Public transport - Interoperable fare management system - Part 1: Architecture (ISO 24014-1:2015)

This part of ISO 24014 provides the basis for the development of multi-operator/multi-service
Interoperable public surface (including subways) transport Fare Management Systems (IFMSs) on a
national and international level.
This part of ISO 24014 is applicable to bodies in public transport and related services which agree that
their systems need to interoperate.
While this part of ISO 24014 does not imply that existing interoperable fare management systems need
to be changed, it applies so far as it is practically possible to extensions of these.
This part of ISO 24014 covers the definition of a conceptual framework which is independent
of organisational and physical implementation. Any reference within this part of ISO 24014 to
organisational or physical implementation is purely informative.
The objective of this part of ISO 24014 is to define a reference functional architecture for IFMSs and
to identify the requirements that are relevant to ensure interoperability between several actors in the
context of the use of electronic tickets.
The IFMS includes all the functions involved in the fare management process such as
— management of application,
— management of products,
— security management, and
— certification, registration, and identification.
This part of ISO 24014 defines the following main elements:
— identification of the different set of functions in relation to the overall fare management system;
— a generic model of IFMS describing the logical and functional architecture and the interfaces within
the system and with other IFMSs;
— use cases describing the interactions and data flows between the different set of functions;
— security requirements.
This part of ISO 24014 excludes consideration of the following:
— the physical medium and its management;
— the technical aspects of the interface between the medium and the medium access device;
— the data exchanges between the medium and the medium access device;
NOTE The data exchanges between the Medium and the Medium Access Device are proposed by other
standardization committees.
— the financial aspects of fare management systems (e.g. customer payments, method of payment,
settlement, apportionment, reconciliation).

Öffentlicher Verkehr - Interoperables Fahrgeldmanagement System - Teil 1: Architektur (ISO 24014-1:2015)

Transport public - Système de gestion tarifaire interopérable - Partie 1: Architecture (ISO 24014-1:2015)

L'ISO 24014-1:2015 fournit les bases pour développer des systèmes billettiques interopérables (IFMS, Interoperable Fare Management System) multi-opérateurs/multi-services pour le transport public (y compris les métros), tant à l'échelle nationale qu'internationale.
L'ISO 24014-1:2015 s'applique aux organismes de transport public et aux services connexes qui conviennent que leurs systèmes doivent être interopérables.
L'ISO 24014-1:2015 n'implique pas qu'il soit nécessaire de modifier les systèmes billettiques interopérables existants, elle s'applique, dans toute la mesure du possible, à leurs extensions futures.
L'ISO 24014-1:2015 couvre la définition d'un cadre conceptuel, qui est indépendante de la mise en ?uvre organisationnelle et physique. Toute référence à la mise en ?uvre organisationnelle et physique dans l'ISO 24014-1:2015 est purement informative.
L'objectif de l'ISO 24014-1:2015 est de définir une architecture fonctionnelle de référence pour les systèmes IFMS et d'identifier les exigences de nature à assurer l'interopérabilité entre plusieurs acteurs dans le contexte de l'utilisation de titres de transport électroniques.

Javni prevoz - Interoperabilni sistem vodenja (pre)voznin - 1. del: Arhitektura (ISO 24014-1:2015)

Ta del standarda ISO 24014 podaja osnovo za razvoj interoperabilnih sistemov upravljanja voznin (IFMS) za prevoz po javnih površinah (vključno s podvozi), ki vključujejo več operaterjev/storitev, na državni ali meddržavni ravni.
Ta del standarda ISO 24014 se uporablja za entitete na področju javnega prevoza in povezanih storitev, ki se strinjajo, da morajo biti njihovi sistemi interoperabilni.
Ta del standarda ISO 24014 ne predvideva, da je treba obstoječe interoperabilne sisteme upravljanja voznin zamenjati, temveč se uporablja v obsegu praktične izvedljivosti za njihove razširitve.
Ta del standarda ISO 24014 zajema definicijo konceptualnega okvirja, ki je neodvisen od organizacijske in fizične uvedbe. Vsa sklicevanja na organizacijsko ali fizično uvedbo v tem delu standarda ISO 24014 so izključno informativna.
Namen tega dela standarda ISO 24014 je določitev referenčne funkcionalne arhitekture za interoperabilne sisteme upravljanja voznin in opredelitev zahtev, pomembnih za zagotavljanje interoperabilnosti med različnimi izvajalci na področju uporabe elektronskih vozovnic.
Interoperabilni sistem upravljanja voznin vključuje vse funkcije v povezavi s postopkom upravljanja voznin, kot so:
– upravljanje načina uporabe;
– upravljanje izdelkov;
– upravljanje varnosti;
– certificiranje, registracija in identifikacija.
Ta del standarda ISO 24014 opredeljuje naslednje glavne elemente:
– opredelitev različnih naborov funkcij v povezavi s celotnim sistemom upravljanja voznin;
– splošni model interoperabilnega sistema upravljanja voznin, ki opisuje logično in funkcionalno arhitekturo ter vmesnike znotraj
sistema in drugih interoperabilnih sistemov upravljanja voznin;
– primere uporabe z opisi interakcij in podatkovnih tokov med različnimi nabori funkcij;
– varnostne zahteve.
Ta del standarda ISO 24014 ne obravnava naslednjih področij:
– fizični medij in njegovo upravljanje;
– tehnični vidiki vmesnika med medijem in napravo za dostop do medija;
– izmenjave podatkov med medijem in napravo za dostop do medija;
OPOMBA: Izmenjave podatkov med medijem in napravo za dostop do medija so v domeni drugih odborov za standardizacijo.
– finančni vidiki sistemov upravljanja voznin (npr. plačila odjemalcev, način plačila, poravnava, porazdelitev, uskladitev).

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Apr-2014
Publication Date
28-Feb-2016
Withdrawal Date
15-Feb-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-Feb-2021
Due Date
10-Mar-2021
Completion Date
16-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
01-april-2016
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2008

Javni prevoz - Interoperabilni sistem vodenja (pre)voznin - 1. del: Arhitektura (ISO

24014-1:2015)

Public transport - Interoperable fare management system - Part 1: Architecture (ISO

24014-1:2015)

Öffentlicher Verkehr - Interoperables Fahrgeldmanagement System - Teil 1: Architektur

(ISO 24014-1:2015)

Transport public - Système de gestion tarifaire interopérable - Partie 1: Architecture (ISO

24014-1:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 24014-1:2015
ICS:
03.220.01 Transport na splošno Transport in general
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
transportu in trgovini and trade
SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
EN ISO 24014-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2015
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 03.220.01; 35.240.60 Supersedes EN ISO 24014-1:2007
English Version
Public transport - Interoperable fare management system -
Part 1: Architecture (ISO 24014-1:2015)

Transport public - Système de gestion tarifaire Öffentlicher Verkehr - Interoperables

interopérable - Partie 1: Architecture (ISO 24014- Fahrgeldmanagement System - Teil 1: Architektur (ISO

1:2015) 24014-1:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 July 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 24014-1:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
EN ISO 24014-1:2015 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
EN ISO 24014-1:2015 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 24014-1:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204

"Intelligent transport systems" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 278 “Intelligent

transport systems” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2016.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 24014-1:2007.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 24014-1:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 24014-1:2015 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24014-1
Second edition
2015-10-15
Public transport — Interoperable fare
management system —
Part 1:
Architecture
Transport public — Système de gestion tarifaire interopérable —
Partie 1: Architecture
Reference number
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Conceptual framework ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Description of IFM-roles ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Basic framework of the generic IFM functional model ........................................................................................ 8

6 Use Case description for the IFM functional model ......................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Certification ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.1 Certification of Organization ..............................................................................................................................10

6.1.2 Certification of Components ...............................................................................................................................10

6.1.3 Certification of Application Specification and Template ............................................................10

6.1.4 Certification of Product Specification and Template .....................................................................11

6.2 Registration .............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.1 Registration of Organization ...............................................................................................................................11

6.2.2 Registration of Component ..................................................................................................................................12

6.2.3 Registration of Application Template .........................................................................................................12

6.2.4 Registration of Application ..................................................................................................................................12

6.2.5 Registration of Product Template ..................................................................................................................12

6.2.6 Registration of Product ...........................................................................................................................................13

6.3 Management of Application ......................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.1 Dissemination of Application Template ....................................................................................................13

6.3.2 Acquisition of Application ....................................................................................................................................14

6.3.3 Termination of Application Template .........................................................................................................14

6.3.4 Termination of Application ..................................................................................................................................15

6.4 Management of Product ...............................................................................................................................................................16

6.4.1 Dissemination of Product Template .............................................................................................................16

6.4.2 Termination of Product Template ..................................................................................................................17

6.4.3 Management of Action List ..................................................................................................................................17

6.4.4 Acquisition of Product .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...18

6.4.5 Modification of Product parameter ..............................................................................................................18

6.4.6 Termination of Product ...........................................................................................................................................19

6.4.7 Use and inspection of Product ..........................................................................................................................19

6.4.8 Collection of data ..........................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.9 Forwarding data ............................................................................................................................................................21

6.4.10 Generation and distribution of clearing reports ...............................................................................21

6.5 Security management ....................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.1 Monitoring of IFM processes and IFM data life cycle ....................................................................22

6.5.2 Management of IFM security keys .................................................................................................................23

6.5.3 Management of security lists .............................................................................................................................23

6.6 Customer Service Management (optional) ..................................................................................................................25

7 System interface identification ...........................................................................................................................................................26

8 Identification .........................................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2 Numbering scheme ..........................................................................................................................................................................26

8.3 Prerequisites ..........................................................................................................................................................................................26

9 Security in IFMSs ...............................................................................................................................................................................................27

9.1 Protection of the interests of the public .........................................................................................................................27

9.2 Assets to be protected ....................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)

9.3 General IFM security requirements ...................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Information flow within the IFM ..............................................................................................................29

Annex B (informative) Examples of implementation .......................................................................................................................39

Annex C (informative) List of terms which are defined both in this part of ISO 24014

(IFMSA) and in APTA — UTFS ...............................................................................................................................................................48

Annex D (informative) Example of Action List processes ............................................................................................................49

Annex E (informative) Security domain, threats, and Protection Profiles .................................................................54

Annex F (informative) Media centric management and back-office centric management .......................58

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

ISO 24014-1 was prepared by European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee

CEN/TC 278 Road transport and traffic telematics, in collaboration with ISO/TC 204, Intelligent

transport systems, in accordance with the agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 24014-1:2007), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 24014 consists of the following parts, under the general title Public transport — Interoperable fare

management system:
— Part 1: Architecture
— Part 2: Business practices
— Part 3: Complementary concepts to Part 1 for multi-application media
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
Introduction

Fare management (FM) encompasses all the processes designed to manage the distribution and use of

fare products in a public transport environment.

Fare management is called interoperable (IFM) when it enables the customer to use a portable

electronic medium (e.g. a contact/contactless smart card) with compatible equipment (e.g. at stops,

with retail systems, at platform entry points, or on board vehicles). IFM concepts can also be applied to

fare management systems not using electronic media.

Potential benefits for the customer include reductions in queuing, special and combined fares, one

medium for multiple applications, loyalty programmes, and seamless journeys.

Interoperability of fare management systems also provides benefits to operators and the other parties

involved. However, it requires an overall system architecture that defines the system functionalities,

the actors involved and their roles, the relationships, and the interfaces between them.

Interoperability also requires the definition of a security scheme to protect privacy, integrity, and

confidentiality between the actors to ensure fair and secure data flow within the IFM system (IFMS).

The overall architecture is the subject of this part of ISO 24014 which recognizes the need for legal and

commercial agreements between members of an IFM, but does not specify their form. The Technical

Specifications of the component parts and, particularly, the standards for customer media (e.g. smart

cards) are not included.

Note that there is not one single IFM. Individual operators, consortia of operators, public authorities,

and private companies can manage and/or participate in IFMSs. An IFM can span country boundaries

and can be combined with other IFMSs. Implementations of IFMSs require security and registration

functionalities. This part of ISO 24014 allows for the distribution of these functions to enable the

coordination/convergence of existing IFMSs to work together.
This part of ISO 24014 intends to provide three main benefits.

a) It provides a framework for an interoperable fare management implementation with minimum

complexity.

b) It aims to shorten the time and lower the cost of IFM procurement as both suppliers and purchasers

understand what is being purchased. Procurement against an open standard reduces cost as it

avoids the need for expensive bespoke system development and provides for second sourcing.

c) It aims to simplify interoperability between IFMSs to the benefit of all stakeholders.

The work has benefited from the architecture work done in Electronic Fee Collection (CEN/TC 278/WG 1)

and other domains including the following:

— ISO/TS 14904, Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection (EFC) — Interface

specification for clearing between operators;

— ISO/TS 17573, Electronic fee collection — Systems architecture for vehicle-related tolling;

— existing international data security standards.
vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
Public transport — Interoperable fare management
system —
Part 1:
Architecture
1 Scope

This part of ISO 24014 provides the basis for the development of multi-operator/multi-service

Interoperable public surface (including subways) transport Fare Management Systems (IFMSs) on a

national and international level.

This part of ISO 24014 is applicable to bodies in public transport and related services which agree that

their systems need to interoperate.

While this part of ISO 24014 does not imply that existing interoperable fare management systems need

to be changed, it applies so far as it is practically possible to extensions of these.

This part of ISO 24014 covers the definition of a conceptual framework which is independent

of organisational and physical implementation. Any reference within this part of ISO 24014 to

organisational or physical implementation is purely informative.

The objective of this part of ISO 24014 is to define a reference functional architecture for IFMSs and

to identify the requirements that are relevant to ensure interoperability between several actors in the

context of the use of electronic tickets.

The IFMS includes all the functions involved in the fare management process such as

— management of application,
— management of products,
— security management, and
— certification, registration, and identification.
This part of ISO 24014 defines the following main elements:

— identification of the different set of functions in relation to the overall fare management system;

— a generic model of IFMS describing the logical and functional architecture and the interfaces within

the system and with other IFMSs;

— use cases describing the interactions and data flows between the different set of functions;

— security requirements.
This part of ISO 24014 excludes consideration of the following:
— the physical medium and its management;

— the technical aspects of the interface between the medium and the medium access device;

— the data exchanges between the medium and the medium access device;

NOTE The data exchanges between the Medium and the Medium Access Device are proposed by other

standardization committees.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)

— the financial aspects of fare management systems (e.g. customer payments, method of payment,

settlement, apportionment, reconciliation).
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
action list

list of items related to IFM applications or products (2.24) downloaded to medium access devices (2.18)

(MADs) processed by the MAD if and when a specific IFM application or product referenced in the list is

encountered by that MAD
2.2
actor

person, an organisation (2.19), or another (sub)system playing a coherent set of functions when

interacting with the IFM system within a particular use case (2.30)
2.3
application rules
application owner requirements
2.4
application specification

specification of functions, data elements, and security scheme according to the application rules (2.3)

2.5
application template
executable technical pattern of the application specification (2.4)
2.6
application
implemented and initialised application template (2.5)
Note 1 to entry: The application is identified by a unique identifier.

Note 2 to entry: The application houses products (2.24) and other optional customer information (customer

details, customer preferences).

Note 3 to entry: The application can be fully installed on a customer media or distributed on the customer media

and the IFM back offices.
2.7
commercial rules
rules defining the settlement and commission within the IFMS
2.8
component

any piece of hardware and/or software that performs one or more functions in the IFMS

2.9
component provider
anyone who wants to bring a component (2.8) to the IFMS
2.10
IFM functional model
model to define functions of IFM-roles (2.12) and how they interact
2.11
IFM policies
commercial, technical, security, and privacy objectives of IFM
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
2.12
IFM-role
abstract object performing a set of functions in an IFM functional model (2.10)
2.13
interoperable fare management
IFM

all the functions involved in the fare management process such as management of application, products

(2.24), security and certification, registration, and identification to enable customers to travel with

participating service operators using a single portable electronic medium
2.14
interoperable fare management system
IFMS

all technical, commercial, security, and legal elements which enable an interoperable fare

management (2.13)
2.15
medium
physical carrier of applications (2.6)
2.16
message
set of data elements transferred between two IFM-roles (2.12)
2.17
customer medium

medium (2.15) initialised with an application (2.6) through an application contract

2.18
medium access device
MAD

device with the necessary facilities (hardware and software) to communicate with a customer

medium (2.17)
2.19
organisation

legal entity covering the functions and implied responsibilities of one or more of the following

operational IFM-roles (2.12): application owner, application retailer, product owner, product retailer,

service operator, and collection and forwarding
2.20
pricing rules
rules defining the price and payment/billing relationships to the customer
2.21
product rules
set of usage, pricing, and commercial rules (2.7) defined by the product owner
2.22
product specification

complete specification of functions, data elements, and security scheme according to the product rules

(2.21)
2.23
product template
technical pattern of the product specification (2.22)
Note 1 to entry: The product template is identified by a unique identifier.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 24014-1:2016
ISO 24014-1:2015(E)
2.24
product
instance of a product template (2.23) stored in an application (2.6)

Note 1 to entry: It is identified by a unique identifier and enables the customer to benefit from a service provided

by a service operator.
2.25
role
abstract object performing a set of functions
2.26
security policy

objectives of the IFM to secure the public interests and the assets within the IFM

2.27
set of rules

regulations for achieving IFM policies (2.11) expressed as technical, commercial, security, and legal

requirements and standards relevant only to the IFMS
2.28
trigger
event that causes the execution of a use case (2.30)
2.29
usage rules

rules defining the usage time, the usage area, the personal status, and the type of service

2.30
use case
description of a process by defining a sequence of actions performed by one
...

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