacturing processes .......................................................................... 76

46.12.3 Reinforcement materials ........................................................................... 77

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46.12.4 MMC nomenclature ................................................................................... 77

46.12.5 Advantages of MMC’s ............................................................................... 78

46.12.6 Material availability .................................................................................... 78

46.12.7 Sources of further information ................................................................... 79

46.13 Discontinuously reinforced Al-MMCs ...................................................................... 80

46.13.1 Features .................................................................................................... 80

46.13.2 Development ............................................................................................. 80

46.13.3 Matrix alloys .............................................................................................. 80

46.13.4 Types of reinforcement ............................................................................. 80

46.13.5 Processing ................................................................................................ 83

46.14 Discontinuously reinforced Al-alloys: Properties ..................................................... 85

46.14.1 General ..................................................................................................... 85

46.14.2 Powder metallurgy MMCs ......................................................................... 86

46.14.3 MMC’s produced by melt infiltration processes ......................................... 92

46.14.4 Spray-formed materials ............................................................................. 99

46.14.5 Further information .................................................................................. 100

46.15 Continuously Reinforced Al-Alloy MMC ................................................................ 101

46.15.1 General ................................................................................................... 101

46.15.2 Fibres ...................................................................................................... 101

46.15.3 Matrix alloys ............................................................................................ 104

46.15.4 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 104

46.15.5 Processing .............................................................................................. 105

46.16 Continuously reinforced Al-alloy MMC: Properties .............................................. 106

46.16.1 Mechanical properties ............................................................................. 106

46.16.2 Physical properties .................................................................................. 111

46.17 Al-alloy MMC: Potential applications ..................................................................... 111

46.17.1 Benefits of Aluminium-matrix composites ................................................ 111

46.17.2 High specific strength and temperature resistance .................................. 112

46.17.3 High specific stiffness and good thermal properties................................. 112

46.17.4 High conductivity with low thermal expansion .......................................... 113

46.17.5 High specific stiffness and dimensional stability ...................................... 113

46.17.6 High specific strength and chemical resistance ....................................... 113

46.18 References ........................................................................................................... 113

46.18.1 General ................................................................................................... 113

46.18.2 Sources ................................................................................................... 122

46.18.3 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 123

46.18.4 ASTM standards ..................................................................................... 123

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46.18.5 Other standards ...................................................................................... 123

47 Titanium alloys and their composites ......................................................... 125

47.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 125

47.2 Conventional alloys ............................................................................................... 125

47.2.1 Material selection factors......................................................................... 125

47.2.2 Microstructure ......................................................................................... 126

47.2.3 Effect of alloy elements ........................................................................... 126

47.2.4 Alloy classes ........................................................................................... 127

47.2.5 Alloys for aerospace use ......................................................................... 128

47.2.6 Heat treatment ........................................................................................ 130

47.2.7 Mechanical properties ............................................................................. 130

47.2.8 Physical properties .................................................................................. 136

47.3 New alloys ............................................................................................................ 137

47.3.1 Developments ......................................................................................... 137

47.3.2 Processing techniques ............................................................................ 137

47.4 Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding .......................................................... 138

47.4.1 Superplasticity ......................................................................................... 138

47.4.2 Diffusion bonding .................................................................................... 138

47.4.3 SPF/DB fabrication.................................................................................. 138

47.4.4 Materials ................................................................................................. 139

47.5 Discontinuously reinforced Ti-alloys ...................................................................... 140

47.5.1 Difficulties ............................................................................................... 140

47.5.2 Particulate reinforcements ....................................................................... 140

47.5.3 Processing .............................................................................................. 141

47.5.4 Properties ............................................................................................... 141

47.5.5 Further development ............................................................................... 141

47.6 Continuous fibre reinforced Ti-alloy MMC ............................................................. 141

47.6.1 Composite development ......................................................................... 141

47.6.2 Monofilament reinforcements .................................................................. 142

47.6.3 Matrix selection ....................................................................................... 143

47.6.4 Composite process technologies ............................................................. 143

47.7 Continuous fibre reinforced Ti-alloy MMC: properties ........................................... 144

47.7.1 Composite optimisation ........................................................................... 144

47.7.2 Tensile strength and stiffness .................................................................. 144

47.7.3 Fatigue .................................................................................................... 146

47.7.4 Fracture toughness ................................................................................. 147

47.7.5 Elevated temperatures ............................................................................ 147

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47.7.6 Thermo-mechanical fatigue ..................................................................... 147

47.8 Titanium alloys: Effect of hydrogen ....................................................................... 149

47.8.1 Material degradation mechanisms ........................................................... 149

47.9 Titanium alloys: Effect of oxygen .......................................................................... 150

47.9.1 Oxidation ................................................................................................. 150

47.9.2 Ignition and burning ................................................................................. 151

47.10 Coatings and protection systems .......................................................................... 151

47.10.1 Requirements .......................................................................................... 151

47.10.2 Potential coatings .................................................................................... 151

47.11 Ti-alloys and MMCs: Potential applications ........................................................... 152

47.11.1 Current use ............................................................................................. 152

47.11.2 Developments ......................................................................................... 152

47.11.3 Aerospace applications ........................................................................... 153

47.12 References ........................................................................................................... 154

47.12.1 General ................................................................................................... 154

47.12.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 157

48 Superalloys and their composites .............................................................. 158

48.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 158

48.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 158

48.1.2 Alloy development ................................................................................... 158

48.1.3 Composites ............................................................................................. 158

48.1.4 Service environment ............................................................................... 159

48.1.5 Coating systems ..................................................................................... 159

48.2 Conventional alloys ............................................................................................... 159

48.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 159

48.2.2 Alloy groups ............................................................................................ 159

48.2.3 Aircraft engine applications ..................................................................... 160

48.2.4 Spacecraft engine applications ............................................................... 168

48.3 New alloys ............................................................................................................ 171

48.3.1 Developments ......................................................................................... 171

48.3.2 Directional solidification (DS) .................................................................. 172

48.3.3 Single crystal (SC) .................................................................................. 172

48.3.4 Powder metallurgy (PM) .......................................................................... 173

48.3.5 Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys ........................................... 175

48.4 Discontinuously reinforced composites ................................................................. 177

48.5 Continuously reinforced composites ..................................................................... 178

48.5.1 Composite development ......................................................................... 178

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48.6 Tungsten fibre reinforced superalloy (TFRS) composites ...................................... 179

48.6.1 Development ........................................................................................... 179

48.6.2 Matrix alloys ............................................................................................ 180

48.6.3 Mechanical properties ............................................................................. 180

48.6.4 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 186

48.7 Effect of hydrogen................................................................................................. 186

48.7.1 Degradation mechanisms........................................................................ 186

48.7.2 Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) .................................................................. 187

48.7.3 Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) ........................................... 188

48.7.4 Material sensitivity ................................................................................... 188

48.7.5 Creep in hydrogen environments ............................................................ 191

48.7.6 Fatigue in hydrogen environments .......................................................... 196

48.7.7 Fracture characteristics ........................................................................... 197

48.8 Effect of oxygen .................................................................................................... 200

48.8.1 Material selection factors......................................................................... 200

48.8.2 Oxidation ................................................................................................. 200

48.8.3 Oxidation resistance ................................................................................ 200

48.8.4 Ignition and burn ..................................................................................... 201

48.9 Coatings and protection systems .......................................................................... 202

48.9.1 Requirements .......................................................................................... 202

48.9.2 Types of coatings .................................................................................... 203

48.9.3 Coating systems ..................................................................................... 203

48.9.4 Coated components ................................................................................ 203

48.9.5 Hydrogen fuel .......................................................................................... 203

48.10 Diffusion coatings ................................................................................................. 204

48.10.1 Types of coatings .................................................................................... 204

48.11 Overlay coatings ................................................................................................... 207

48.11.1 Development ........................................................................................... 207

48.12 Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) ............................................................................. 209

48.12.1 Function .................................................................................................. 209

48.12.2 Coating construction ............................................................................... 210

48.13 Coating influence on design .................................................................................. 211

48.13.1 Factors .................................................................................................... 211

48.13.2 Effect of coatings on mechanical properties ............................................ 213

48.13.3 Chemical interaction ................................................................................ 214

48.13.4 Residual strains ...................................................................................... 215

48.13.5 Tensile behaviour .................................................................................... 217

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48.13.6 Fatigue resistance ................................................................................... 218

48.13.7 Creep and relaxation ............................................................................... 221

48.13.8 Creep fatigue .......................................................................................... 226

48.14 Coatings: Future developments ............................................................................ 227

48.14.1 Materials ................................................................................................. 227

48.14.2 Service temperature ................................................................................ 228

48.14.3 Hydrogen environments .......................................................................... 228

48.15 Superalloys: Potential applications ..........................
...

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