Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Method for specifying decorative and protective anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium (ISO 7599:2018)

This document specifies a method for specifying decorative and protective anodic oxidation coatings
on aluminium (including aluminium-based alloys). It defines the characteristic properties of anodic
oxidation coatings, lists methods of test for checking the characteristic properties, provides minimum
performance requirements, and gives information on the grades of aluminium suitable for anodizing
and the importance of pretreatment to ensure the required appearance or texture of the finished work.
It is not applicable to
a) non-porous anodic oxidation coatings of the barrier layer type,
b) anodic oxidation coatings produced by chromic acid or phosphoric acid anodizing,
c) anodic oxidation coatings intended merely to prepare the substrate for subsequent application of
organic coatings or for the electrodeposition of metals, and
d) hard anodic oxidation coatings used mainly for engineering purposes, for which abrasion and wear
resistance are the primary characteristics (see ISO 10074).

Anodisieren von Aluminium und Aluminiumlegierungen - Verfahren zur Spezifizierung dekorativer und schützender anodisch erzeugter Oxidschichten auf Aluminium (ISO 7599:2018)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren zur Spezifizierung dekorativer und schützender anodisch erzeugter Oxidschichten auf Aluminium (einschließlich der Legierungen auf Grundlage von Aluminium) fest. Es definiert die charakteristischen Eigenschaften anodisch erzeugter Oxidschichten, gibt Verfahren zur Über-prüfung der charakteristischen Eigenschaften an, legt Mindestleistungsanforderungen fest, stellt Informatio¬nen zur Güte des zum Anodisieren geeigneten Aluminiums bereit und geht auf die Bedeutung einer Vorbehandlung zur Sicherstellung des geforderten Aussehens bzw. der Struktur des fertigen Werkstücks ein.
Es gilt nicht für
a)   porenfreie anodisch erzeugte Oxidschichten, die als Sperrschicht wirken;
b)   anodisch erzeugte Oxidschichten, die durch Anodisieren mit Chrom oder Phosphorsäure erzeugt wurden;
c)   anodisch erzeugte Oxidschichten, die lediglich dazu vorgesehen sind, das Grundmetall für die nachfolgende Aufbringung organischer Schichten oder für die elektrolytische Abscheidung von Metallen vorzubereiten und
d)   hartanodisierte Oxidschichten, die überwiegend für technische Zwecke verwendet werden, für die Abrieb- und Verschleißfestigkeit die primären Eigenschaften sind (siehe ISO 10074).

Anodisation de l'aluminium et de ses alliages - Méthode de spécification des caractéristiques des revêtements décoratifs et protecteurs obtenus par oxydation anodique sur aluminium (ISO 7599:2018)

ISO 7599:2018 établit une méthode pour spécifier les couches anodiques décoratives et protectrices sur aluminium (y compris les alliages à base d'aluminium). Il définit les propriétés caractéristiques des couches anodiques, énumère les méthodes d'essai permettant de vérifier ces propriétés, fournit des exigences minimales de performance, renseigne sur les nuances d'aluminium aptes à l'anodisation et souligne l'importance du prétraitement dans l'obtention de l'aspect ou de l'état de surface requis de la pièce finie.
ISO 7599:2018 n'est pas applicable:
a)    aux couches anodiques non poreuses du type couches-barrières;
b)    aux couches anodiques produites par anodisation à l'acide chromique ou à l'acide phosphorique;
c)    aux couches anodiques destinées principalement à servir de support à un autre revêtement organique ou électrolytique; et
d)    aux couches anodiques dures à usage industriel privilégiant les aspects de résistance à l'usure et à l'abrasion (voir l'ISO 10074).

Anodizacija aluminija in njegovih zlitin - Metoda za specifikacijo dekorativnih in zaščitnih anodiziranih plasti na aluminiju (ISO 7599:2018)

Ta dokument določa metodo za določanje dekorativnih in zaščitnih anodno oksidiranih prevlek na aluminiju (vključno z zlitinami na osnovi aluminija). Določa značilne lastnosti anodno oksidiranih prevlek, navaja preskusne metode za preverjanje značilnih lastnosti, podaja minimalne zahteve glede učinkovitosti in navaja informacije o razredih aluminija, ki so primerni za eloksiranje, ter pomen predobdelave, ki zagotavlja zahtevan videz ali teksturo končne obdelave.
Standard se ne uporablja za:
a) neporozne anodno oksidirane prevleke na tipu zaščitnega sloja,
b) anodno oksidirane prevleke, ki nastanejo zaradi eloksiranja s kromovo kislino ali fosforno kislino,
c) anodno oksidirane prevleke, ki so namenjene zgolj pripravi podlage za poznejši nanos organskih prevlek ali za elektrodepozicijo kovin; in
d) trde anodno oksidirane prevleke, ki se uporabljajo predvsem v gradbene namene, pri čemer sta glavni lastnosti odpornost proti odrgnjenju in obrabi (glej ISO 10074).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Mar-2017
Publication Date
18-Mar-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Mar-2018
Due Date
06-May-2018
Completion Date
19-Mar-2018

Relations

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
English language
29 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day
Draft
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
English language
29 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
01-april-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 7599:2010

$QRGL]DFLMDDOXPLQLMDLQQMHJRYLK]OLWLQ0HWRGD]DVSHFLILNDFLMRGHNRUDWLYQLKLQ

]DãþLWQLKDQRGL]LUDQLKSODVWLQDDOXPLQLMX ,62

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Method for specifying decorative and protective

anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium (ISO 7599:2018)

Anodisieren von Aluminium und Aluminiumlegierungen - Verfahren zur Spezifizierung

dekorativer und schützender anodisch erzeugter Oxidschichten auf Aluminium (ISO
7599:2018)
Anodisation de l'aluminium et de ses alliages - Méthode de spécification des
caractéristiques des revêtements décoratifs et protecteurs obtenus par oxydation
anodique sur aluminium (ISO 7599:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 7599:2018
ICS:
25.220.20 Površinska obdelava Surface treatment
77.120.10 Aluminij in aluminijeve zlitine Aluminium and aluminium
alloys
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
EN ISO 7599
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.220.20 Supersedes EN ISO 7599:2010
English Version
Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Method for
specifying decorative and protective anodic oxidation
coatings on aluminium (ISO 7599:2018)
Anodisation de l'aluminium et de ses alliages - Anodisieren von Aluminium und

Méthode de spécification des caractéristiques des Aluminiumlegierungen - Verfahren zur Spezifizierung

revêtements décoratifs et protecteurs obtenus par dekorativer und schützender anodisch erzeugter

oxydation anodique sur aluminium (ISO 7599:2018) Oxidschichten auf Aluminium (ISO 7599:2018)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 December 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 7599:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
EN ISO 7599:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
EN ISO 7599:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 7599:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 79 "Light

metals and their alloys" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 132 “Aluminium and

aluminium alloys”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2018, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 7599:2010.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 7599:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 7599:2018 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 7599
Third edition
2018-01
Anodizing of aluminium and its
alloys — Method for specifying
decorative and protective anodic
oxidation coatings on aluminium
Anodisation de l'aluminium et de ses alliages — Méthode de
spécification des caractéristiques des revêtements décoratifs et
protecteurs obtenus par oxydation anodique sur aluminium
Reference number
ISO 7599:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
ISO 7599:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
ISO 7599:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Information supplied by the customer to the anodizer ............................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Essential information ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3 Additional information .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Sampling procedures ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Test specimens ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Acceptance tests .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Referee tests .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5 Production control tests ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Coating thickness ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Measurement of thickness ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

7 Quality of sealing .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Assessment of quality of hydrothermal sealing ......................................................................................................... 5

7.2.1 Referee test ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2.2 Production control tests ............................................................................................................................................ 6

7.3 Assessment of quality of cold sealing .................................................................................................................................. 6

7.4 Assessment of quality of other sealing treatments ................................................................................................. 6

8 Appearance and colour .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

8.1 Visible defects .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Colour and surface texture ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.3 Production control ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9 Corrosion resistance ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

10 Abrasion (wear) resistance ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11 Resistance to cracking by deformation ......................................................................................................................................... 8

12 Fastness to light and ultraviolet radiation................................................................................................................................. 8

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

12.2 Fastness to light ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

12.3 Fastness to ultraviolet radiation .............................................................................................................................................. 8

13 Light reflection properties ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

13.2 Total reflectance ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

13.3 Specular reflectance (high gloss) ............................................................................................................................................ 9

13.4 Specular gloss (medium or low gloss) .............................................................................................................................10

13.5 Diffuse reflectance ............................................................................................................................................................................10

13.6 Image clarity ..........................................................................................................................................................................................10

14 Electrical breakdown potential ..........................................................................................................................................................10

15 Continuity of coating .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

16 Mass per unit area (surface density) of coating ................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Guide to grades of aluminium for anodizing ...............................................................................11

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
ISO 7599:2018(E)

Annex B (informative) Guidance on surface preparation ............................................................................................................12

Annex C (normative) Interpretation of average and local thickness requirements ........................................14

Annex D (informative) Calibration standards for eddy-current apparatus used to measure

the thickness of anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium ....................................................................................15

Annex E (informative) Guidance on cleaning materials for external architectural applications .......19

Annex F (informative) Summary of information to be supplied by the customer to the anodizer ...20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
ISO 7599:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 79, Light metals and their alloys,

Subcommittee SC 2, Organic and anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 7599:2010), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— certain terms and definitions have been deleted;
— Annex D has been revised.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 7599:2018(E)
Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Method for
specifying decorative and protective anodic oxidation
coatings on aluminium
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for specifying decorative and protective anodic oxidation coatings

on aluminium (including aluminium-based alloys). It defines the characteristic properties of anodic

oxidation coatings, lists methods of test for checking the characteristic properties, provides minimum

performance requirements, and gives information on the grades of aluminium suitable for anodizing

and the importance of pretreatment to ensure the required appearance or texture of the finished work.

It is not applicable to
a) non-porous anodic oxidation coatings of the barrier layer type,

b) anodic oxidation coatings produced by chromic acid or phosphoric acid anodizing,

c) anodic oxidation coatings intended merely to prepare the substrate for subsequent application of

organic coatings or for the electrodeposition of metals, and

d) hard anodic oxidation coatings used mainly for engineering purposes, for which abrasion and wear

resistance are the primary characteristics (see ISO 10074).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 2085, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Check for continuity of thin anodic oxidation coatings —

Copper sulfate test

ISO 2106, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Determination of mass per unit area (surface density) of

anodic oxidation coatings — Gravimetric method

ISO 2128, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Determination of thickness of anodic oxidation

coatings — Non-destructive measurement by split-beam microscope

ISO 2143, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Estimation of loss of absorptive power of anodic

oxidation coatings after sealing — Dye-spot test with prior acid treatment

ISO 2360, Non-conductive coatings on non-magnetic electrically conductive base metals — Measurement

of coating thickness — Amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method

ISO 2376, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Determination of electric breakdown potential

ISO 2931, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Assessment of quality of sealed anodic oxidation coatings

by measurement of admittance

ISO 3210, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Assessment of quality of sealed anodic oxidation coatings

by measurement of the loss of mass after immersion in acid solution(s)
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
ISO 7599:2018(E)

ISO 3211, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Assessment of resistance of anodic oxidation coatings to

cracking by deformation
ISO 7583, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Terms and definitions

ISO 8251, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Measurement of abrasion resistance of anodic oxidation

coatings

ISO 8993, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion —

Chart method

ISO 8994, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion —

Grid method

ISO 9220, Metallic coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Scanning electron microscope method

ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7583 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
4 Information supplied by the customer to the anodizer
4.1 General

The information required from the customer by the anodizer in order to anodize the product correctly

is given in 4.2 and 4.3: 4.2 specifies information that is essential whenever a product is to be anodized;

4.3 identifies additional information required for particular product applications. A summary of the

subclause references relating to this information is given in Annex F.

NOTE Certain properties (for example, high specular reflectance) are only obtainable by the use of special

alloys, and some properties can be incompatible with others.

The customer and the anodizer can share the information about cleaning in case of external

architectural application (see Annex E).
4.2 Essential information

The following information shall be supplied by the customer to the anodizer, if necessary in consultation

with the aluminium supplier and/or anodizer:
a) a reference to this document, i.e. ISO 7599;
b) the intended service use of the article to be anodized;
c) the specification of the aluminium to be anodized;
d) an indication of the significant surface(s) of the article to be anodized;
e) the surface preparation to be used on the aluminium before anodizing;
f) the anodic oxidation coating thickness class required (see 6.2);
g) whether a clear or coloured anodized finish is required;
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
ISO 7599:2018(E)

h) whether the product is to be sealed or left unsealed, and if it is to be sealed, what sealing method is

to be used.

Significant surfaces as per d) above are indicated preferably by drawings or by suitably marked test

specimens; in some cases, there can be different requirements for the finish on different parts of the

significant surface(s).

The surface preparation as per e) above is indicated preferably by agreed samples; guidance on surface

preparation is given in Annex B.
NOTE Guidance on the choice of aluminium is given in Annex A.
4.3 Additional information

Additional information can be required for certain applications and, if so, shall be specified by the

customer, if necessary in consultation with the anodizer. It includes the following:

a) the type of anodizing and the colouring process to be used;
b) details of any formal sampling plans required;
c) the preferred position and maximum size of contact marks;

d) any limits of variation of final surface finish on the significant surface(s);

e) the colour of the anodized article(s) and maximum limits of colour variation (see 8.2);

f) any requirements for quality of sealing;
g) any requirements for corrosion resistance and the method of test to be used;

h) any requirements for abrasion resistance, the property to be tested and the measurements

required (i.e. wear resistance, wear resistance coefficient, wear index, mass wear index, mean

specific abrasion resistance) and the method of test to be used;
i) any requirements for resistance to cracking by deformation;

j) any requirements for fastness to light or ultraviolet radiation of coloured anodic oxidation coatings;

k) any requirements for light reflection properties, i.e. total reflectance, specular reflectance, specular

gloss, diffuse reflectance and image clarity;
l) any requirements for electric breakdown potential;
m) any requirements for the continuity of the anodic oxidation coating;
n) any requirements for the mass per unit area (surface density) of the coating.

Acceptable limits of variation of final surface finish as per d) above are identified preferably by agreed

limit samples.

Acceptable maximum limits of colour variation as per e) above are identified preferably by agreed limit

samples.
5 Tests
5.1 Sampling procedures

Sampling procedures shall be specified by the customer. Guidance on the choice of suitable sampling

procedures is given in ISO 2859-1.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 7599:2018
ISO 7599:2018(E)
5.2 Test specimens

Wherever practicable, test specimens shall be production components. However, if by agreement

special test specimens are prepared for convenience in referee or acceptance tests, they shall be of the

same alloy as the production components and processed through the anodizing line at the same time as

the production components.
5.3 Acceptance tests
Acceptance tests shall be as specified by the customer.
5.4 Referee tests

In cases of dispute, the appropriate referee tests specified in this document shall be used.

5.5 Production control tests

Tests for production control purposes shall be at the discretion of the anodizer.

6 Coating thickness
6.1 General

Anodic oxidation coatings are designated by their thickness class. The required thickness of a coating is

of the utmost importance and shall always be specified.
6.2 Classification

Anodic oxidation coatings are graded according to the minimum allowed value of the average thickness

(minimum average thickness) in micrometres. The thickness classes are designated by the letters “AA”,

followed by the thickness grade; typical thickness classes are given in Table 1.

For anodic oxidation coatings designed to impart particular surface properties, an average thickness

higher than typical may be selected, and additional intermediate values of average thickness may

be specified if necessary, but in no case shall the minimum local thickness be less than 80 % of the

minimum average thickness. The choice of thickness class will depend on relevant national standards.

Table 1 — Typical coating thickness classes
Minimum average Minimum local
a a
Class thickness thickness
μm μm
AA 5 5,0 4
AA 10 10,0 8
AA 15 15,0 12
AA 20 20,0 16
AA 25 25,0 20
The interpretation of average and local thickness requirements on a test
specimen shall be in accordance with Annex C.

For certain applications, such as those where resistance to corrosion is paramount, the anodizer and

the customer may agree to specify a minimum local thickness, with no restriction as to the average

thickness.
The use of some dyestuffs necessitates the specification of class AA 20 or highe
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
01-februar-2017

$OXPLQLMLQDOXPLQLMHYH]OLWLQH6SHFLILNDFLMH]DGHNRUDWLYQHLQ]DãþLWQHDQRGL]LUDQH

SODVWLQDDOXPLQLMX ,62',6

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Method for specifying decorative and protective

anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium (ISO/DIS 7599:2016)

Anodisieren von Aluminium und Aluminiumlegierungen - Verfahren zur Spezifizierung

dekorativer und schützender anodisch erzeugter Oxidschichten auf Aluminium (ISO/DIS

7599:2016)

Anodisation de l'aluminium et de ses alliages - Spécifications générales pour couches

anodiques sur aluminium (ISO/DIS 7599:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 7599
ICS:
25.220.20 Površinska obdelava Surface treatment
77.120.10 Aluminij in aluminijeve zlitine Aluminium and aluminium
alloys
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 7599
ISO/TC 79/SC 2 Secretariat: JISC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2016-12-27 2017-03-20
Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Method for
specifying decorative and protective anodic oxidation
coatings on aluminium

Anodisation de l’aluminium et de ses alliages — Spécifications générales pour couches anodiques sur

aluminium
ICS: 25.220.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)
Contents

Foreword................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references...................................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Information supplied by customer to anodizer................................................................................................... 7

5 Tests ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6 Coating thickness.............................................................................................................................................................10

7 Quality of sealing .............................................................................................................................................................11

8 Appearance and colour.................................................................................................................................................12

9 Corrosion resistance ......................................................................................................................................................13

10 Abrasion (wear) resistance......................................................................................................................................13

11 Resistance to cracking by deformation ..............................................................................................................14

12 Fastness to light and ultraviolet radiation........................................................................................................14

13 Light reflection properties .......................................................................................................................................15

14 Electrical breakdown potential..............................................................................................................................17

15 Continuity of coating ...................................................................................................................................................17

2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)

16 Mass per unit area (surface density) of coating..............................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Guide to grades of aluminium for anodizing ..........................................................18

A.1 General .............................................................................................................................................................................18

A.2 Architectural and decorative quality .................................................................................................................18

A.3 Bright anodizing quality...........................................................................................................................................18

A.4 General engineering quality...................................................................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Guidance on surface preparation ................................................................................19

B.1 General .............................................................................................................................................................................19

B.2 Surface texture .............................................................................................................................................................19

B.3 Surface preparation designation system..........................................................................................................19

Annex C (normative) Interpretation of average and local thickness requirements ............................21

Annex D (informative) Calibration standards for eddy-current apparatus used to measure the

thickness of anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium.......................................................................................22

D.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................................22

D.2 Standard specimens of anodized aluminium .................................................................................................22

D.3 Polymeric calibration standards .........................................................................................................................25

Annex E (informative) Guidance on cleaning materials for external architectural applications ..26

E.1 pH value of cleaning materials ..............................................................................................................................26

E.2 Abrasive cleaning materials ...................................................................................................................................26

Annex F (informative) Summary of information to be supplied by the customer to the anodizer

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................27

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 79, Light metals and their alloys, Subcommittee

SC 2, Organic and anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 7599:2010), which has been technically

revised.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)
Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Method for specifying
decorative and protective anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium
1 Scope

This International Standard lays down a method for specifying decorative and protective anodic

oxidation coatings on aluminium (including aluminium-based alloys). It defines the characteristic

properties of anodic oxidation coatings, lists methods of test for checking the characteristic properties,

provides minimum performance requirements, and gives information on the grades of aluminium

suitable for anodizing and the importance of pretreatment to ensure the required appearance or texture

of the finished work.
It is not applicable to
a) non-porous anodic oxidation coatings of the barrier layer type,

b) anodic oxidation coatings produced by chromic acid or phosphoric acid anodizing,

c) anodic oxidation coatings intended merely to prepare the substrate for subsequent application of

organic coatings or for the electrodeposition of metals,

d) hard anodic oxidation coatings used mainly for engineering purposes, for which abrasion and wear

resistance are the primary characteristics (see ISO 10074).
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 2085, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Check for continuity of thin anodic oxidation coatings

— Copper sulfate test

ISO 2106, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Determination of mass per unit area (surface density)

of anodic oxidation coatings — Gravimetric method

ISO 2128, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Determination of thickness of anodic oxidation

coatings — Non-destructive measurement by split-beam microscope

ISO 2135, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Accelerated test of light fastness of coloured anodic

oxidation coatings using artificial light

ISO 2143, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Estimation of loss of absorptive power of anodic

oxidation coatings after sealing — Dye-spot test with prior acid treatment

ISO 2360, Non-conductive coatings on non-magnetic electrically conductive basis materials —

Measurement of coating thickness — Amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)

ISO 2376, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Determination of electric breakdown potential

ISO 2931, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Assessment of quality of sealed anodic oxidation

coatings by measurement of admittance

ISO 3210, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Assessment of quality of sealed anodic oxidation

coatings by measurement of the loss of mass after immersion in phosphoric acid/chromic acid solution

ISO 3211, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Assessment of resistance of anodic oxidation coatings

to cracking by deformation

ISO 6581, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Determination of the comparative fastness to

ultraviolet light and heat of coloured anodic oxidation coatings

ISO 6719, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Measurement of reflectance characteristics of

aluminium surfaces using integrating-sphere instruments
ISO 7583, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Vocabulary

ISO 7668, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Measurement of specular reflectance and specular

gloss of anodic oxidation coatings at angles of 20 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees or 85 degrees

ISO 7759, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Measurement of reflectance characteristics of

aluminium surfaces using a goniophotometer or an abridged goniophotometer

ISO 8251, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Measurement of abrasion resistance of anodic

oxidation coatings

ISO 8993, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion —

Chart method

ISO 8994, Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion —

Grid method

ISO 9220, Metallic coatings – Measurement of coating thickness – Scanning electron microscope method

ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO 10215, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Visual determination of image clarity of anodic

oxidation coatings — Chart scale method

ISO 10216, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Instrumental determination of image clarity of

anodic oxidation coatings — Instrumental method
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7583 apply.

4 Information supplied by customer to anodizer
4.1 General
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)

The information required from the customer by the anodizer in order to anodize the product correctly

is given in 4.2 and 4.3: 4.2 specifies information that is essential whenever a product is to be anodized;

4.3 identifies additional information required for particular product applications. A summary of the

subclause references relating to this information is given in Annex F.

NOTE Certain properties (for example, high specular reflectance) are only obtainable by the use of special alloys,

and some properties can be incompatible with others.
4.2 Essential information

The following information shall be supplied by the customer to the anodizer, if necessary in

consultation with the aluminium supplier and/or anodizer:
a) a reference to this International Standard;
b) the intended service use of the article to be anodized;
c) the specification of the aluminium to be anodized;
d) an indication of the significant surface(s) of the article to be anodized;
e) the surface preparation to be used on the aluminium before anodizing;
f) the anodic oxidation coating thickness class required (see 6.2);
g) whether a clear or coloured anodized finish is required;

h) whether the product is to be sealed or left unsealed, and if it is to be sealed, what sealing method is

to be used.

Significant surfaces as per d) above are indicated preferably by drawings or by suitably marked

samples; in some cases, there can be different requirements for the finish on different parts of the

significant surface(s).

The surface preparation as per e) above is indicated preferably by agreed samples; guidance on surface

preparation is given in Annex B.
NOTE Guidance on the choice of aluminium is given in Annex A.
4.3 Additional information

Additional information can be required for certain applications and, if so, shall be specified by the

customer, if necessary in consultation with the anodizer. It includes the following:

a) the type of anodizing and the colouring process to be used;
b) details of any formal sampling plans required;
c) the preferred position and maximum size of contact marks;

d) any limits of variation of final surface finish on the significant surface(s);

8 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)

e) the colour of the anodized article(s) and maximum limits of colour variation (see 8.2);

f) any requirements for quality of sealing;
g) any requirements for corrosion resistance and the method of test to be used;

h) any requirements for abrasion (wear) resistance, the property to be tested and the measurements

required

(i.e. wear resistance, wear resistance coefficient, wear index, mass wear index, mean specific

abrasion resistance) and the method of test to be used;
i) any requirements for resistance to cracking by deformation;

j) any requirements for fastness to light or ultraviolet radiation of coloured anodic oxidation coatings;

k) any requirements for light reflection properties, i.e. total reflectance, specular reflectance, specular

gloss, diffuse reflectance and image clarity;
l) any requirements for electric breakdown potential;
m) any requirements for the continuity of the anodic oxidation coating;
n) any requirements for the mass per unit area (surface density) of the coating.

Acceptable limits of variation of final surface finish as per d) above are identified preferably by agreed

limit samples.

Acceptable maximum limits of colour variation as per e) above are identified preferably by agreed limit

samples.
5 Tests
5.1 Sampling procedures

Sampling procedures shall be specified by the customer. Guidance on the choice of suitable sampling

procedures is given in ISO 2859-1.
5.2 Test pieces

Wherever practicable, test pieces shall be production components. However, if by agreement special

test pieces are prepared for convenience in referee or acceptance tests, they shall be of the same alloy

as the production components and processed through the anodizing line at the same time as the

production components.
5.3 Acceptance tests
Acceptance tests shall be as specified by the customer.
5.4 Referee tests

In cases of dispute, the appropriate referee tests specified in this International Standard shall be used.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)
5.5 Production control tests

Tests for production control purposes shall be at the discretion of the anodizer.

6 Coating thickness
6.1 General

Anodic oxidation coatings are designated by their thickness class. The required thickness of a coating is

of the utmost importance and shall always be specified.
6.2 Classification

Anodic oxidation coatings are graded according to the minimum allowed value of the average thickness

(minimum average thickness) in micrometres. The thickness classes are designated by the letters “AA”,

followed by the thickness grade; typical thickness classes are given in Table 1.

For anodic oxidation coatings designed to impart particular surface properties, an average thickness

higher than typical may be selected, and additional intermediate values of average thickness may be

specified if necessary, but in no case shall the minimum local thickness be less than 80 % of the

minimum average thickness. The choice of thickness class will depend on relevant national standards.

Table 1 — Typical coating thickness classes
Minimum average
Minimum local thickness
thickness
Class
AA 5 5,0 4
AA 10 10,0 8
AA 15 15,0 12
AA 20 20,0 16
AA 25 25,0 20
The interpretation of average and local thickness requirements on a piece
being tested shall be in accordance with Annex C.

For certain applications, such as those where resistance to corrosion is paramount, the anodizer and the

customer may agree to specify a minimum local thickness, with no restriction as to the average

thickness.

The use of some dyestuffs necessitates the specification of class 20 or higher to obtain adequate dye

absorption and light fastness.

For anodized aluminium, the degree of protection against pitting corrosion of the aluminium increases

with an increase in coating thickness. Thus, product life time is very dependent on the coatin g

thickness. Specifiers should consider the full life cycle impact of the product, including the energy

expenditure associated with manufacture, in-service maintenance procedures and recycling.

10 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)
6.3 Measurement of thickness

Thickness measurements shall be carried out by one or more of the following methods:

e) examination of cross-section using microscopy in accordance with ISO 1463 or ISO 9220;

f) eddy-current method in accordance with ISO 2360;
g) split-beam microscope method specified in ISO 2128.

When using method b), the measurement apparatus shall be calibrated in accordance with the

manufacturer’s instructions using calibration standards before any measuring is performed.

Calibration standards are described in Annex D.
In cases of dispute, method a) shall be the referee method.

Thickness measurements shall be made on the significant surfaces in accordance with Annex C, but no

measurements shall be made within 5 mm of the areas of anodic contact or in the immediate vicinity of

a sharp edge.
7 Quality of sealing
7.1 General

Sealing is a treatment applied to an anodic oxidation coating to reduce its porosity and absorption

capacity (ISO 7583). In many applications, anodic oxidation coatings are expected to resist degradation

by aqueous solutions. Sealing can provide that resistance. Where the retention of the initial

appearance is important, for example in outdoor architectural applications, sealing at the surface of the

anodic oxidation coating is important. Where the anodized aluminium is expected to resist st rongly

acidic or alkaline conditions over a short time period, for example car-wash fluids, sealing throughout

the thickness of the coating can be important.

Hydrothermal sealing is very well established and quality control methods have been developed for

anodic oxidation coatings sealed using such treatments. These test methods can be appropriate where

other sealing treatments are used.
7.2 Assessment of quality of hydrothermal sealing
7.2.1 Referee test

In cases of dispute, the quality of hydrothermal sealing of anodic oxidation coatings shall be determined

by one of the test methods specified in ISO 3210. The necessity of prior acid treatment and maximum

accepted loss of mass shall be agreed between the anodizer and the customer.

The test should be carried out without prior acid treatment for internal architectural and decorative

coatings, and with prior acid treatment for external architectural coatings.

These methods are surface-specific. They test the resistance of the surface of a sealed anodic oxidation

coating to attack by certain acid solutions. They are not intended to test the quality of the whole

thickness of the coating.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 11
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)

NOTE The maximum accepted loss of mass of anodic oxidation coatings is variously set at 30 mg/dm or

40 mg/dm .
7.2.2 Production control tests
7.2.2.1 Admittance measurement

Where required, admittance shall be determined in accordance with ISO 2931. This method measures

electrical properties of the whole thickness of a sealed anodic oxidation coating; it is sensitive to coat ing

porosity.

Electrolytic colouring to produce dark colours and/or certain additives to hot-water sealing baths can

affect admittance values. In such cases the referee method (7.2.1) should be used.

NOTE For the hydrothermal sealing of clear anodic oxidation coatings, the maximum accepted corrected

admittance value is variously set at 20 μS or 25 µS relative to the conventional coating thickness of 20 μm.

7.2.2.2 Estimation of loss of absorptive power of anodic oxidation coatings after sealing.

Where required, loss of absorptive power of the surface of a sealed anodic oxidation coating shall be

determined in accordance with ISO 2143.

Electrolytic colouring to produce dark colours and/or certain additives to hot-water sealing baths can

affect dye absorption. In such cases the referee method (7.2.1) should be used.

NOTE Sealing is normally considered to be satisfactory if dye absorption ratings of 0, 1 or 2 on the colour scale

are obtained.
7.3 Assessment of quality of cold sealing

A two-step cold sealing treatment with a first step based on a nickel fluoride solution and a second step

of hydrothermal sealing or immersion in a nickel sulfate solution at above 60 °C may be specified. In

such a case, the test method specified in 7.2.1 may be used as the referee test and the test method

specified in 7.2.2.2 may be used as the production control test.

Other cold sealing treatments may be specified. Test methods shall be agreed by the anodizer and the

customer.
7.4 Assessment of quality of other sealing treatments

Other sealing treatments may be specified. Test methods shall be agreed by the anodizer and the

customer.
8 Appearance and colour
8.1 Visible defects

Anodized articles shall be free from visible defects on the significant surface(s) when viewed from a

distance to be agreed between interested parties. If requested by the customer, the position(s) and

maximum size(s) of the contact mark(s) shall be agreed between the anodizer and the customer.

12 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 7599:2017
ISO/DIS 7599:2016(E)

Visual inspection shall be carried out under diffuse light, the source and strength of which shall be

agreed between the anodizer and the customer.
8.2 Colour and surface texture

The colour and surface texture and their tolerances shall be specified by the customer. If required for

matching purposes, the acceptable limits of variation should be defined by agreed samples (see B.2).

Anodized aluminium has the property of double reflection from the surface of oxidation layer and of the

basis metal. Therefore, when matching colour samples, they shall be held in the same plane and viewed

as near to normal as is practicable, with the direction of working (e.g. rolling, extrusions or machining

direction) always the same. A diffuse source of illumination shall be placed above and behind the

viewer.

Unless otherwise agreed, the colours shall be compared in diffuse daylight with the sun behind the

viewer. If the coloured coatings are to be used in artificial light, this lighting shall be used for colou

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.