Space engineering - Threaded fasteners handbook

The users of this document are engineers involved in design, analysis or verification of joints on structures used for space missions. It is a guidelines document; therefore it includes advisory information rather than requirements.This document is intended to be applicable to any type of joint that is mechanically connected by threaded fasteners (e.g. bolts, screws, etc). It is written for joints made from metallic materials. However, subject to the engineering judgement of the user, many of the procedures presented herein may be applicable to joints made from composite materials.

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Befestigungsschrauben

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de visserie

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za pritrdilne elemente

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jun-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Jun-2022
Due Date
25-Aug-2022
Completion Date
30-Jun-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-23:2022
01-september-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za pritrdilne elemente
Space engineering - Threaded fasteners handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Befestigungsschrauben
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de visserie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-23:2022
ICS:
49.030.01 Vezni elementi na splošno Fasteners in general
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-23:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-23:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-23:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-23
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
June 2022
ICS 49.030.10; 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Threaded fasteners handbook
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de visserie Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu
Befestigungsschrauben

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 13 April 2022. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-23:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 15

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 16

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 17

2 References ............................................................................................................ 18

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 19

3.1 Terms from other documents .................................................................................. 19

3.2 Terms specific to the present document ................................................................. 19

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 21

3.4 Variables ................................................................................................................ 22

3.4.1 Uppercase variables ................................................................................. 22

3.4.2 Lowercase variables ................................................................................. 24

3.4.3 Symbols .................................................................................................... 25

3.4.4 Subscripts ................................................................................................. 27

4 How to use the guidelines ................................................................................... 28

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 28

4.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................... 28

4.2.1 Stage 1 ..................................................................................................... 28

4.2.2 Stage II ..................................................................................................... 29

4.2.3 Stage III .................................................................................................... 29

4.2.4 Stage IV .................................................................................................... 30

4.3 Annexes ................................................................................................................. 30

5 General Fastener Analysis Guidelines ............................................................... 31

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 31

5.2 Main Joint Categories ............................................................................................. 31

5.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 31

5.2.2 Concentric Axially Loaded Joints ............................................................... 32

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5.2.3 Eccentric Axially Loaded Joints ................................................................. 32

5.2.4 Shear Loaded Joints ................................................................................. 32

5.2.5 Combined Loaded Joints........................................................................... 32

5.2.6 Low Duty Joints ......................................................................................... 33

5.3 Joint Analysis Procedure ........................................................................................ 37

5.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 37

5.3.2 Margins of Safety ...................................................................................... 37

5.4 Joint Geometry ....................................................................................................... 39

5.4.1 Fastener Geometry ................................................................................... 39

5.4.2 Thread Geometry ...................................................................................... 40

5.5 Safety Factors ........................................................................................................ 43

5.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 43

5.5.2 The Joint Fitting Factor ............................................................................. 43

5.6 References ............................................................................................................. 44

6 The Preload ........................................................................................................... 45

6.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 45

6.2 Coefficient of Utilisation .......................................................................................... 45

6.3 Theoretical Aspects ................................................................................................ 46

6.3.1 The Relation between Torque and Preload ............................................... 46

6.3.2 Determining the Design Torque Level ....................................................... 49

6.3.3 Locking Devices and Prevailing Torque .................................................... 51

6.3.4 Sources of Error ........................................................................................ 53

6.3.5 Forces Induced by Thermal Fluctuation .................................................... 54

6.4 Mechanisms of Preload Loss .................................................................................. 56

6.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 56

6.4.2 Embedding ................................................................................................ 56

6.4.3 Fastener Group Interaction ....................................................................... 62

6.4.4 Gaskets ..................................................................................................... 64

6.4.5 Metallic Creep ........................................................................................... 64

6.4.6 Washers .................................................................................................... 64

6.4.7 Torsional Relaxation ................................................................................. 65

6.5 Margin of Safety on Tightening ............................................................................... 65

6.6 Worked Example .................................................................................................... 67

6.7 References ............................................................................................................. 67

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7 Concentric Axially Loaded Joints ....................................................................... 68

7.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 68

7.2 Joint Stiffness ......................................................................................................... 68

7.3 The Joint Diagram .................................................................................................. 69

7.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 69

7.3.2 Compressive Loading ............................................................................... 72

7.4 The Force Ratio ...................................................................................................... 73

7.5 The Compliance of the Fastener ............................................................................. 73

7.6 The Compliance of the Clamped Parts ................................................................... 75

7.6.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 75

7.6.2 Compression Zone Configurations ............................................................ 76

7.6.3 Determining the Compression Zone Configuration .................................... 79

7.6.4 The Compression Zone Compliance ......................................................... 80

7.6.5 Gasket Compliance ................................................................................... 81

7.7 Calculation of the Loading Plane Factor ................................................................. 83

7.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 83

7.7.2 Simple Calculation of the Loading Plane Factor ........................................ 87

7.7.3 Analytical Calculation of the Loading Plane Factor .................................... 89

7.8 Joint Separation ...................................................................................................... 91

7.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 91

7.8.2 The Margin of Safety for Joint Separation ................................................. 92

7.9 Fastener Tensile Failure ......................................................................................... 92

7.9.1 External Vs Overall Load........................................................................... 92

7.9.2 Margin of Safety on Fastener Failure ........................................................ 93

7.10 Thread Failure by Shear Pull-Out ........................................................................... 94

7.10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 94

7.10.2 Failure of the Female Thread .................................................................... 94

7.10.3 Failure of the Male Thread ........................................................................ 96

7.10.4 Margin of Safety on Thread Pull-Out ......................................................... 96

7.11 Crushing of Flanges ................................................................................................ 97

7.12 Repeated Loading to a Point above Yield ............................................................... 97

7.13 Dynamic Loading .................................................................................................... 99

7.14 Worked Examples................................................................................................. 100

7.14.1 Preload in a Concentric Axially Loaded Joint ........................................... 100

7.14.2 Thread Shear Pull-Out Example.............................................................. 107

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7.15 References ........................................................................................................... 108

8 Eccentric Axially Loaded Joints ........................................................................ 109

8.1 Effects of Eccentricity ........................................................................................... 109

8.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 109

8.1.2 Prying...................................................................................................... 112

8.2 Joints with Large Areas of Contact ....................................................................... 112

8.2.1 Compliance of the Clamped Parts ........................................................... 112

8.2.2 The Joint Diagram ................................................................................... 117

8.2.3 The Force Ratio ...................................................................................... 118

8.2.4 Loading Plane Factor .............................................................................. 118

8.2.5 The Interface Opening Limit .................................................................... 119

8.2.6 Preload Considerations ........................................................................... 119

8.3 Cantilevered Flange Joints ................................................................................... 120

8.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 120

8.3.2 Compliance of Circular Flanges .............................................................. 120

8.3.3 Force Ratio for Circular Cantilever Flanges ............................................. 124

8.3.4 Simplified Joint Diagram for Eccentric Joints ........................................... 125

8.3.5 Joint Diagram for Eccentric NonLinear Joints .......................................... 125

8.4 Fastener Loads in Eccentric Joints ....................................................................... 126

8.4.1 Bending Moments ................................................................................... 126

8.5 References ........................................................................................................... 129

9 Shear Loaded Joints .......................................................................................... 130

9.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 130

9.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 130

9.1.2 Analysis Approach .................................................................................. 131

9.2 Friction Grip Joints ................................................................................................ 132

9.2.1 Design Principles .................................................................................... 132

9.2.2 Slip Resistance ....................................................................................... 134

9.2.3 Friction Grip Strength Analysis ................................................................ 137

9.3 Bearing Joints ....................................................................................................... 138

9.3.1 Design Principles .................................................................................... 138

9.3.2 Fastener Shear Failure ........................................................................... 140

9.3.3 Net Tension Section Failure of FlangeS .................................................. 144

9.3.4 Hole Bearing Failure ............................................................................... 146

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9.3.5 Shear-Out or Tear-Out Failure ................................................................ 150

9.4 Eccentrically Loaded Shear Joints ........................................................................ 151

9.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 151

9.4.2 Fastener Group Centroid......................................................................... 152

9.4.3 Bearing Design of Eccentric Shear Joints ............................................... 152

9.4.4 Friction Grip Design of Eccentric Shear Joints ........................................ 153

9.5 Worked Examples................................................................................................. 155

9.5.1 Shear Loaded Joint Example .................................................................. 155

9.5.2 Net Tension Section Failure Example ..................................................... 158

9.5.3 Eccentric Shear Bearing Joint Example .................................................. 159

9.6 References ........................................................................................................... 161

10 Low Duty Joints ................................................................................................ 162

10.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 162

10.2 Low Duty Joint Design Guidelines ........................................................................ 162

10.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 162

10.2.2 Insert Pull out Strength ............................................................................ 162

10.2.3 Joint Thermal Conductivity ...................................................................... 164

10.2.4 Joint Electrical Conductivity ..................................................................... 164

10.2.5 Handling Size .......................................................................................... 165

10.2.6 Stiffness .................................................................................................. 166

10.2.7 Tolerances .............................................................................................. 166

10.2.8 Redundancy ............................................................................................ 166

10.3 Non-Metallic Joints ............................................................................................... 166

10.4 Low Duty Threshold .............................................................................................. 167

10.5 Example: Low Duty Thermal Joint ........................................................................ 167

10.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 167

10.5.2 Initial Assumptions .................................................................................. 169

10.5.3 Thermal Conductivity .............................................................................. 169

10.6 References ........................................................................................................... 170

11 Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics of Fasteners ............................................... 171

11.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 171

11.2 Fastener Fatigue .................................................................................................. 171

11.2.1 Fundamentals ......................................................................................... 171

11.2.2 Palmgren – Miner rule ............................................................................. 174

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11.2.3 Fatigue Design Principles........................................................................ 174

11.3 Fundamentals of Fracture Mechanics ................................................................... 176

11.3.1 The Stress Intensity Factor ..................................................................... 176

11.3.2 The Stress Intensity Correction Factor .................................................... 177

11.3.3 Crack Growth Calculations ...................................................................... 181

11.3.4 Corrosion Considerations ........................................................................ 181

11.4 Worked Examples................................................................................................. 181

11.4.1 Fatigue of a Threaded Fastener Example ............................................... 181

11.4.2 Threaded Fastener Fracture Mechanics Example ................................... 182

11.5 References ........................................................................................................... 184

12 Preloded Fastener Installation ........................................................................ 185

12.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 185

12.2 Yield Load Controlled Tightening .......................................................................... 185

12.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 185

12.2.2 Method of Operation ............................................................................... 185

12.2.3 Preload Developed in Fastener ............................................................... 187

12.3 Angle of Rotation Controlled Tightening ................................................................ 188

12.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 188

12.3.2 Elastic Range Tightening ........................................................................ 188

12.4 Ultrasonic Methods ............................................................................................... 190

12.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 190

12.4.2 Ultrasonic Extensometers ....................................................................... 190

12.5 Direct Measurement ............................................................................................. 193

12.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 193

12.5.2 Method of Application and Practical Considerations ................................ 194

12.6 Reuse of Fasteners .............................................................................................. 194

12.6.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 194

12.6.2 Effects on Friction Coefficients ................................................................ 194

12.6.3 Effects on Prevailing Torques ................................................................. 195

12.6.4 Recommended Practice for Fastener Resuse ......................................... 197

12.7 References ........................................................................................................... 197

13 Corrosion .......................................................................................................... 199

13.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 199

13.2 Galvanic Corrosion ............................................................................................... 201

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13.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 201

13.2.2 Factors Which Affect the Rate of Corrosion ............................................ 201

13.2.3 Prevention of Bimetallic Corrosion .......................................................... 202

13.3 Stress Corrosion Cracking .................................................................................... 205

13.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 205

13.3.2 Factors Affecting Stress Corrosion Cracking ........................................... 205

13.4 Crevice Corrosion ................................................................................................. 209

13.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 209

13.4.2 Methods of Avoiding Crevice Corrosion .................................................. 209

13.5 Pitting corrosion .................................................................................................... 209

13.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 209

13.5.2 Alloy Susceptibility .................................................................................. 210

13.5.3 Prevention of Pitting Corrosion ................................................................ 210

13.6 References ........................................................................................................... 210

14 Lubricants for Space Use ................................................................................ 211

14.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 211

14.2 Lubricant Selection ............................................................................................... 211

14.3 Plating and Coatings for Fasteners ....................................................................... 212

14.4 Liquid Lubricants .................................................................................................. 213

14.5 Dry Lubricants ...................................................................................................... 213

14.6 Codification of Space Lubricant Systems and Processes...................................... 213

14.7 References ........................................................................................................... 214

15 Manufacturing Quality Control ........................................................................ 215

15.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 215

15.2 Manufacturing and Quality Assurance .................................................................. 215

15.3 Quality of Threaded Fastener Joints ..................................................................... 215

15.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 215

15.3.2 Process Variations .................................................................................. 216

15.3.3 Material Variations .................................................................................. 216

15.3.4 Tolerancing ............................................................................................. 216

15.4 References ........................................................................................................... 217

16 Joint Validation by Testing .............................................................................. 218

16.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 218

16.2 Types of Testing ................................................................................................... 218

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16.3 Development Testing ............................................................................................ 218

16.3.1 Overview ...............................................................................................

...

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