Mobile access and working towers made of prefabricated elements - Part 1: Materials, dimensions, design loads, safety and performance requirements

This document applies to the design of mobile access and working towers made of prefabricated elements with dimensions which are fixed by the design and with a height up to 12 m (indoors) and up to 8 m (outdoors). This document applies to mobile access and working towers used as temporary work equipment.
This document:
-   gives guidelines for the choice of the main dimensions and stabilizing methods,
-   gives safety and performance requirements; and
-   gives information on complete towers.
This product standard does not apply to scaffolds according to EN 12810-1 and EN 12811-1.

Fahrbare Arbeitsbühnen aus vorgefertigten Bauteilen - Werkstoffe, Maße, Lastannahmen und sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen

Dieses Dokument gilt für die Bemessung und Konstruktion von fahrbaren Arbeitsbühnen aus vorgefertigten Bauteilen, deren Abmessungen durch die Ausführung festgelegt sind und mit einer Höhe bis zu 12 m (innerhalb von Gebäuden) und bis zu 8 m (außerhalb von Gebäuden). Dieses Dokument gilt für fahrbare Arbeitsbühnen, die als temporäre Arbeitsmittel eingesetzt werden.
Dieses Dokument:
-   gibt Empfehlungen für die Auswahl der Hauptmaße und Stabilisierungsverfahren,
-   stellt Sicherheits- und Leistungsanforderungen und
-   enthält Angaben über die Gesamtkonstruktion der Arbeitsbühnen.
Diese Produktnorm gilt nicht für Gerüste nach EN 12810-1 und EN 12811-1.

Tours d'accès et de travail roulantes en éléments préfabriqués - Matériaux, dimensions, charges de calcul et exigences de sécurité

Ce document s’applique sur la conception des tours d’accès et de travail roulantes constituées d'éléments préfabriqués dont les dimensions sont fixées par la conception et présentant une hauteur comprise inférieure à 12,0 m (pour usage à l'intérieur) et inférieure à 8,0 m (pour usage à l'extérieur).
Ce document :
-   vise à orienter le choix des dimensions principales et des méthodes de stabilisation ;
-   définit les exigences de sécurité ; de performance et
-   donne des informations concernant les tours complètes.
Cette norme produit ne s'applique pas aux échafaudages conformes aux EN 12810-1 et EN 12811-1.

Pomični delovni odri na kolesih iz predizdelanih tipskih elementov - 1. del: Materiali, mere, obtežbe in varnostne zahteve

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Aug-2018
Publication Date
26-Nov-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
26-Nov-2020
Due Date
31-Jan-2021
Completion Date
27-Nov-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1004-1:2021
01-januar-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 1004:2005
Pomični delovni odri na kolesih iz predizdelanih tipskih elementov - 1. del:
Materiali, mere, obtežbe in varnostne zahteve

Mobile access and working towers made of prefabricated elements - Part 1: Materials,

dimensions, design loads, safety and performance requirements
Fahrbare Arbeitsbühnen aus vorgefertigten Bauteilen - Werkstoffe, Maße,
Lastannahmen und sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen

Tours d'accès et de travail roulantes en éléments préfabriqués - Matériaux, dimensions,

charges de calcul et exigences de sécurité
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1004-1:2020
ICS:
91.220 Gradbena oprema Construction equipment
SIST EN 1004-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 91.220 Supersedes EN 1004:2004
English Version
Mobile access and working towers made of prefabricated
elements - Part 1: Materials, dimensions, design loads,
safety and performance requirements

Échafaudages roulants en éléments préfabriqués - Fahrbare Arbeitsbühnen aus vorgefertigten Bauteilen -

Partie 1 : Matériaux, dimensions, calculs de charge, Werkstoffe, Maße, Lastannahmen und

exigences de performance et de sécurité sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 March 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1004-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Classification ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 Load classes ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Access classes ................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Height classes ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Designation..................................................................................................................................................... 10

6 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 10

7 General requirements ................................................................................................................................ 10

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.2 Dimensions ..................................................................................................................................................... 12

7.3 Openings within platforms ....................................................................................................................... 12

7.4 Side protection .............................................................................................................................................. 12

7.5 Castor wheels ................................................................................................................................................. 14

7.6 Access to platforms ...................................................................................................................................... 15

7.7 Means for stabilizing ................................................................................................................................... 18

7.8 Connections .................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.9 Working and access platform units ....................................................................................................... 19

7.10 Erection and dismantling .......................................................................................................................... 19

7.11 Requirements for mobile access towers less than 2 m working platform height ................ 19

8 Requirements for structural design ...................................................................................................... 20

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20

8.2 Characteristic actions on the complete structure including its parts ....................................... 20

8.3 Characteristic actions on parts of the structure ............................................................................... 21

8.4 Deflections ...................................................................................................................................................... 24

9 Structural design .......................................................................................................................................... 24

9.1 Basic design principle ................................................................................................................................. 24

9.2 Structural analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 25

9.3 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 28

9.4 Positional stability ....................................................................................................................................... 30

10 Tests .................................................................................................................................................................. 31

11 Instruction manual ...................................................................................................................................... 31

12 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 31

12.1 Components ................................................................................................................................................... 31

12.2 Manufacturer's label ................................................................................................................................... 32

13 Assessment ..................................................................................................................................................... 32

Annex A (normative) Stiffness test on complete tower structure ........................................................... 33

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Annex B (informative) A-deviations ................................................................................................................... 36

Annex C (informative) Reduction of the wind load to equal members being upwind ...................... 37

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 40

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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 1004-1:2020) has been prepared by WG4 “Mobile access towers” under the

direction of Technical Committee CEN/TC 53 “Temporary works equipment”, the secretariat of which is

held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by November 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1004:2004.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
Introduction

The development of mobile access and working towers systems is from the following two roots:

— scaffold manufacturers placed prefabricated unanchored scaffolds on four legs and castors;

— ladder manufacturers began to construct mobile access towers with light-weight ladders using

aluminium frames and castors.

Taking this into account, CEN/TC53 decided in 1980 to standardize the manufacture of mobile access

and working towers in parallel with the European standardization of prefabricated service and working

scaffolds EN 12810-2 and EN 12811-3.

For materials, this document refers only to valid documents. However, a large stock of equipment made

of materials conforming to documents no longer valid is in use. This document does not cover this

equipment.

Attention is drawn to the requirements of the European Council Directive 2009/104/EC (provisions

concerning the use of work equipment provided for temporary work at a height).

The average height of people continues to increase and that consideration will have to be given in later

revisions to altering vertical dimensions.
The wind load requirements of this standard (0,1 kN/m ).

Consider the fact that mobile access towers are generally intended for shorter duration tasks and may

be re-located or quickly dismantled. Attention is drawn to 3.1, Note 2 and to the requirements of

EN 1298 regarding information relating to wind conditions.

Mobile access and working towers are not anchor points for personal fall arrest equipment unless they

are specifically designed in accordance with relevant European standards by the manufacturer for that

purpose.
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document applies to the design of mobile access and working towers made of prefabricated

elements with dimensions which are fixed by the design and with a height up to 12 m (indoors) and up

to 8 m (outdoors). This document applies to mobile access and working towers used as temporary work

equipment.
This document:

— gives guidelines for the choice of the main dimensions and stabilizing methods,

— gives safety and performance requirements, and
— gives information on complete towers.

This product standard does not apply to scaffolds according to EN 12810-1 and EN 12811-1.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 131-2, Ladders — Part 2: Requirements, testing, marking

EN 1298, Mobile access and working towers — Rules and guidelines for the preparation of an instruction

manual

EN 1991-1-4:2005, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures — Part 1-4: General actions - Wind actions

EN 1993-1-1, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

EN 1995-1-1, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures — Part 1-1: General — Common rules and rules for

buildings

EN 1999-1-1 , Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures — Part 1-1: General structural rules

EN 12810-2:2003, Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components — Part 2: Particular methods of

structural design

EN 12811-1, Temporary works equipment — Part 1: Scaffolds — Performance requirements and general

design
EN 12811-2, Temporary works equipment — Part 2: Information on materials
EN 12811-3, Temporary works equipment — Part 3: Load testing

EN ISO 2081, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Electroplated coatings of zinc with supplementary

treatments on iron or steel (ISO 2081)
1) This document is impacted by the amendment EN 1991-1-4:2005/A1:2010.

2) This document is impacted by the amendments EN 1999-1-1:2007/A1:2009 and EN 1999-1-1:2007/A1:2013.

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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/
3.1
mobile access and working towers

temporary free-standing structures consisting of prefabricated elements, having dimensions fixed by

the design and four legs with castors, providing one or more platforms

Note 1 to entry: Mobile access and working towers can have outriggers or stabilizers. They can be stabilized by

supports on the ground or wall struts against a stable structures or ballast.

Note 2 to entry: Mobile access and working towers have castor wheels. Mobile access and working towers can

be removed immediately, in case of arising wind greater than equivalent dynamic pressure 0,1 kN/m or at the

end of the work shift.
3.2
height (h)
distance from the ground to the upper surface of the uppermost platform
3.3
castor wheel

swivelling wheel secured to the base of a mobile access and working tower to enable the tower to be

moved
3.4
adjustable leg

component incorporated into the structure of a mobile access and working tower at its base used for

the purpose of levelling the structure when situated on uneven or sloping ground
3.5
platform unit

prefabricated unit which forms the platform or part of the platform, that supports a load on its own and

might form a structural part of the mobile access and working tower
3.6
bracing member
means used to stiffen the structure
3.7
outrigger

component that increases the effective base dimensions of a tower, with provision for the attachment of

a castor
3.8
stabilizer

component that increases the effective base dimensions of a tower, without provisions for the

attachment of a castor
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EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
3.9
ballast

weights placed at the base of the tower to increase its resistance to overturning

3.10
wall strut
means for providing compressive restraint to prevent a tower overturning

Note 1 to entry: It is normally a horizontal tubular member, one end of which is connected to the tower, while

the other end rests against a wall or other structure.
3.11
stairway
means of access intended for persons carrying tools or materials
3.12
stairladder
means of access intended for person's not carrying tools or materials
3.13
inclined ladder

means of access intended for persons not carrying tools or materials with an inclination from 60° to 75°

3.14
vertical ladder

means of access intended for persons not carrying tools or materials with an inclination of 90°

3.15
platform
one or more platform units placed side by side at the same level
3.16
platform length (l)
greater of the two plane dimensions at the platform level
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.17
platform width (w)
lesser of the two plane dimensions at the platform level
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Width and length of a platform
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
3.18
indoors
place where the tower will not be exposed to wind loads
3.19
outdoors
place where the tower might be exposed to wind loads
3.20
side protection

components forming a barrier to protect people from the risk of falling and to retain materials

3.21
working platform

platform in a mobile access and working tower from where the work will be carried out

3.22
intermediate platform
platform in a mobile access and working tower that is not a working platform
3.23
positive locking device

mechanical locking device not relying on friction which prevents unintentional disconnection

EXAMPLE A pin, bolt or protrusion.
4 Classification
4.1 Load classes
The classes of uniformly distributed load are given in Table 1.
Table 1 — Classes of uniformly distributed load
Uniformly distributed load q
Load class
kN/m
2 1,50
3 2,00
4.2 Access classes
Four options for access to the platform are described in 7.6.
4.3 Height classes
Two options for minimum clear height between platforms are described in 7.2.
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
5 Designation

The following data are required for the designation of all prefabricated mobile access and working

towers:
a) class of uniformly distributed load (see 4.1);
b) maximum height outdoors/indoors;
c) access classes (see 4.2);
d) clear height classes (see 4.3).
Example
6 Materials

Materials shall fulfil the requirements given in European standards, where design data are provided. If

European standards do not exist, ISO standards can be applied.

Materials shall be sufficiently robust and durable to withstand normal working conditions.

Additional requirements for some materials are given in EN 12811-2.

When materials are used, whose properties in relation to the intended application (e.g. temperature,

ageing, UV-degradation) are not given in any available standard an adequate assessment is required.

Steel shall be protected by one of the methods given in EN 12811-2, or zinc plated to the level required

for the design service environment stated in EN ISO 2081.
7 General requirements
7.1 General
A mobile access and working tower shall only consist of a single-bay structure.

The mobile access and working tower shall be designed such that it can be assembled, altered and

dismantled without the need for personal fall protection equipment.
Only one platform shall be a working platform at one time.

The mobile access and working tower shall be designed in such a way that the uppermost platform is a

working platform and lower platforms are intermediate platforms.

NOTE An intermediate platform can be changed to be the working platform if it is equipped with side

protection, including toe boards.
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The vertical distance between platforms shall be no greater than 2,25 m.

The vertical distance between the ground and the first platform shall be no greater than 3,40 m.

However, if a platform is placed ≤ 0,6 m from the ground, it is allowed to have a vertical distance no

greater than 3,40 m between that platform and the next platform. See Figure 2.

If the mobile access and working tower cannot be entered from the inside of the structure, the

requirements of 7.11 shall apply.
Key
x ≤ 0,6 m
y ≤ 3,40 m
z ≤ 2,25 m
1 first platform
2 second platform
NOTE Stabilizers are omitted from this figure for clarity.
Figure 2 — Maximum distance between platforms
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
7.2 Dimensions

The minimum width, w, of the platform shall be 0,60 m and the minimum length, l, shall be 1,00 m. See

Figure 1.
The minimum clear width between the toe boards shall be 0,5 m.

The minimum clear height between platforms H shall be in accordance with Table 2.

Table 2 — Clear height classes
Clear height class Minimum clear height H in m
H1 1,85
H2 1,90
7.3 Openings within platforms
7.3.1 Access openings

Access openings in platforms through which the user will climb shall have a minimum clear opening of

0,40 m wide × 0,60 m long.

Access openings in platforms shall be provided with a means to prevent falling through. The trapdoor

shall be fastenable in the closed position.
7.3.2 Apertures

Apertures in platforms or between platform units shall not exceed 25 mm in width. This does not apply

to apertures like hand holes in hatches.
7.4 Side protection
7.4.1 General
Dimensions for side protection shall be in accordance with Figure 3.
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key

h distance between uppermost surface of the platform and uppermost surface of the principal guardrail

r corner radius of side protection consisting of a frame to be constant (see 7.4.3)

const
Figure 3 — Dimensions for side protection

Side protection is composed of a principal guardrail, intermediate side protection and a toe board. The

principal guardrail, intermediate side protection, and toe-board may be combined.

Side protection components shall be incapable of removal except by direct intentional action.

It shall be possible to erect protection at platform edges comprising:
a) both a principal guardrail and intermediate side protection;
b) toe-board.
Toe boards may be omitted on intermediate platforms.
7.4.2 Principal guardrail

The principal guardrail shall be fixed so that its uppermost surface is a minimum of 1 000 mm above the

uppermost surface of the platform it is protecting, measured vertically (dimension h in Figure 3). A

minus tolerance of 50 mm is acceptable.
7.4.3 Intermediate side protection

Intermediate side protection shall be fixed between the principal guardrail and the toe-board.

Intermediate side protection may consist of:
— one or more intermediate guardrails, or
— a frame, or
3) See A-deviations in Annex B.
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SIST EN 1004-1:2021
EN 1004-1:2020 (E)

— a frame of which the principal guardrail forms the top edge, or a fencing structure.

Openings in the side protection shall be so dimensioned so that a sphere with a diameter of more than

470 mm will not pass through them.
7.4.4 Toe-board

It shall be possible to fix a solid toe-board such that its top edge is at least 150 mm above the adjacent

platform level. Apertures in toe boards shall not exceed 25 mm in width. This does not apply to

apertures like hand holes.
7.5 Castor wheels
7.5.1 General

Castor wheels shall be fixed to the tower in such a way that they cannot be unintentionally detached.

The castor wheel shall not detach from the frame due to the action of its self-weight.

7.5.2 Brakes

All castors shall have wheel brakes. They shall have swivel brakes if the wheels are eccentric when

locked.

The brake mechanism shall be designed in such a way that it can only be unlocked by a deliberate

action. The brake mechanism shall effectively prevent any rotation of the wheel when a horizontal force

of 0,30 kN is applied through the vertical swivel axis of the castor as close as possible above the castor

housing and in the rolling direction of the castor. The full value of the specified service load per castor

wheel is to be applied when testing the castor brakes. A minimum of five control tests shall be carried

out.
7.5.3 Test loads
The test shall be carried out on the complete castor wheel.

The vertical service load per wheel given by the manufacturer of the mobile access and working tower

shall be verified by a minimum of five tests.

The test load shall be three times the service load per castor wheel derived from the most unfavourable

load combination from Table 3.

When the brakes are locked, an initial vertical load of 0,50 kN shall be applied. The plate of the fork shall

be taken as the origin for measurements of vertical displacement, d , and the residual deformation, d .

c r

The load shall be increased to the maximum test load, maintained for one minute and the vertical

deformation, d , shall be measured. The load shall be returned to 0,50 kN. After 30 min, the residual

deformation, d , shall be measured.
The test shall meet both of the following requirements:
— residual deformation, d , after 30 min shall not be more than 3,00 mm;
— total deformation, d , shall not be more than 15 mm.
The service load is verified if all five tests meet the test requirements.
7.5.4 Wheels
Wheels shall be of puncture less type.
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EN 1004-1:2020 (E)
7.6 Access to platforms
7.6.1 Access types
The access type is classified by a letter A, B, C or D as follows:
— Access type A: Stairway;
— Access type B: Stairladder;
— Access type C: Inclined ladder;
— Access type D: Vertical ladder.
Where a range of access types is provided, a combined classification is used.
EXAMPLES
Type AXCX means that stairways and inclined ladders can be provided.
Type ABCD means that all four types of access can be provided.
NOTE The X in the designation means that those types of access are not provided.
7.6.2 General requirements

Access to the platforms ≥ 2 m height in an assembled tower shall be within the main structural supports

using one of the access methods specified in 7.6.1 and shall:
— be secured against unintentional loosening;
— not rest on the ground;

— have a distance from the ground to the first step or rung of 400 mm maximum taking into account

adjustable legs. If the first step is a platform, 600 mm is allowable;
— have steps/rungs with constant spacing and a slip resistant surface.
7.6.3 Additional requirements
7.6.3.1 Stairway and stairladder

The outside of stair flights shall be provided with a handrail which runs approximately parallel to the

stairs. Where a flight of stairs is provided in a continuous dog-leg style, a handrail shall also be provided

on the inside. When flights of stairs are interrupted by platforms at ≤ 2,25 m intervals, the inside

handrail may be omitted.

Flights of stairs in a continuous dog-leg style shall have landings. Each of these stairs shall have a

minimum of one landing and this shall have a minimum length of 300 mm.

The minimum clear height for access measured between the steps and the supporting structure of the

stairway or stairladder above shall not be less than 1,75 m.
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7.6.3.2 Access type A - stairway (see Figure 4)
Stairways shall conform with the following geometric requirements:
Inclination α 35° ≤ α ≤ 55°;
Vertical step rise t1 190 mm ≤ t1 ≤ 250 mm;
Minimum step depth d d = 125 mm;
Minimum clear width w w = 400 mm;
clear clear
Horizonta
...

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