Space engineering - Adhesive bonding for spacecraft and launcher applications

The scope of the document addresses the generic verification for all types of adhesive bonding for space applications including evaluation phases. It specifies all aspects of the adhesive bonding lifetime such as assembly, integration and testing, on-ground acceptance testing, storage, transport, pre-launch, launch and in-flight environments.
This standard does not cover requirements for:
-   adhesive bonding used in EEE mounting on printed circuit boards (ECSS-Q-ST-70-61)
-   adhesive bonding used in hybrid manufacturing (ESCC 2566000)
-   adhesive bonding for cover-glass on solar cell assemblies (ECSS-E-ST-20-08)
-   design of adhesive joint
-   long term storage and long term storage sample testing
-   performance of adhesive bond
-   functional properties of adhesive joint
•   co-curing processes
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Adhäsionskleben für Raumfahrt- und Trägeranwendungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Utilisations du collage pour les structure satellites et lanceurs

Le présent document couvre la vérification générique de tous les types de collages adhésifs destinés à des applications spatiales, y compris les phases d'évaluation. La présente norme couvre tous les aspects du cycle de vie du collage adhésif, tels que l'assemblage, l'intégration et les essais, les essais de recette au sol, le stockage, le transport, le pré-lancement, le lancement et les environnements en vol.
La présente norme ne couvre pas les exigences relatives :
- au collage adhésif utilisé dans un montage EEE sur des circuits imprimés (pour ce sujet, voir l’ECSS-Q-ST-70-61) ;
- au collage adhésif utilisé dans la fabrication d'hybrides (pour ce sujet, voir l’ESCC 2566000) ;
- au collage adhésif utilisé pour le verre de protection d'ensembles de cellules solaires (pour ce sujet, voir l’ECSS-E-ST-20-08) ;
- à la conception de joints adhésifs (pour ce sujet, voir l’ECSS-E-ST-32) ;
- au stockage à long terme et aux essais sur échantillons de stockage à long terme ;
- aux performances des collages adhésifs ;
- aux propriétés fonctionnelles des joints adhésifs ;
- aux processus de copolymérisation ;
- à la prédiction de la durée de vie, ni au sol (humidité) ni en orbite (cyclage thermique).
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d’un projet spatial, conformément à l’ECSS-S-ST-00.

Vesoljska tehnika - Lepilno spajanje za vesoljska in nosilna plovila

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
06-Apr-2019
Publication Date
11-Nov-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Nov-2021
Due Date
08-Jan-2022
Completion Date
12-Nov-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
01-december-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Lepilno spajanje za vesoljska in nosilna plovila
Space engineering - Adhesive bonding for spacecraft and launcher applications
Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Adhäsionskleben für Raumfahrt- und Trägeranwendungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Utilisations du collage pour les structure

satellites et lanceurs
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-16:2021
ICS:
49.025.50 Lepila Adhesives
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16602-70-16
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2021
ICS 49.025.50; 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Adhesive bonding for spacecraft and
launcher applications

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Utilisations Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Adhäsionskleben für

du collage pour les structure satellites et lanceurs Raumfahrt- und Trägeranwendungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 22 February 2021.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16602-70-16:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword .......................................................................................... 7

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 8

Scope .............................................................................................................. 9

Normative references .................................................................................. 10

Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................. 11

3.1 Terms from other standards ...........................................................................11

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ..........................................................11

3.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 14

3.4 Nomenclature ................................................................................................15

Principles of adhesive bonding .................................................................. 17

4.1 Overview .......................................................................................................17

4.2 Design of hardware ........................................................................................17

4.3 Performance of the adhesive bond ................................................................18

4.4 Adhesive bonding process .............................................................................18

Selection of adhesive .................................................................................. 20

5.1 Overview .......................................................................................................20

5.2 Analysis of adhesive application ....................................................................20

Definition of adhesive bonding process .................................................... 23

6.1 Adhesive bonding process requirements ....................................................... 23

6.2 Adhesive bonding procedure .........................................................................23

6.3 Adhesive bonding process traceability ........................................................... 23

Verification of adhesive bonding ............................................................... 25

7.1 Overview .......................................................................................................25

7.2 Adhesive bonding test plan ............................................................................25

7.3 Adhesive bonding test report .........................................................................25

7.4 Test item bonding procedure .........................................................................26

7.5 Test item configuration ..................................................................................26

7.6 Test item identification ...................................................................................27

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SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)

7.7 Verification test sequence ..............................................................................27

General ............................................................................................ 27

7.8 Test item manufacturing ................................................................................28

7.9 Test item conditioning ....................................................................................29

7.10 Simulation of on-ground environmental exposure .......................................... 29

7.11 Simulation of launch environmental exposure ................................................ 31

Overview ..........................................................................................31

Test definition ...................................................................................31

7.12 Simulation of mission environmental exposure .............................................. 31

Overview ..........................................................................................31

Thermal cycling test conditions ........................................................ 31

7.13 Inspection before, during and after environmental exposure .......................... 33

7.14 Test before, during and after environmental exposure ................................... 33

Quality assurance ........................................................................................ 35

8.1 Overview .......................................................................................................35

8.2 General ..........................................................................................................35

8.3 Procurement ..................................................................................................35

8.4 Hazard, health and safety precautions ........................................................... 36

8.5 Incoming inspection .......................................................................................36

8.6 Traceability ....................................................................................................37

8.7 Tooling and equipment control .......................................................................37

8.8 Workmanship ................................................................................................. 38

8.9 Handling and storage .....................................................................................38

8.10 Inspection and bonding process control .........................................................39

8.11 Operator and inspector training......................................................................40

8.12 Nonconformance ...........................................................................................41

Annex A (normative) Adhesive bonding procedure – DRD ....................... 42

A.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 42

A.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ................................ 42

A.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................42

A.2 Expected response ........................................................................................42

A.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................42

A.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................43

Annex B (normative) Adhesive bonding test plan - DRD ........................... 44

B.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 44

B.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ................................ 44

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SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)

B.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................44

B.2 Expected response ........................................................................................44

B.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................44

B.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................44

Annex C (normative) Adhesive bonding test report -DRD ......................... 45

C.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 45

C.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ................................ 45

C.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................45

C.2 Expected response ........................................................................................45

C.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................45

C.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................46

Annex D (informative) Examples of techniques used for adhesive material

characterization (bulk) ............................................................................... 47

D.1 Overview .......................................................................................................47

D.2 Rheology .......................................................................................................47

D.3 Adhesive density and shrinkage ....................................................................48

D.4 Outgassing ....................................................................................................48

D.5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) ........................................................ 49

D.6 Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) ................................................................49

D.7 Dilatometry and Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) ...................................... 50

D.8 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) ............................................................50

D.9 Tensile strength and Young's modulus .......................................................... 50

D.10 Shear strength and shear modulus (adhesive material) ................................. 51

D.11 Compression strength and modulus ..............................................................51

D.12 Electrical resistivity ........................................................................................52

D.13 Thermal conductivity ......................................................................................52

D.14 Thermo-optical properties ..............................................................................52

D.15 Transmittance ................................................................................................52

D.16 Water absorption ...........................................................................................53

Annex E (informative) Characterisation of adhesive in bonded assembly

configuration .............................................................................................. 55

E.1 Overview .......................................................................................................55

E.2 Adhesive bonding test ...................................................................................55

E.3 Strength of bonded joints ...............................................................................56

E.3.1 Single Lap Shear Strength – thin adherends .................................... 56

E.3.2 Lap shear –thick adherend test ........................................................ 56

E.3.3 Peel strength test .............................................................................56

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SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)

E.3.4 Testing of peel strength on Pressure sensitive tapes (PSA) ............. 57

E.3.5 Tensile butt joint tests ......................................................................57

E.3.6 Special tests.....................................................................................57

E.4 Fracture mechanics of adhesively bonded joints ............................................ 58

E.4.1 Fracture mechanics test methods .................................................... 58

E.5 Adhesive characteristics to be verified by test (in bonded assemblies) .......... 59

Annex F (informative) Ageing effects on adhesively bonded joints .......... 63

F.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................63

F.2 Ageing of adhesively bonded joints ................................................................63

F.2.1 Natural ageing ..................................................................................63

F.2.2 Accelerated ageing ..........................................................................63

F.2.3 Fick’s law .........................................................................................64

F.2.4 Second Fick’s law ............................................................................65

F.2.5 Water diffusion mechanisms and degradation models of adhesive

joints ................................................................................................67

F.2.6 Summary .........................................................................................73

F.3 Examples of hot-wet exposure conditions to be used in verification sequence

for spacecraft and launchers ..........................................................................74

F.3.1 Satellites, in-orbit units, probes ........................................................ 74

F.3.2 The accelerated ageing of adhesively bonded assemblies for

launcher applications .......................................................................77

F.3.3 Examples of hot-wet exposure tests ................................................. 78

Annex G (informative) System for training and qualification of adhesive

bonding personnel ..................................................................................... 80

Bibliography .................................................................................................... 83

Figures

Figure 4-1: Overview of the constrains linked to adhesive bonds for space applications

(not exhaustive) .........................................................................................17

Figure 4-2: Overview on some parameters influencing the adhesive bond and its

design .......................................................................................................19

Figure 7-1: Flow chart with adhesive bonding verification sequence............................ 28

: Average strength and standard deviation in tension, compression and
shear for different angles of solicitation (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°) of EA9394
adhesive [ref Gregory Bresson, “Collage fiable pour l’espace : influence de
la qualité des procédés et dimensionnement des assemblages”, thèse

Université Bordeaux I, 2011] .....................................................................58

: Examples of crack propagation modes and various test setups

(courtesy ArianeGroup) .............................................................................59

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SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
: Example of non-linear evolution of Csat with RHeq for Glass fiber/epoxy

resin [courtesy Ariane group] .....................................................................66

: Example of determination Deff and Csat parameters from absorption
curve; case of Glass fiber/epoxy resin with 65°C and RH=60% condition
[property Ariane group], follows Fickian behaviour [courtesy

ArianeGroup] .............................................................................................67

: Illustration of a non-Fickian behaviour and evolution with sorption cycles of
one component epoxy adhesive, (up) normalised mass uptake –various
models, (down) moisture uptake and de-sorption [Mubashar, I. A. et al.,

2009] .........................................................................................................68

: The effect of ambient exposure in a controlled environment on single lap
shear strength of two component epoxy resin on aluminium as a function of

time [M. Chevalier, 2008] ..........................................................................71

: The effect of ambient exposure in a controlled environment on single lap

shear fracture mode as a function of time [M. Chevalier, 2008] ................. 72

: Evolution of single lap shear strength as a function of exposure duration in

an ambient controlled environment [IFAM Fraunhofer, 2017] .................... 73

: The International Training and Qualification system for Personnel

[Quintino L. et al.] ......................................................................................80

Tables

Table D-1 : Summary of relevant test standards for determination of bulk properties of

adhesive material ......................................................................................54

Table E-1 : Commonly applied test methods and related standards ............................ 60

Table F-1 : Example of the classification of adhesive bonding process in spacecraft and

launcher applications based on its criticality .............................................. 75

Table F-2 : Examples of adhesive bonding applications and their sensitivity to on-

ground humidity exposure (based on their failure occurrence) .................. 76

Table F-3 : Example table with assessment for implementation of hot-wet exposure into

the verification sequence (step: simulation of on-ground exposure) .......... 77

Table F-4 : Examples of standard conditions for hot-wet exposures ............................ 78

Table F-5 : Examples of standard durability tests (mechanical and humidity stress

combined) ................................................................................................. 79

Table G-1 : The list of entities eligible to provide training for adhesive bonding* .......... 82

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
European Foreword

This document (EN 16602-70-16:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN-CENELEC/TC 5

“Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This standard (EN 16602-70-16:2021) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-16C.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2022, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
Introduction
Adhesive materials have a wide range of uses within the space domain however
they are often qualified as a minor or negligible part of a large subsystem or
system. This frequently results in unforeseen effects arising directly from the
adhesive selection which impacts either the functionality, integrity or AIT

activities. As a consequence whilst the adhesive is often the lowest cost element

of the system it frequently has a high cost associated with the necessary recovery

and delta qualification activities need to ensure the system level functionality.

Both the system level qualification and any recovery actions are further
complicated by the intrinsic relationship between the adhesive performance, the
adherend and all the processes associated with the manufacture of the adhesive
bond.
European space agencies and the space industry at present have a general
handbook available for adhesive bonding (ECSS-E-HB-32-21) however there is
no fixed scheme detailing the minimum requirements for verification of adhesive
bonding process nor validation of an adhesive material.
Standardisation of the verification processes for adhesives and adhesive bonding
across the European space industry is allowing a harmonised and consistent
approach.
The generic approach facilitates the correct selection of data thus allowing

streamlining of the industrial development activities and enabling the validation

of adhesives and verification of adhesive bonding process at an early stage of a
programmes lifetime.
This standard is further justified because of the high level of non-conformances
(NCR) identified across industry due to limited early programmatic qualification
programmes related to adhesive bonding and characterisation of adhesive
materials.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
Scope
The scope of the document addresses the generic verification for all types of
adhesive bonding for space applications including evaluation phases. This
standard covers all aspects of the adhesive bonding lifetime such as assembly,
integration and testing, on-ground acceptance testing, storage, transport, pre-
launch, launch and in-flight environments.
This standard does not cover requirements for:
• Adhesive bonding used in EEE mounting on printed circuit boards (for
this subject see ECSS-Q-ST-70-61)
• Adhesive bonding used in hybrid manufacturing (for this subject see
ESCC 2566000)
• Adhesive bonding for cover-glass on solar cell assemblies (for this subject
see ECSS-E-ST-20-08)
• Design of adhesive joints (for this subject see ECSS-E-ST-32)
• Long term storage and long term storage sample testing
• Performance of adhesive bonds
• Functional properties of adhesive joints
• Co-curing processes
• Life-time aging prediction, neither on ground (humidity) nor in-orbit
(thermal cycling)

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions of

the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system – Glossary of terms
EN 16603-32 ECSS-E-ST-32 Space engineering – Structural general requirements
EN 16602-10 ECSS-Q-ST-10 Space product assurance -Product assurance
management
EN 16602-10-09 ECSS-Q-ST-10-09 Space product assurance -Nonconformance control
system
EN 16602-20 ECSS-Q-ST-20 Space product assurance -Quality assurance
EN 16602-40 ECSS-Q-ST-40 Space product assurance - Safety
EN 16602-70 ECSS-Q-ST-70 Space product assurance – Materials, mechanical
parts and processes
EN 16602-70-02 ECSS-Q-ST-70-02 Space product assurance - Thermal vacuum
outgassing test for the screening of space materials
EN 16602-70-09 ECSS-Q-ST-70-09 Space product assurance - Measurements of thermo-
optical properties of thermal control materials

EN 16602-70-22 ECSS-Q-ST-70-22 Space product assurance - Control of limited shelf-

life materials

EN 16602-70-71 ECSS-Q-ST-70-71 Space product assurance - Materials, processes and

their data selection
ISO 472:2013/ Plastics - Vocabulary - Amendment 1: Additional
Amd 1:2018 items
ISO 3696:1987 Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification
and test methods
ISO 15785:2002 Technical drawings — Symbolic presentation and
indication of adhesive, fold and pressed joints
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other standards
For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-
ST-00-01 apply.
For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-Q-
ST-70 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. critical process
2. critical material
3. special process
4. request for approval
For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-Q-
ST-40 apply, in particular for the following term:
1. criticality
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 adherend
body that is, or is intended to be, held to another body
[ISO 472:2013/Amd 1:2018]
3.2.2 adhesion
state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which can
consist of chemical or mechanical or physical interfacial forces
3.2.3 adhesive bond
see “adhesive joint”
The term “adhesive joint” is commonly used,
but for the process the term “bonding”.
3.2.4 adhesive bonding procedure
detailed instructions, equipment and tools needed to perform the adhesive
bonding
Refer to Annex A for the detailed content.
3.2.5 adhesive bonding process

material joining process where an adhesive material is added in order to maintain

chemical, mechanical or physical interfacial forces between bonded parts
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-16:2021
EN 16602-70-16:2021 (E)
The joining mechanism between adhesive and
bonded parts, also called “adherend”, is
adhesion-based. According to ECSS-Q-ST-70,
adhesive bonding belongs to category of
“special processes”.
3.2.6 adhesive joint

joint of two or more parts of similar or different materials made using adhesives

[ISO 15785:2002]
The term “adhesive bond” is synonymous
3.2.7 adhesive material

substance with the capability of holding two surfaces together by either chemical,

physical or mechanical interfacial forces or a combination of them
The concept of adhesive materials is addressed
in ECSS-E-HB-32-21.
3.2.8 ambient exposure in a controlled environment
item is exposed to ambient air with temperature in the range of (22 ± 3) °C, and
relative humidity (55 ± 10) %
NOTE 1 Long term exposure to these conditions can
cause degradation of the adhesive joint’s
performance.
NOTE 2 Contributes to “intrinsic ageing” of the joints.
3.2.9 co-curing
earliest stage of the manufacturing process, resulting in a fully integra
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16602-70-16:2019
01-april-2019

Varnost proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Lepilno spajanje za vesoljska in nosilna

plovila

Space product assurance - Adhesive bonding for spacecraft and launcher applications

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Kleben für Raumfahrzeug- und Trägeranwendungen
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16602-70-16
ICS:
49.025.50 Lepila Adhesives
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16602-70-16:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-16:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-16:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16602-70-16
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2018
ICS 49.025.50; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Adhesive bonding for spacecraft
and launcher applications
Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Kleben für
Raumfahrzeug- und Trägeranwendungen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16602-70-16:2018 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-16:2019
prEN 16602-70-16:2018 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 7

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 8

Scope ....................................................................................................................... 9

Normative references ........................................................................................... 10

Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 11

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 11

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 11

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 14

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 14

Principles of adhesive bonding ........................................................................... 16

4.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 16

4.2 Design of hardware ................................................................................................. 16

4.3 Performance of the adhesive bond ......................................................................... 17

4.4 Adhesive bonding process ...................................................................................... 17

Selection of adhesive ........................................................................................... 20

5.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 20

5.2 Analysis of adhesive application ............................................................................. 20

Definition of adhesive bonding process ............................................................. 23

6.1 Adhesive bonding process requirements ................................................................ 23

6.2 Adhesive bonding procedure .................................................................................. 23

6.3 Adhesive bonding process traceability .................................................................... 23

Verification of adhesive bonding ........................................................................ 25

7.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 25

7.2 Adhesive bonding test plan ..................................................................................... 25

7.3 Adhesive bonding test report .................................................................................. 26

7.4 Test item bonding procedure .................................................................................. 26

7.5 Test item configuration ........................................................................................... 26

7.6 Handling and storage .............................................................................................. 27

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7.7 Test item identification ............................................................................................ 28

7.8 Hazard, health and safety precautions .................................................................... 28

7.9 Verification test sequence ....................................................................................... 29

General ..................................................................................................... 29

7.10 Test item manufacturing ......................................................................................... 30

7.11 Test item conditioning ............................................................................................. 30

7.12 Simulation of on-ground environmental exposure ................................................... 31

7.13 Simulation of launch environmental exposure ......................................................... 32

Overview ................................................................................................... 32

Test definition ............................................................................................ 32

7.14 Simulation of mission environmental exposure ....................................................... 33

Overview ................................................................................................... 33

Thermal cycling test conditions ................................................................. 33

7.15 Inspection and testing before, during and after verification sequence ..................... 34

Quality assurance ................................................................................................. 35

8.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 35

8.2 General ................................................................................................................... 35

8.3 Procurement ........................................................................................................... 35

8.4 Incoming inspection ................................................................................................ 36

8.5 Traceability ............................................................................................................. 36

8.6 Tooling and equipment control ................................................................................ 37

8.7 Workmanship .......................................................................................................... 37

8.8 Inspection and bonding process control .................................................................. 38

8.9 Operator and inspector training............................................................................... 39

8.10 Nonconformance .................................................................................................... 40

Annex A (normative) Adhesive bonding procedure – DRD ................................ 41

A.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 41

A.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ......................................... 41

A.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................... 41

A.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 41

A.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 41

A.2.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 42

Annex B (normative) Adhesive bonding test plan - DRD .................................... 43

B.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 43

B.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ......................................... 43

B.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................... 43

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B.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 43

B.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 43

B.2.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 43

Annex C (normative) Adhesive bonding test report -DRD .................................. 44

C.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 44

C.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ......................................... 44

C.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................... 44

C.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 44

C.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 44

C.2.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 45

Annex D (informative) Examples of techniques used for adhesive material

characterization (bulk) ........................................................................................ 46

D.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 46

D.2 Rheology ................................................................................................................ 46

D.3 Outgassing ............................................................................................................. 47

D.4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) ................................................................. 47

D.5 Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) ......................................................................... 48

D.6 Dilatometry and Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) ............................................... 48

D.7 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) ..................................................................... 49

D.8 Tensile strength and Young's modulus ................................................................... 49

D.9 Shear strength and shear modulus (adhesive material) .......................................... 50

D.10 Compression strength and modulus ....................................................................... 50

D.11 Electrical resistivity ................................................................................................. 50

D.12 Thermal conductivity ............................................................................................... 51

D.13 Thermo-optical properties ....................................................................................... 51

D.14 Transmittance ......................................................................................................... 51

D.15 Water absorption .................................................................................................... 51

D.16 Adhesive shrinkage ................................................................................................ 52

Annex E (informative) Characterisation of adhesive in bonded assembly

configuration ....................................................................................................... 54

E.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 54

E.2 Adhesive bonding test ............................................................................................ 54

E.3 Strength of bonded joints ........................................................................................ 55

E.3.1 Single Lap Shear Strength – thin adherends ............................................. 55

E.3.2 Lap shear –thick adherend test ................................................................. 55

E.3.3 Peel strength test ...................................................................................... 55

E.3.4 Testing of peel strength on Pressure sensitive tapes (PSA) ...................... 56

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E.3.5 Tensile butt joint tests ............................................................................... 56

E.3.6 Special tests.............................................................................................. 56

E.4 Fracture mechanics of adhesively bonded joints ..................................................... 57

E.5 Average stress criterion test methods ..................................................................... 57

E.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 57

E.5.2 Fracture mechanics test methods ............................................................. 57

E.5.3 Stress criterion test ................................................................................... 57

E.6 Adhesive characteristics to be verified by test (in bonded assembly) ...................... 58

Annex F (informative) Effects of the ageing on adhesively bonded joints ......... 62

F.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 62

F.2 Ageing of adhesively bonded joints ......................................................................... 62

F.2.1 Natural ageing ........................................................................................... 62

F.2.2 Accelerated ageing ................................................................................... 62

F.2.3 Fick’s law .................................................................................................. 63

F.2.4 Second Fick’s law ..................................................................................... 63

F.2.5 Water diffusion mechanisms and degradation models of adhesive

joints ......................................................................................................... 63

F.2.6 Summary .................................................................................................. 68

F.3 Examples of hot-wet exposure conditions to be used in verification sequence

for spacecraft and launchers ................................................................................... 69

F.3.1 Satellites, in-orbit units, probes ................................................................. 69

F.3.2 The accelerated ageing of adhesively bonded assemblies for

launcher applications ................................................................................ 72

Annex G (informative) System for training and qualification of adhesive

bonding personnel .............................................................................................. 75

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 77

Figures

Figure 4-1: Overview of the constrains linked to adhesive bonds for space applications ...... 16

Figure 4-2: Overview on some parameters influencing the adhesive bond and its

design ................................................................................................................ 19

Figure 7-1 Flow chart with adhesive bonding verification sequence ..................................... 30

: Examples of fracture modes ............................................................................. 57

:Example of dependence of relative moisture content saturation ratio as a
function of square root of time –Fickian behaviour [Gerben K. van der Wei

and Olaf C.G. Adan, 2000] ................................................................................. 64

: Illustration of a non-Fickian behaviour and evolution with sorption cycles of
one component epoxy adhesive, (up) normalised mass uptake –various
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models, (down) moisture uptake and de-sorption [Mubashar, I. A. et al.,

2009] .................................................................................................................. 65

: Influence of temperature and moisture content on failure strain of epoxy

matrix [MIL-HDBK-17B, 1988] ............................................................................ 68

: The International Training and Qualification system for Personnel

[Quintino L. et al.] ............................................................................................... 75

Tables

Table D-1 : Summary of relevant test standards for determination of bulk properties of

adhesive material ............................................................................................... 53

Table E-1 : Commonly applied test methods and related standards ..................................... 59

Table F-1 : Example of the classification of adhesive bonding process in spacecraft and

launcher applications based on its criticality ....................................................... 70

Table F-2 : Examples of adhesive bonding applications and their sensitivity to on-

ground humidity exposure (based on their failure occurrence) ........................... 71

Table F-3 : Example table with assessment for implementation of hot-wet exposure into

the verification sequence (step: simulation of on-ground exposure) ................... 72

Table F-4 : Examples of standard test conditions for ageing tests and related test

methods ............................................................................................................. 73

Table F-5 : Examples of standard durability tests (mechanical and humidity stress

combined) .......................................................................................................... 74

Table G-1 : The list of entities eligible to provide training for adhesive bonding* ................... 76

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European foreword

This document (prEN 16602-70-16:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5

“Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN (Germany).
This document (prEN 16602-70-16:2018) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-16C DIR2.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN ENQUIRY.

This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will therefore have

precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider do-main of applicability (e.g. :

aerospace).
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Introduction
Adhesive materials have a wide range of uses within the space domain
however they are often qualified as a minor or negligible part of a large
subsystem or system. This frequently results in unforeseen effects arising
directly from the adhesive selection which impacts either the functionality,
integrity or AIT activities. As a consequence whilst the adhesive is often the
lowest cost element of the system it frequently has a high cost associated with
the necessary recovery and delta qualification activities need to ensure the
system level functionality. Both the system level qualification and any recovery
actions are further complicated by the intrinsic relationship between the
adhesive performance, the substrate and all the processes associated with the
manufacture of the adhesive bond.
European space agencies and the space industry at present have a general
handbook available for adhesive bonding (ECSS-E-HB-32-21) however there is
no fixed scheme detailing the minimum requirements for verification of
adhesive bonding process nor validation of an adhesive material.
Standardisation of the verification processes for adhesives and adhesive
bonding across the European space industry is allowing a harmonised and
consistent approach.
The generic approach facilitates the correct selection of data thus allowing
streamlining of the industrial development activities and enabling the
validation of adhesives and verification of adhesive bonding process at an early
stage of a programmes lifetime.
The use of this standard allows a given programme technical focus to be
emphasised onto specific functional requirements since generic testing is
already defined.
The document is further justified because of the high level of non-conformances
(NCR) identified across industry due to limited early programmatic
qualification programmes related to adhesive bonding.
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Scope
The scope of the document addresses the generic verification for all types of
adhesive bonding for space applications including evaluation phases. It
specifies all aspects of the adhesive bonding lifetime such as assembly,
integration and testing, on-ground acceptance testing, storage, transport, pre-
launch, launch and in-flight environments.
This standard does not cover requirements for:
• adhesive bonding used in EEE mounting on printed circuit boards
(ECSS-Q-ST-70-61)
• adhesive bonding used in hybrid manufacturing (ESCC 2566000)
• adhesive bonding for cover-glass on solar cell assemblies (ECSS-E-ST-20-
08)
• design of adhesive joint
• long term storage and long term storage sample testing
• performance of adhesive bond
• functional properties of adhesive joint
• co-curing processes

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions of

the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system – Glossary of terms
EN 16602-10 ECSS-Q-ST-10 Space product assurance -Product assurance
management
EN 16602-10-09 ECSS-Q-ST-10-09 Space product assurance -Nonconformance control
system
EN 16602-20 ECSS-Q-ST-20 Space product assurance -Quality assurance
EN 16602-40 ECSS-Q-ST-40 Space product assurance - Safety
EN 16602-70 ECSS-Q-ST-70 Space product assurance – Materials, mechanical parts
and processes

EN 16602-70-02 ECSS-Q-ST-70-02 Space product assurance - Thermal vacuum outgassing

test for the screening of space materials
EN 16602-70-09 ECSS-Q-ST-70-09 Space product assurance - Measurements of thermo-
optical properties of thermal control materials

EN 16602-70-15 ECSS-Q-ST-70-15 Space product assurance - Non-destructive inspection

EN 16602-70-22 ECSS-Q-ST-70-22 Space product assurance - Control of limited shelf-life

materials

EN 16602-70-71 ECSS-Q-ST-70-71 Space product assurance - Materials, processes and their

data selection
ISO 3696:1987 Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and
test methods
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other standards
For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-
ST-00-01 apply.
For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-Q-
ST-70 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. critical process
2. critical material
3. special process
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 adhesion
state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which can
consist of chemical or mechanical or physical interfacial forces
3.2.2 adhesive bonding process
material joining process where an adhesive material is added in order to
maintain chemical, mechanical or physical interfacial forces between bonded
parts
The joining mechanism between adhesive and
bonded parts, also called "adherend", is
adhesion-based. According to ECSS-Q-ST-70,
adhesive bonding belongs to category of
“special processes”.
3.2.3 adhesive material
substance with the capability of holding two surfaces together by either
chemical, physical or mechanical interfacial forces or a combination of them
The concept of adhesive materials is addressed
in ECSS-E-HB-32-21.
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3.2.4 adhesive bonding procedure
detailed instructions, equipment and tools needed to perform the adhesive
bonding
Refer to Annex A for the detailed content.
3.2.5 ambient humidity exposure in controlled environment
item is exposed to ambient air with temperature in the range of (22 ± 3) °C, and
relative humidity (55 ± 10) %
NOTE 1 Long term exposure to this conditions can
cause degradation of the adhesive joint’s
performance.
NOTE 2 Contributes to “intrinsic ageing” of the joints.
3.2.6 co-curing
earliest stage of manufacturing process, resulting in a fully integrated
component
NOTE 1 The joining mechanism is chemical cross-
linking. Both adherends are undergoing
chemical reaction.
NOTE 2 This standard does not cover requirements for
verification of co-curing processes.
3.2.7 co-bonding
intermediate stage of manufacturing process when uncured part is joined with
one or more cured parts, typically with an additional layer of uncured adhesive
NOTE 1 The joining mechanism between the adhesive
and the cured part is adhesion. Between the un-
cured part and uncured adhesive layer
chemical cross-linking is taking place.
NOTE 2 Further text refers only to adhesive bonding or
co-bonding (uncured adhesive, cured substrate)
or to bonding with pressure sensitive tapes
(PSAs).
3.2.8 degradation
reduction of property of interest detected between two measurement points
over period of time
3.2.9 hot-wet exposure
exposure where the test item is subjected to synergistic effect of gaseous water
phase and temperature
NOTE 1 Typically the test item is exposed to conditions,
where temperature and water vapour pressure
are higher than humidity
...

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