Ergonomic design of control centres - Part 1: Principles for the design of control centres (ISO 11064-1:2000)

This Part of ISO 11064 specifies requirements and establishes general principles for the ergonomic design of a new control centre, as well as for control centre expansion, refurbishment, and technology based upgrades. This part of ISO 11064 covers all types of control centres, for example, those found in process plants, transport/logistic control systems, and people deployment transportation systems.

Conception ergonomique des centres de commande - Partie 1: Principes pour la conception des centres de commande (ISO 11064-1:2000)

La présente partie de l'ISO 11064 établit des principes, des recommandations et des exigences ergonomiques applicables à la conception des centres de commande, ainsi qu'à leur extension, leur rénovation et leur mise à jour technologique.  Elle couvre tous les types de centres de commande généralement destinés à l'industrie de transformation, aux systèmes de commande liés au transport et à la logistique, et aux services de contrôle de flux de personnes.  Bien que la présente partie de l'ISO 11064 ait été conçue à l'origine pour les centres de commande non mobiles, bon nombre des principes définis dans ce document pourraient être applicables aux centres de commande mobiles tels que ceux se trouvant à bord des navires et des aéronefs.

Ergonomsko načrtovanje krmilnih centrov - 1. del: Načela za načrtovanje krmilnih centrov (ISO 11064-1:2000)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Aug-2002
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Sep-2002
Due Date
01-Sep-2002
Completion Date
01-Sep-2002

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Conception ergonomique des centres de commande - Partie 1: Principes pour la conception des centres de commande (ISO 11064-1:2000)Ergonomic design of control centres - Part 1: Principles for the design of control centres (ISO 11064-1:2000)25.040.10Machining centres13.180ErgonomijaErgonomicsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN ISO 11064-1:2000SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002en01-september-2002SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002SLOVENSKI

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SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN ISO 11064-1December 2000ICS 13.180; 25.040.10English versionErgonomic design of control centres - Part 1: Principles for thedesign of control centres (ISO 11064-1:2000)Conception ergonomique des centres de commande -Partie 1: Principes pour la conception des centres decommande (ISO 11064-1:2000)Ergonomische Gestaltung von Leitzentralen - Teil 1:Grundsätze für die Gestaltung von Leitzentralen (ISO11064-1:2000)This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 December 2000.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2000 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN ISO 11064-1:2000 ESIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

Page 2EN ISO 11064-1:2000Corrected 2001-04-04ForewordThe text of the International Standard ISO 11064-1:2000 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC159 "Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 "Ergonomics", the secretariat ofwhich is held by DIN.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identicaltext or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2001, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at thelatest by June 2001.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the followingcountries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.Endorsement noticeThe text of the International Standard ISO 11064-1:2000 was approved by CEN as a European Standardwithout any modification.NOTE: Normative references to International Standards are listed in annex ZA (normative).SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

Page 3EN ISO 11064-1:2000Annex ZA (normative)Normative references to international publicationswith their relevant European publicationsThis European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. Thesenormative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. Fordated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this EuropeanStandard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition ofthe publication referred to applies (including amendments).NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod.),the relevant EN/HD applies.PublicationYearTitleENYearISO 63851990Ergonomic principles of the design ofwork systemsISO 63851981ISO 11064-31999Ergonomic design of control centres -Part 3: Control room layoutISO 11064-31999SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ReferencenumberISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000INTERNATIONALSTANDARDISO11064-1Firstedition2000-12-15Ergonomicdesignofcontrolcentres—Part1:PrinciplesforthedesignofcontrolcentresConceptionergonomiquedescentresdecommande—Partie1:PrincipespourlaconceptiondescentresdecommandeSIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)PDFdisclaimerThisPDFfilemaycontainembeddedtypefaces.InaccordancewithAdobe'slicensingpolicy,thisfilemaybeprintedorviewedbutshallnotbeeditedunlessthetypefaceswhichareembeddedarelicensedtoandinstalledonthecomputerperformingtheediting.Indownloadingthisfile,partiesacceptthereintheresponsibilityofnotinfringingAdobe'slicensingpolicy.TheISOCentralSecretariatacceptsnoliabilityinthisarea.AdobeisatrademarkofAdobeSystemsIncorporated.DetailsofthesoftwareproductsusedtocreatethisPDFfilecanbefoundintheGeneralInforelativetothefile;thePDF-creationparameterswereoptimizedforprinting.EverycarehasbeentakentoensurethatthefileissuitableforusebyISOmemberbodies.Intheunlikelyeventthataproblemrelatingtoitisfound,pleaseinformtheCentralSecretariatattheaddressgivenbelow.©ISO2000Allrightsreserved.Unlessotherwisespecified,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopyingandmicrofilm,withoutpermissioninwritingfromeitherISOattheaddressbeloworISO'smemberbodyinthecountryoftherequester.ISOcopyrightofficeCasepostale56CH-1211Geneva20Tel.+41227490111Fax+41227490947E-mailcopyright@iso.chWebwww.iso.chPrintedinSwitzerlandii©ISO2000–AllrightsreservedSIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–AllrightsreservediiiContentsPageForeword.....................................................................................................................................................................ivIntroduction.................................................................................................................................................................v1Scope..............................................................................................................................................................12Normativereferences....................................................................................................................................13Termsanddefinitions...................................................................................................................................14Generalconsiderationsandprinciplesofergonomicdesign...................................................................35Frameworkforanergonomicdesignprocess............................................................................................66PhaseA:Clarification....................................................................................................................................87PhaseB:Analysisanddefinition...............................................................................................................108PhaseC:Conceptualdesign......................................................................................................................179PhaseD:Detaileddesign............................................................................................................................1910PhaseE:Operationalfeedback..................................................................................................................24AnnexA(informative)Examplesofsystems.........................................................................................................26AnnexB(informative)Basicrequirementsandconstraintstobeclarifiedinclause6.....................................27Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................30SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)iv©ISO2000–AllrightsreservedForewordISO(theInternationalOrganizationforStandardization)isaworldwidefederationofnationalstandardsbodies(ISOmemberbodies).TheworkofpreparingInternationalStandardsisnormallycarriedoutthroughISOtechnicalcommittees.Eachmemberbodyinterestedinasubjectforwhichatechnicalcommitteehasbeenestablishedhastherighttoberepresentedonthatcommittee.Internationalorganizations,governmentalandnon-governmental,inliaisonwithISO,alsotakepartinthework.ISOcollaboratescloselywiththeInternationalElectrotechnicalCommission(IEC)onallmattersofelectrotechnicalstandardization.InternationalStandardsaredraftedinaccordancewiththerulesgivenintheISO/IECDirectives,Part3.DraftInternationalStandardsadoptedbythetechnicalcommitteesarecirculatedtothememberbodiesforvoting.PublicationasanInternationalStandardrequiresapprovalbyatleast75%ofthememberbodiescastingavote.AttentionisdrawntothepossibilitythatsomeoftheelementsofthispartofISO11064maybethesubjectofpatentrights.ISOshallnotbeheldresponsibleforidentifyinganyorallsuchpatentrights.InternationalStandardISO11064-1waspreparedbyTechnicalCommitteeISO/TC159,Ergonomics,SubcommitteeSC4,Ergonomicsofhuman-systeminteraction.ISO11064consistsofthefollowingparts,underthegeneraltitleErgonomicdesignofcontrolcentres:Part1:PrinciplesforthedesignofcontrolcentresPart2:PrinciplesforthearrangementofcontrolsuitesPart3:ControlroomlayoutPart4:LayoutanddimensionsofworkstationsPart5:DisplaysandcontrolsPart6:EnvironmentalrequirementsforcontrolroomsPart7:PrinciplesfortheevaluationofcontrolcentresPart8:ErgonomicrequirementsforspecificapplicationsAnnexAandBofthispartofISO11064areforinformationonly.SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–AllrightsreservedvIntroductionDrivenbydemandsforsafer,morereliableandefficientoperations,innovationsininformationtechnologyhaveledtotheincreaseduseofautomationandcentralizedsupervisorycontrolinthedesignofuser-systeminterfacesandtheirassociatedoperationalenvironments.Notwithstandingthesedevelopments,theoperatorhasretainedacriticalroleinmonitoringandsupervisingthebehaviourofthesecomplexautomatedsystems.Asthescaleofautomatedsolutionshasgrown,sohavetheconsequencesofequipmentandhumanfailures.Thejoboftheoperatorcanattimesbeverydemanding.Theconsequencesresultingfrominappropriateoperatoractionincontrolrooms,suchasactsofomission,commission,timing,sequenceandsoon,canbepotentiallydisastrous.Accordingly,thispartofISO11064hasbeenpreparedtosetupagenericframeworkforapplyingrequirementsandrecommendationsrelatingtoergonomicandhumanfactorsindesigningandevaluatingcontrolcentreswiththeviewtoeliminatingorminimizingthepotentialforhumanerrors.Aspecificcontrolcentreprojectisoftenpartofadesignprojectforalargersystem.Thedesignofthecontrolcentreshouldnotbedevelopedseparatelyfromtheobjectivesandgoalsassociatedwiththecontextofthiswidersystem.Consequently,itisnecessarytoviewtheergonomicaspectsofacontrolroomdesigninrelationtoissueswhich,atfirstsightorbytradition,mayseemtofalloutsidethescopeofergonomicdesignprojects.Thesejudgementswillneedtobetakenonacasebycasebasisandarenotnecessarilyresolvedbyaprescriptiveapproach.ThispartofISO11064includesrequirementsandrecommendationsforadesignprojectofacontrolcentreintermsofphilosophyandprocess,physicaldesignandconcludingdesignevaluation,anditcanbeappliedtoboththeelementsofacontrolroomproject,suchasworkstationsandoverviewdisplays,aswellastotheoverallplanninganddesignofentireprojects.OtherpartsofISO11064dealwithmoredetailedrequirementsassociatedwithspecificelementsofacontrolcentre.SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

INTERNATIONALSTANDARDISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved1Ergonomicdesignofcontrolcentres—Part1:Principlesforthedesignofcontrolcentres1ScopeThispartofISO11064specifiesergonomicprinciples,recommendationsandrequirementstobeappliedinthedesignofcontrolcentres,aswellasintheexpansion,refurbishmentandtechnologicalupgradesofcontrolcentres.Itcoversalltypesofcontrolcentrestypicallyemployedforprocessindustries,transportationandlogisticcontrolsystemsandpeopledeploymentservices.AlthoughthispartofISO11064isprimarilyintendedfornon-mobilecontrolcentres,manyoftheprinciplesspecifiedinthisdocumentcouldbeapplicabletomobilecontrolcentres,suchasthosefoundonshipsandaircraft.2NormativereferencesThefollowingnormativedocumentscontainprovisionswhich,throughreferenceinthistext,constituteprovisionsofthispartofISO11064.Fordatedreferences,subsequentamendmentsto,orrevisionsof,anyofthesepublicationsdonotapply.However,partiestoagreementsbasedonthispartofISO11064areencouragedtoinvestigatethepossibilityofapplyingthemostrecenteditionsofthenormativedocumentsindicatedbelow.Forundatedreferences,thelatesteditionofthenormativedocumentreferredtoapplies.MembersofISOandIECmaintainregistersofcurrentlyvalidInternationalStandards.ISO6385,Ergonomicprinciplesinthedesignofworksystems.ISO11064-3,Ergonomicdesignofcontrolcentres—Part3:Controlroomlayout.3TermsanddefinitionsForthepurposesofthispartofISO11064,thefollowingtermsanddefinitionsapply.3.1controlcentrecombinationofcontrolrooms,controlsuitesandlocalcontrolstationswhicharefunctionallyrelatedandallonthesamesite[ISO11064-3:1999,definition3.1]3.2controlroomcorefunctionalentity,anditsassociatedphysicalstructure,whereoperatorsarestationedtocarryoutcentralizedcontrol,monitoringandadministrativeresponsibilities[ISO11064-3:1999,definition3.4]3.3controlsuitegroupoffunctionallyrelatedrooms,co-locatedwiththecontrolroomandincludingit,whichhousesthesupportingfunctionstothecontrolroom,suchasrelatedoffices,equipmentrooms,restareasandtrainingrooms[ISO11064-3:1999,definition3.6]SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)2©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved3.4designspecificationdetaileddescriptionoffeaturesofthecontrolsuite,includingroomarrangements,equipment,workstationdisplaysandoperatorcontrols,whichmeetsthecontrolcentre'soverallrequirementswithregardtodevelopment,procurementandconstruction3.5functionallocationdistributionoffunctionsbetweenhumanandmachine3.6functionalanalysisanalysisidentifyingthoserequirementswhichneedtobemetbyhumansormachinesinordertoachievetheoperationalgoal3.7functionalspecificationrecord,puttogetherfromfunctionalanalysis,ofwhatthecontrolcentreistoincludeintermsofobjectives,functions,supportofusersandmachines,relationshipswithexternalsystems,andphysicalandenvironmentalattributes3.8human-centreddesignapproachapproachtointeractivesystemdevelopment,focusingspecificallyonmakingsystemsusable,andemphasizingtheroleofhumanoperatorsascontrolagentswhomaintainauthoritywithinaworkingsystem3.9jobdesignprocessofdeterminingwhatthejobcontentshouldbeforasetofworktasksandhowthetasksshouldbeorganizedandinterlinkedNOTEForthepurposeofthispartofISO11064,adefinitionofjobdesignisintroducedwhichindicatesthedesignofseveraljobs,insteadofonejob(suchasspecifiedinEN614-1:1995,annexB).3.10localcontrolstationoperatorinterfacethatislocatedneartheequipmentorsystembeingmonitoredand/orcontrolled[ISO11064-3:1999,definition3.15]3.11primaryuserpersonengagedinthosejobfunctionsnormallyassociatedwithcontrolcentreactivitiesEXAMPLESOperator,assistantoperator,foremanorsupervisor.3.12secondaryuserpersonthatoccasionallyusesormaintainsthecontrolcentreEXAMPLESMaintenanceengineers,cleaners,managersorvisitors.3.13situationalanalysistaskanalysisinanexistingsituationtoanalyseallthebehaviouralaspectsoftheworksystem,suchasrevealingpracticalexperiences,informalcommunication,expectationsandcomplaintsofcurrentusersandanyotherfactsthatmightbeusefulforredesignpurposesSIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved33.14taskanalysisanalyticalprocessemployedtodeterminethespecificbehavioursrequiredofpeoplewhenoperatingequipmentordoingwork[ISO9241-5:1998]3.15validationconfirmationbyexaminationandtangibleevidencethattheparticularrequirementsforaspecificintendedusearefulfilledNOTEIndesignanddevelopment,validationconcernstheprocessofexaminingaproducttodetermineconformitywithuserneeds.[ISO8402:1994,definition2.18]3.16verificationconfirmationbyasystematicexaminationandtangibleevidencethatspecifiedrequirementshavebeenfulfilledNOTE1Indesignanddevelopment,verificationconcernstheprocessofexaminingtheresultofagivenactivitytodetermineconformitywiththestatedrequirementsforthatactivity.NOTE2Tangibleevidenceisregardedasbeinginformationthatcanbeprovedtobetrue,basedonfactsobtainedthroughobservation,measurement,testoranyothermeans.[ISO8402:1994,definition2,17]4Generalconsiderationsandprinciplesofergonomicdesign4.1GeneralNineprinciplesshallbetakenintoconsiderationfortheergonomicdesignofcontrolcentres.Theyareexplainedin4.2to4.10.4.2Principle1:Applicationofahuman-centreddesignapproachISO6385specifiesergonomicprinciplesintendedasaguideforthedesignofworksystems.Theobjectiveistodesignadequateworkingconditionswithregardtohumansafety,healthandwellbeing,whilsttakingintoaccounttechnologicalandeconomicefficiency.ThispartofISO11064addressesthespecificcaseofcontrolcentres.Inahuman-centreddesignapproach,thecombinationofhumansandmachines,initsorganizationalandenvironmentalcontext,isconsideredasanoverallsystemtobeoptimized.Thisoptimizationisachievedbydevelopingsolutionsthatemphasizeandmaximizethestrengths,featuresandcapabilitiesofbothhumansandmachinesinacomplementaryfashion.Thehumancomponent,themachine(hardwareandsoftware),theworkenvironment,andthecontrol(operationandmanagement)shallbeharmoniouslyintegratedduringallphasesofthedesignprocess,asshowninFigure1.Includedinthoseactivitieswherehuman-centreddesignmayberelevantareplanning,conceptualanddetaileddesign,assemblyandconstruction,commissioning,usertrainingandoperations.Ahuman-centreddesignapproachneedstobeintegratedintothetraditionalfunction-orientateddesignapproach.Itisessentialthatcertainhumancharacteristicsformpartofthebasisofthedesignrequirementswhichunderlythefinaldesignspecifications.Thehumancharacteristicstobeconsideredshallnotonlyincludebasicphysicalcapabilitiesorlimitations,butshallalsoemphasizetheuniquecognitivestrengthsofhumans(suchasperceptualability,problemsolvinganddecisionmaking).Inaddition,knowledgeabouthowoperatorsfeelandinteractwithoperationsandmanagement,aswellaswithdesignedobjectsthatincludemachines(bothhardwareandsoftware),environmentsandsoon,shallbeconsidered.Inadditiontotheimmediateandobviousergonomicrequirementsimposedbyhighlyautomatedandlarge-scalesystems,moresubtlepsychologicaldemandsmayrequirespecialattention.Theseincludeself-fulfilment,motivationandculturalconsiderations.SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)4©ISO2000–AllrightsreservedIfphysicallychallengedpeopleareroutinelyassignedtoworkinacontrolcentre,appropriatedesignsshallbeemployedtoaccommodatetheirspecificneeds.4.3Principle2:IntegrateergonomicsinengineeringpracticeErgonomicsanditsassociatedtoolsshouldbeintegratedintotheproject'smanagementguidelinesinorderfortheroleofergonomicstobetakenintoaccountbyalldesignersandengineersinvolvedintheplanning,design,implementationandoperationalauditofacontrolcentre.Aprojectshouldbeorganizedinsuchawaythatanintegrationoftechnicalandergonomicexpertiseisencouraged.4.4Principle3:ImprovedesignthroughiterationDesignprocessesareinherentlyiterativeinpractice.Evaluationshallberepeateduntiltheinteractionsbetweenoperatorsanddesignedobjectsachievetheirfunctionalrequirementsandobjectives.Establishingthevalidityofanindividualelementofthedesigninisolationdoesnotguaranteethattheassembledsystemwillbevalidated.Anymodification,howeverminor,cancauseundesirablesideeffectsevenifthemodificationitselfisvalid(seeISO6385).Thereshallbeaformalprocessthatdefinesandcontrolsmechanismsandproceduresforscopechangesinthedesignofallaspectsofthecontrolcentre.Itshouldbenotedthatusers,eitherconsciouslyorunconsciously,mayadapttheirbehaviourtomodifications,andthatsuchbehaviouralchangesmaynotbeconsistentwithgoodergonomicpractice.Theincorporationofinformationobtainedfromoperationalexperiences,thatisoperationalfeedback,isofparticularimportanceinthisiterativeprocess(seeFigure1).Figure1—ErgonomicapproachtosystemdesignsSIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved54.5Principle4:ConductsituationalanalysisForanyergonomicdesignactivity,includingrefurbishmentprojects,asituationalanalysisofexistingorsimilarsituationsisrecommended.Inthisway,thefunctionsofthefuturesystemcanbethoroughlyunderstoodandanticipatedbeforehand.Themeansofperformingsituationalanalysismayvary,butincludetaskanalysis(see4.6),operatorinterviewsandincidentanalysis.4.6Principle5:ConducttaskanalysisThetasksdelegatedtoindividualcontrolroomoperators,andtoothersignificantusersofthecontrolcentre,shallbefullyunderstood(seeISO6385).Theanalysisshallconsiderallmodesofsystemoperationincludingstart-up,normaloperation,shut-down,anticipatedemergencyscenarios,periodsofpartialshut-downformaintenance,theresultsusedinthedesignprocessandthedevelopmentofstaffingplans.Somesituationsmayrequiredoublingortriplingstaffingrequirementsandthereforeshallbeaccountedforintheoveralldesign.Ananalysisofoperatortasksshallbeconductedindesigningaplant,acontrolcentreoranyothersystem.Thetaskanalysismethodsmayvaryaccordingtothescopeandcontentofeachindividualproject.Inthecaseofaninnovativedesignproject,theremaybefewopportunitiesforstudiesofcomparablesituations.Inothercases,forexamplethatofcombiningseveralcontrolroomsintoonenewcontrolroom,mostoftheoperatortasksmaybecarriedforwardintothenewdesign.Althoughinherentlydifferent,eachofthesesituationsshouldallowsomedegreeofcomparableanalysistopositivelyinfluencethedesignofafuturesystem.4.7Principle6:Designerror-tolerantsystemsHumanerrorcannotbetotallyeliminated.Itisthereforenecessarytostriveforerror-tolerantdesign.Animportanttoolistheuseofriskassessmentforobtaininginformationonhumanerror.4.8Principle7:EnsureuserparticipationUserparticipationisastructuredapproachwherefutureusersareinvolvedinthedesignofacontrolcentre.Userparticipationthroughoutthedesignprocessisessentialtooptimizelong-termhuman-machineinteractionbyinstillingasenseofownershipinthedesign.Experienceduserscanoffervaluableempiricalcontributionstothecontrolcentredesign.Theirpracticalexperienceisnotalwaysdocumentedorwellknownbydesigners.Operationalfeedbackderivedfromuserparticipationshouldbeanalysedtoidentifypreviousdesignsuccessesandshortcomings.4.9Principle8:FormaninterdisciplinarydesignteamAninterdisciplinarydesignteamshouldbeformedtooverseeandinfluenceallphasesofthedesignproject.Actualcombinationsofdisciplinesincludedinthedesignteammayvarydependingontheoverallprojectscopesorthephaseofdesign.Thisteammayincludesystemandprocessengineers,ergonomists,architectsandindustrialdesigners.Forexistingsystems,usersoruserrepresentativesshallbeincludedasmembersoftheteam.Fornewsystems,bothexperiencedandfutureusersshallformpartofthedesignteam.Thedesignteam,includingtheusers,shallbeavailableattheappropriatetimethroughouttheproject’slifecycle.Plansandaccommodationsforteamparticipationshouldbespecifiedindetailatthebeginningoftheproject.4.10Principle9:DocumentergonomicdesignbasisDevelopinternaldocumentsthatreflecttheergonomicdesignbasisfortheproject,forexamplefundamentalreasoningorsignificanttaskanalysisfindings.Thedocumentshouldbeupdatedwheneverthereisachange.Anappropriateprocedureshouldbedevelopedforthisprocess.SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)6©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved5FrameworkforanergonomicdesignprocessFigure2showsaframework,consistingoffivedesignphases,forthecontrolcentredesignprocess(Figure2issimplifiedwithonlysomeoftheiterativeloopsshown).Typically,allphasesshouldbeexecutedwiththeoveralleffortdistributedinaccordancewiththescopeofthedesignproject.Thedesignofacontrolcentreisgenerallycomplex,involving,forexample,multipleclients,conflictingobjectives,diversityofnewtechnologiesandpossiblesolutions,ambitiousschedules,firsttimeapplicationsandinexperiencedpersonnel.Thecomplexitiesofadesignprojectcanoftenbeaccommodatedbyimplementingamethodicalsequenceofproceduresthatfocusattentiononparticulartopics,ondesignactivitiesandoniterativereviews.TheframeworklistedbelowandgiveninFigure2involvesthefollowingphases:PhaseA:Clarificationclarifythepurpose,context,resourcesandconstraintsoftheprojectwhenstartingadesignprocess,takingintoaccountexistingsituationswhichcouldbeusedasareference;PhaseB:Analysisanddefinitionanalysethecontrolcentre'sfunctionalandperformancerequirementsculminatinginapreliminaryfunctionsallocationandjobdesign;PhaseC:Conceptualdesigndevelopinitialroomlayout,furnishingdesigns,displaysandcontrols,andcommunicationsinterfacesnecessarytosatisfytheneedsidentifiedinphaseB;PhaseD:Detaileddesigndevelopthedetaileddesignspecificationsnecessaryfortheconstructionand/orprocurementofthecontrolcentre,itscontent,operationalinterfacesandenvironmentalfacilities;PhaseE:Operationalfeedbackconductapostcommissioningreviewtoidentifysuccessesandshortcomingsinthedesigninordertopositivelyinfluencesubsequentdesigns.Eachoftheabovephasesisdiscussedinmoredetailinclauses6to10respectively.ThenumerousfeedbackpathsshowninFigure2relatetotheiterativenatureofdesigningsolutionsforcomplexproblems.Newopportunitiesforenhancedsolutionsandunsatisfactorydesignsidentifiedbyfrequentprojectreviewsshallberecycledbackintotheprocess.Carefulprojectbudgetingandschedulingshouldallowforandencouragethisiterativeprocess.NOTEThispartofISO11064isprimarilyconcernedwithphasesA,B,CandEoftheprojectframeworkshowninFigure2.SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved7Figure2—ErgonomicdesignprocessforcontrolcentresSIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)8©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved6PhaseA:Clarification6.1GeneralThepurposeofthisphaseistoclarifyoperationalgoals,relevantrequirementsandconstraintsassociatedwiththedesignofcontrolcentre(s)(seeannexA).Theroleofthecontrolcentreanditsrelationshipswithotherrelevantsub-systemsshallbeidentifiedanddocumented.AtypicalexampleofthisisillustratedinFigure3.Thedescriptionsandfunctionsofthesub-systems,forexampleprocessunits,powersystems,communicationssystemsandsoon,shallalsobeidentifiedanddocumented.Figure3—Controlcentresandtheirrelationshipswithothersub-systemsSIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved96.2Step1:ClarificationofgoalsandbackgroundrequirementsPhaseAinvolvesonestep,whichis“theclarificationofgoalsandbackgroundrequirements”.Experiencefromexistingorsimilarcontrolcentrescanmakeavaluablecontributiontorefurbishmentornewprojectsandthisexperienceshallbegivenappropriateconsiderationatthestartofproject.InputsforStep1mayincludethefollowingelements:userrequirements;regulatoryguides,standardsandotherformaldocuments;technicalinformationonexistingsystemsandcontrolcentres;operationalfeedbackinformation;analysisofanyexistingorsimilarsituations.OutputsforStep1arethefollowing:system'sfunctions(thatisoperationalgoals);variousrelevantrequirementsandconstraints(refertoannexB);conflictingrequirementsandsolutionsofcompromise.Someofthemethodscommonlyusedinclude,amongstothers,thefollowingelements:reviewofdocuments,forexampleprojectbrief,fundingappropriation,initialdesigns;conductinginterviewswithpersonnelassociatedwithplantmanagement,operations,plantengineering,plantmaintenance,aswellascollectionofotherformsofverbalinformation;carryingoutauditsofcontrolcentres,thatistheanalysisofanysimilarinstallationsforthesameoverallprojectscope;conductingtechnologicalreviews,thatistheanalysisofthelatestoperator-systeminterfacemethodsandtechniques;conductingergonomicandanyothertrade-offstudies.Anyrequirementsorconstraintstobetakenintoaccountinthedesignofcontrolcentresshallbeidentifiedanddocumented.TheserequirementshavetoincludeallthoselistedinannexB.Inparticular,thefollowinghastobetakenintoaccount:functionalgoals;codesandregulations;safetyandsecurityrequirements;operationalandcontrolrequirements;ergonomicrequirements;jobandorganizationalrequirements;SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)10©ISO2000–Allrightsreservedsystemsmaintenance;companypolicy;companystandards;technicalconstraints;resourceconstraints;operationalexperiences;formalizingprojectuncertaintiesandchangemanagement;aestheticsandarchitecture.Operationalfeedbackfromotherprojectsshallbeincorporated(see10.2)andconflictingrequirementsempiricallydetectedshallbedocumented,evaluatedandresolved.7PhaseB:Analysisanddefinition7.1GeneralTheanalysisanddefinitionphasehasmultipleobjectives,andincludesthefollowingprerequisitesasshowninfivestepstodevelopanintegrateddesignproposalofacontrolcentre.Thefivestepsinthisphaseareasfollows:Step2:definesystemperformance(functionanalysisanddescription);Step3:allocatefunctionstohumanand/ormachine;Step4:definetaskrequirements;Step5:designjobandorganization;Step6:verifyandvalidatetheobtainedresults.7.2Step2:Definesystemperformance(functionalanalysisanddescription)Basedonthefindingsofstep1inphaseA,afunctionalanalysisshallbecarriedoutanddocumentedinordertoidentifytheergonomicneeds(involvement,analysisandsolutions)requiredtoachievetheobjectivesdefinedinphaseA.Thefunctionalanalysismaybeundertakenbyseveralmethods,thatisfunctionalbreakdown(IEC60964),flowcharts,simulationsandoperationalwalk-throughs.Thescopeofthefunctionalanalysisshallincludeallanticipatedoperationalmodesofthecontrolledsystem:a)steadystateoperation,forexample:modeoroperationalstatethatcanbeconsiderednormalorroutine,thatisnosystemtransientsorprocessexcursionsareaffectingthecontrolledsystem;SIST EN ISO 11064-1:2002

ISO11064-1:2000(E)©ISO2000–Allrightsreserved11b)normaltransientoperation(start-up,shut-down),forexample:operationorsequenceofoperationsthatchangetheprocessorcontrolledsystemsfromonemajorstateorconditiontoanother(forexamplestartingorstoppingaprocess,productgradeand/orproductionratechanges);c)emergency/abnormaloperation,forexample:modeoroperationalstateinwhichshort-termrecoveryormitigatingmeasuresareimplementedfollowingananomaly;post-emergencyoperation,modeoroperationalstateinwhichlong-termrecoveryormitigatingmeasu

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