Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials

This Technical Specification specifies the requirements of materials intended to be applied to the interface between the wheel tread and the rail crown (active interface). It can be applied either directly or indirectly to the wheel tread or rail.
It outlines the information required for most approval procedures, the method of testing and routine control/monitoring of the material.
This Technical Specification does not deal with adhesion materials, for example:
- sand
- adhesion enhancers

Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 2-2: Eigenschaften und Merkmale - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen an Materialien für die Anwendung auf der Kontaktfläche zwischen der Radlauffläche und der Fahrfläche der Schiene (aktive Kontaktfläche) fest. Sie kann direkt oder indirekt auf die Radlauffläche oder die Schiene angewendet werden.
Es beschreibt die erforderlichen Informationen für die meisten Genehmigungsverfahren, das Prüfverfahren und die regelmäßige Kontrolle/Überwachung des Materials.
Dieses Dokument behandelt keine kraftschlusserhöhenden Materialien wie etwa:
- Sand;
- Haftverstärker.

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion de la friction rail/roue - Partie 2-2 : Propriétés et caractéristiques - Matériaux de la surface du rail

Le présent document spécifie les exigences applicables aux lubrifiants destinés à être appliqués sur l'interface entre la bande de roulement de la roue et la tête de rail (interface active). Ils peuvent être appliqués directement ou indirectement, sur la bande de roulement ou sur le rail.
Il précise également les informations nécessaires à la plupart des procédures de validation, la méthode d'essai et les tâches de contrôle/surveillance de routine du lubrifiant.
Le présent document n'aborde pas les matériaux assurant l'adhérence, notamment :
-   le sable ;
-   les amplificateurs d'adhérence.

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 2-2. del: Lastnosti in karakteristike - Materiali za zgornjo površino tirnic

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Oct-2020
Publication Date
31-Jan-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Jan-2021
Due Date
04-Apr-2021
Completion Date
01-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
01-marec-2021
Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 2-2. del: Lastnosti in
karakteristike - Materiali za zgornjo površino tirnic
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-2: Properties and
Characteristics - Top of Rail materials
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 2-2:
Eigenschaften und Merkmale - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion de la friction rail/roue - Partie 2-2 : Propriétés et

caractéristiques - Matériaux de la surface du rail
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
45.080 Tračnice in železniški deli Rails and railway
components
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
CEN/TS 15427-2-2
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
January 2021
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 45.080; 45.120
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail
materials

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion des frottements Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

roue/rail - Partie 2-2 : Propriétés et caractéristiques - Rad und Schiene - Teil 2-2: Eigenschaften und

Lubrifiants de tête de rail Merkmale - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 23 November 2020 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Material requirements ................................................................................................................................ 10

5 General requirements ................................................................................................................................. 10

5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Product specification ................................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Technical file .................................................................................................................................................. 11

6 Control and monitoring of product ........................................................................................................ 11

6.1 Manufacturing process ............................................................................................................................... 11

6.2 Composition of material ............................................................................................................................. 11

6.3 Routine tests ................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.4 Additional measures .................................................................................................................................... 11

7 Technical datasheet ..................................................................................................................................... 11

7.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 Grease type material characteristics ..................................................................................................... 12

7.3 Liquid type material characteristics ...................................................................................................... 12

7.4 Solid type material characteristics ......................................................................................................... 12

8 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................... 12

8.1 Explanation of Annex A: Tables A.1 to A.4 ........................................................................................... 12

8.2 Key to Annex A table columns .................................................................................................................. 12

8.3 Key to Annex A table column ‘Use’ .......................................................................................................... 13

9 Packaging, labelling and storage ............................................................................................................. 13

Annex A (normative) Requirements for top of rail materials and testing ............................................ 14

Annex B (informative) Determination of the volatile constituents in greases .................................... 21

B.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

B.2 Short description .......................................................................................................................................... 21

B.3 Conditions for testing .................................................................................................................................. 21

B.3.1 Test conditions .............................................................................................................................................. 21

B.3.2 Required testing and measuring equipment ...................................................................................... 21

B.4 Test process .................................................................................................................................................... 21

B.4.1 Preparation of test ........................................................................................................................................ 21

B.4.2 Performance of test ...................................................................................................................................... 22

B.4.3 Evaluation ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

B.5 Recording of test results............................................................................................................................. 22

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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021

Annex C (informative) Functional test on specific equipment .................................................................. 23

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

C.2 Sprayability of liquid TOR materials ..................................................................................................... 23

C.2.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 23

C.2.2 Short description .......................................................................................................................................... 23

C.2.3 Conditions for testing .................................................................................................................................. 23

C.2.4 Test process .................................................................................................................................................... 24

Annex D (informative) Twin-disc machine Retentivity and Coefficient of Traction test ................. 25

D.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 25

D.2 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 25

D.3 Conditions for test ........................................................................................................................................ 25

D.3.1 Test conditions .............................................................................................................................................. 25

D.3.2 Twin discs ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

D.3.3 Performance of the Test ............................................................................................................................. 26

D.3.4 Evaluation of the Test.................................................................................................................................. 26

Annex E (informative) Twin-disc machine test for determining Creep force vs Creep rate curve

(for solid sticks comparable to MTM machine test)......................................................................... 28

E.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 28

E.2 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 28

E.3 Conditions for test ........................................................................................................................................ 29

E.3.1 Test conditions .............................................................................................................................................. 29

E.3.2 Twin discs ........................................................................................................................................................ 29

E.3.3 Test Process Example .................................................................................................................................. 29

E.3.4 Evaluation of the Test.................................................................................................................................. 30

Annex F (informative) MTM machine creep curve test ................................................................................ 32

F.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 32

F.1.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 32

F.1.2 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 32

F.2 Test equipment.............................................................................................................................................. 32

F.3 Application of TOR material to metal disk .......................................................................................... 33

F.4 Performance of the Test ............................................................................................................................. 35

F.5 Evaluation of the Test.................................................................................................................................. 36

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 37

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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document is part of the EN 15427 series, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management,

which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubrication;
— Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail materials;
— Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials;
— Part 2-1: Properties and Characteristics - Flange lubricants;
— Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials;
— Part 2-3: Properties and Characteristics - Adhesion materials;
— Part 3: Rationale for requirements and further background information.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc.) substances at the wheel-rail interface is a

complex subject and includes the following aspects:

— lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange or rail

lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface; commonly referred to as “check rail

lubrication”;

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread, commonly

referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— altering the level of adhesion at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread.

This document sets out requirements for the material to be used on the top of rail. It specifies

requirements for the material, how to test it and how to approve it.
The material for top of rail should be tested to confirm there is:
— compatibility with top of rail material applicator equipment;
— no intolerable increased risk of fire;
— no harmful environmental effects;

— no incompatibility between the different materials/lubricants in use, particularly between solid and

fluid systems;
— satisfactory and consistent product quality and performance;
— no degradation to the safety of the railway (braking, signalling).

The main purpose of a top of rail material is to influence the third layer to reduce friction to a level where

a reduction in noise or wear can be realized.
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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements of materials intended to be applied to the interface between

the wheel tread and the rail crown (active interface). It can be applied either directly or indirectly to the

wheel tread or rail.

It outlines the information required for most approval procedures, the method of testing and routine

control/monitoring of the material.
This document does not deal with adhesion materials, for example:
— sand;
— adhesion enhancers.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite - Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore

hardness) (ISO 868)

EN ISO 2160, Petroleum products - Corrosiveness to copper - Copper strip test (ISO 2160)

EN ISO 2592, Petroleum and related products - Determination of flash and fire points - Cleveland open cup

method (ISO 2592)

EN ISO 3104, Petroleum products - Transparent and opaque liquids - Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity (ISO 3104)

EN ISO 3146, Plastics - Determination of melting behaviour (melting temperature or melting range) of semi-

crystalline polymers by capillary tube and polarizing-microscope methods (ISO 3146)

EN ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products - Laboratory determination of density -

Hydrometer method (ISO 3675)

EN ISO 4589-1, Plastics - Determination of burning behaviour by oxygen index - Part 1: General

requirements (ISO 4589-1)

EN ISO 4589-2, Plastics - Determination of burning behaviour by oxygen index - Part 2: Ambient-

temperature test (ISO 4589-2)

EN ISO 5659-1, Plastics — Smoke generation — Part 1: Guidance on optical-density testing (ISO 5659-1)

EN ISO 5659-2, Plastics - Smoke generation - Part 2: Determination of optical density by a single-chamber

test (ISO 5659-2)

ISO/TR 5659-3, Plastics — Smoke generation — Part 3: Determination of optical density by a dynamic-flow

method

EN ISO 7827, Water quality - Evaluation of the "ready", "ultimate" aerobic biodegradability of organic

compounds in an aqueous medium - Method by analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (ISO 7827)

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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021

EN ISO 9408, Water quality - Evaluation of ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in

aqueous medium by determination of oxygen demand in a closed respirometer (ISO 9408)

EN ISO 9439, Water quality - Evaluation of ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in

aqueous medium - Carbon dioxide evolution test (ISO 9439)

EN ISO 10707, Water quality - Evaluation in an aqueous medium of the "ultimate" aerobic biodegradability

of organic compounds - Method by analysis of biochemical oxygen demand (closed bottle test) (ISO 10707)

EN ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube

method (ISO 12185)
ISO 2049, Petroleum products — Determination of colour (ASTM scale)

ISO 3016, Petroleum and related products from natural or synthetic sources — Determination of pour point

ISO 6072, Rubber — Compatibility between hydraulic fluids and standard elastomeric materials

ISO 6743-99, Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (class L) — Classification — Part 99: General

ISO 7120, Petroleum products and lubricants — Petroleum oils and other fluids — Determination of rust-

preventing characteristics in the presence of water

ISO 9772, Cellular plastics — Determination of horizontal burning characteristics of small specimens

subjected to a small flame

ISO 11007, Petroleum products and lubricants — Determination of rust-prevention characteristics of

lubricating greases

DIN 51418-1, X-ray spectrometry — X-ray emissions and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) — Part 1:

Definitions and principles

DIN 51418-2, X-ray spectrometry — X-ray emissions and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) — Part 2:

Definitions and basic principles for measurements, calibration and evaluation of results

DIN 51451, Testing of petroleum products and related products — Analysis by infrared spectrometry —

General working principles

DIN 51817, Testing of lubricants — Determination of oil separation from greases under static conditions

DIN 51820-1, Testing of lubricants — Analysis of greases by infrared spectrometry — Taking and

evaluating an infrared spectrum
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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 15085-1, EN 17018 and in

EN 13306 as well as the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
top of rail (TOR) material
substance that influences the rheology of the third layer body
3.2
liquid lubricant
oil, water or emulsion-based products

Note 1 to entry: Oil can be mineral, natural or synthetic in origin and can have additives included.

3.3
grease
semi-solid lubricant

Note 1 to entry: Grease consists of a thickener and additives integrated in a lubricating oil.

3.4
stick
encapsulated solid lubricant

Note 1 to entry: Typically, the stick comprises a solid lubricant which is encapsulated in a polymeric binder/carrier.

The product is designed for direct contact with a rotating wheel flange; the polymeric binder has a sufficiently high

melting point such that it does not melt but rather wears when in contact with the wheel flange to ensure

dimensional stability.
3.5
batch

entire content of a single identified production of material from the same manufacturing process

3.6
active interface
contact area between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail
Note 1 to entry: For more information on this definition, see CEN/TS 15427-1-2.
3.7
rail lubrication

lubrication of the active interface by applying a lubricant to the rail gauge side face

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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
3.8
lubricant application unit
LAU

component of the lubrication system (trainborne or trackside) that delivers lubricant to the active

interface

Note 1 to entry: This includes spray nozzles, trackside grease distribution units/blades, stick applicators, etc.

3.9
lubrication system
components required to apply lubricant to the active interface

Note 1 to entry: A lubrication system can include one or more Lubricant Application Units, a reservoir unit, pump

and/or a control device.
3.10
trainborne equipment

type of equipment that delivers product to the active interface installed on a train

3.11
trackside
type of lubrication system installed on or adjacent to the track
3.12
customer

railway undertaking, infrastructure owner, manufacturer or buyer of railway products or subassemblies,

or their representative
3.13
supplier
supplier of lubricants
Note 1 to entry: A supplier might also be the manufacturer of the product.
3.14
product specification

document prepared by the customer that describes the conditions and requirements for the lubricant

3.15
coefficient of friction
COF
and the multi- vector reaction between the wheel and rail
relationship between the force of friction
Note 1 to entry: Used between the flange and gauge corner of the rail.
3.16
coefficient of adhesion
COA

ratio of the tangential force at the wheel-rail interface and the force at this interface acting perpendicular

to the surface of the rail
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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
3.17
coefficient of traction
COT

ratio of the tangential force at the wheel-rail interface and the force at this interface acting perpendicular

to the surface of the rail
4 Material requirements
The material shall be designed to meet at least one of the following:
— reduction in noise and vibration;
— reduction in the rate of wear;
— reduction of the rate of corrugation growth;
— reduction in the number of wheel and rail defects.

When applied within the specified limits to the active interface the material shall not compromise the

safety of the railway (i.e. braking distances, signalling systems).
NOTE Specified limits are normally understood and agreed before use of material.
5 General requirements
5.1 Introduction

This section outlines the information required to gain approval on most railway networks. It does not

cover its performance on the railway.
5.2 Product specification

The product specification shall be fully documented and shall include the following information:

a) purpose of material;
b) conformity to the applicable type tests as set out in Tables A.1 to A.3;

c) conformance with other relevant local requirements (such as environmental, fire, toxicity, etc.);

d) application data:
1) including equipment, it can be used with;
2) operating temperatures;

NOTE 1 The typical operating temperature range to take into account is from −25 °C to +80 °C.

e) additional validation tests (see Table A.4);
f) any previous relevant experience;
g) conditions for packaging, storage and labelling (see Clause 9);
h) environmental tests are defined in Tables A.1 to A.3.
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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021

NOTE 2 Where legislation and regulations (European, national or local) concerning ecological and

environmental compatibility of lubricants (biodegradability, toxicity, etc.) are applicable, consideration will need to

be given to the relevant requirements.
5.3 Technical file

A file of technical data showing compliance with the requirements in the product specification and the

results of type tests and trials shall be provided. A technical datasheet shall also be provided (see

Clause 7).

A material safety data sheet (MSDS) for the product in the language of the interested customer or country

shall be included.
6 Control and monitoring of product
6.1 Manufacturing process

If the manufacturing process is changed in a way that may affect the chemical composition, it shall be

documented and the customer shall be notified.
NOTE In some cases, this leads to a new approval being required.
6.2 Composition of material

If the composition of the material is changed in any way, it shall be documented and the customer shall

be notified.
NOTE In some cases, this leads to a new approval being required.
6.3 Routine tests
Routine tests ensure product consistency from batch to batch.

The routine tests are listed in Tables A1 to A3. If additional tests are required (such as those not included

in the tables or a type test) this and the frequency can be agreed between the client and supplier.

The sample of material assessed for quality testing shall have been manufactured in a regular production

batch. The entire sample of material used for the approval tests shall be taken from the same production

batch and delivered in a single consignment.
The results of the routine tests shall be recorded.
6.4 Additional measures

Retention of test records and samples, witnessing of tests, calibration of test equipment shall be

considered.
7 Technical datasheet
7.1 General

The technical datasheet shall include the individual identifying code or name of the material, a description

of the product’s field of use and typical means of application. For each material type, the information in

the following subclauses shall also be included.
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CEN/TS 15427-2-2:2021
7.2 Grease type material ch
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020
01-oktober-2020
Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 2-2. del: Lastnosti in
karakteristike - Materiali za zgornjo površino tirnic
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-2: Properties and
Characteristics - Top of Rail materials
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 2-2:
Eigenschaften und Merkmale - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion de la friction rail/roue - Partie 2-2 : Propriétés et

caractéristiques - Matériaux de la surface du rail
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
45.080 Tračnice in železniški deli Rails and railway
components
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
July 2020
ICS 45.080; 45.120
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail
materials

Applications ferroviaires - Gestion de la friction Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

rail/roue - Partie 2-2 : Propriétés et caractéristiques - Rad und Schiene - Teil 2-2: Eigenschaften und

Matériaux de la surface du rail Merkmale - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 256.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change

without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020
FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................ 6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................ 6

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................... 8

4 Material requirements ....................................................................................................... 10

5 General requirements ........................................................................................................ 10

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Product specification .......................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Technical file .......................................................................................................................... 11

6 Control and monitoring of product ................................................................................ 11

6.1 Manufacturing process ....................................................................................................... 11

6.2 Composition of material .................................................................................................... 11

6.3 Routine tests .......................................................................................................................... 11

6.4 Additional measures ........................................................................................................... 11

7 Technical datasheet............................................................................................................. 11

7.1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2 Grease type material characteristics ............................................................................ 11

7.3 Liquid type material characteristics ............................................................................. 12

7.4 Solid type material characteristics ................................................................................ 12

8 Tests .......................................................................................................................................... 12

8.1 Explanation of Annex A: Tables A.1 to A.4 ................................................................... 12

8.2 Key to Annex A table columns ......................................................................................... 12

8.3 Key to Annex A table column ‘Use’ ................................................................................. 13

9 Packaging, labelling and storage .................................................................................... 13

Annex A (normative) Requirements for top of rail materials and testing .................... 14

Annex B (informative) Determination of the volatile constituents in greases ........... 24

B.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................... 24

B.2 Short description .................................................................................................................. 24

B.3 Conditions for testing ......................................................................................................... 24

B.4 Test process............................................................................................................................ 24

B.5 Recording of test results .................................................................................................... 25

Annex C (informative) Functional test on specific equipment.......................................... 26

C.1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 26

C.2 Sprayability of liquid TOR materials ............................................................................. 26

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Annex D (informative) Twin-disc machine Retentivity and Coefficient of Traction

test ............................................................................................................................................. 28

D.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................... 28

D.2 Description ............................................................................................................................. 28

D.3 Conditions for test ................................................................................................................ 28

Annex E (informative) Twin-disc machine test for determining Creep force vs Creep

rate curve (for solid sticks comparable to MTM machine test) ........................... 31

E.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................... 31

E.2 Description ............................................................................................................................. 31

E.3 Conditions for test ................................................................................................................ 32

Annex F (informative) MTM machine creep curve test ....................................................... 35

F.1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 35

F.2 Test equipment ..................................................................................................................... 35

F.3 Application of TOR material to metal disk .................................................................. 36

F.4 Performance of the Test .................................................................................................... 38

F.5 Evaluation of the Test ......................................................................................................... 38

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... 40

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European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/TC 256 “Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the vote.

This document is part of the series EN 15427, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction

management, which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubrication
— Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail materials
— Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials
— Part 2-1: Properties and Characteristics - Flange lubricants
— Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials
— Part 2-3: Properties and Characteristics - Adhesion materials
— Part 3: Rationale for requirements and further background information
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Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc.) substances at the wheel-rail interface

is a complex subject and includes the following aspects:

— lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange

or rail lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface; commonly referred to as “check rail

lubrication”;

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread,

commonly referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— altering the level of adhesion at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread.

This document sets out requirements for the material to be used on the top of rail. It specifies

requirements for the material, how to test it and how to approve it.
The material for top of rail should be tested to confirm there is:
— compatibility with top of rail material applicator equipment;
— no intolerable increased risk of fire;
— no harmful environmental effects;

— no incompatibility between the different materials/lubricants in use, particularly between

solid and fluid systems;
— satisfactory and consistent product quality and performance;
— no degradation to the safety of the railway (braking, signalling).

The main purpose of a top of rail material is to influence the third layer to reduce friction to a

level where a reduction in noise or wear can be realized.
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1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements of materials intended to be applied to the interface

between the wheel tread and the rail crown (active interface). It can be applied either directly or

indirectly to the wheel tread or rail.

It outlines the information required for most approval procedures, the method of testing and

routine control/monitoring of the material.
This document does not deal with adhesion materials, for example:
— sand
— adhesion enhancers
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

EN ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite - Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer

(Shore hardness) (ISO 868)

EN ISO 2160, Petroleum products - Corrosiveness to copper - Copper strip test (ISO 2160)

EN ISO 2592, Petroleum and related products - Determination of flash and fire points - Cleveland

open cup method (ISO 2592)

EN ISO 3104, Petroleum products - Transparent and opaque liquids - Determination of kinematic

viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity (ISO 3104)

EN ISO 3146, Plastics - Determination of melting behaviour (melting temperature or melting range)

of semi-crystalline polymers by capillary tube and polarizing-microscope methods (ISO 3146)

EN ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products - Laboratory determination of density

- Hydrometer method (ISO 3675)

EN ISO 4589-1, Plastics - Determination of burning behaviour by oxygen index - Part 1: General

requirements (ISO 4589-1)

EN ISO 4589-2, Plastics - Determination of burning behaviour by oxygen index - Part 2: Ambient-

temperature test (ISO 4589-2)

EN ISO 5659-1, Plastics — Smoke generation — Part 1: Guidance on optical-density testing

(ISO 5659-1)

EN ISO 5659-2, Plastics - Smoke generation - Part 2: Determination of optical density by a single-

chamber test (ISO 5659-2)

ISO/TR 5659-3, Plastics — Smoke generation — Part 3: Determination of optical density by a

dynamic-flow method
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EN ISO 7827, Water quality - Evaluation of the "ready", "ultimate" aerobic biodegradability of

organic compounds in an aqueous medium - Method by analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

(ISO 7827)

EN ISO 9408, Water quality - Evaluation of ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds

in aqueous medium by determination of oxygen demand in a closed respirometer (ISO 9408)

EN ISO 9439, Water quality - Evaluation of ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds

in aqueous medium - Carbon dioxide evolution test (ISO 9439)

EN ISO 10707, Water quality - Evaluation in an aqueous medium of the "ultimate" aerobic

biodegradability of organic compounds - Method by analysis of biochemical oxygen demand (closed

bottle test) (ISO 10707)

EN ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-

tube method (ISO 12185)
ISO 2049, Petroleum products — Determination of colour (ASTM scale)

ISO 3016, Petroleum and related products from natural or synthetic sources — Determination of

pour point

ISO 6072, Rubber — Compatibility between hydraulic fluids and standard elastomeric materials

ISO 6743-99, Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (class L) — Classification — Part 99:

General

ISO 7120, Petroleum products and lubricants — Petroleum oils and other fluids — Determination

of rust-preventing characteristics in the presence of water

ISO 9772, Cellular plastics — Determination of horizontal burning characteristics of small

specimens subjected to a small flame

ISO 11007, Petroleum products and lubricants — Determination of rust-prevention characteristics

of lubricating greases

DIN 51418-1, X-ray spectrometry — X-ray emissions and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) — Part

1: Definitions and principles

DIN 51418-2, X-ray spectrometry — X-ray emissions and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) — Part

2: Definitions and basic principles for measurements, calibration and evaluation of results

DIN 51451, Testing of petroleum products and related products — Analysis by infrared

spectrometry — General working principles

DIN 51817, Testing of lubricants — Determination of oil separation from greases under static

conditions

DIN 51820-1, Testing of lubricants — Analysis of greases by infrared spectrometry — Taking and

evaluating an infrared spectrum
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3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 15085-1, EN 17018 and

in EN 13306 as well as the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
top of rail (TOR) material
substance that influences the rheology of the third layer body
3.2
liquid lubricant
oil, water or emulsion-based products

Note 1 to entry: Oil can be mineral, natural or synthetic in origin and can have additives included.

3.3
grease
semi-solid lubricant

Note 1 to entry: Grease consists of a thickener and additives integrated in a lubricating oil.

3.4
stick
encapsulated solid lubricant

Note 1 to entry: Typically, the stick comprises a solid lubricant which is encapsulated in a polymeric

binder/carrier. The product is designed for direct contact with a rotating wheel flange; the polymeric

binder has a sufficiently high melting point such that it does not melt but rather wears when in contact with

the wheel flange to ensure dimensional stability.
3.5
batch

entire content of a single identified production of material from the same manufacturing process

3.6
active interface
contact area between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail
Note 1 to entry: For more information on this definition, see EN 15427.
3.7
rail lubrication

lubrication of the active interface by applying a lubricant to the rail gauge side face

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3.8
Lubricant Application Unit
(LAU)

component of the lubrication system (trainborne or trackside) that delivers lubricant to the active

interface

Note 1 to entry: This includes spray nozzles, trackside grease distribution units/blades, stick applicators,

etc.
3.9
lubrication system
components required to apply lubricant to the active interface

Note 1 to entry: A lubrication system can include one or more Lubricant Application Units, a reservoir unit,

pump and/or a control device.
3.10
trainborne equipment

type of equipment that delivers product to the active interface installed on a train

3.11
trackside
type of lubrication system installed on or adjacent to the track
3.12
customer

railway undertaking, infrastructure owner, manufacturer or buyer of railway products or

subassemblies, or their representative
3.13
supplier
supplier of lubricants
Note 1 to entry: A supplier might also be the manufacturer of the product.
3.14
product specification

document prepared by the customer that describes the conditions and requirements for the

lubricant to meet
3.15
Coefficient of friction (COF)

relationship between the force of friction and the multi- vector reaction between the wheel and

rail
Note 1 to entry: Used between the flange and gauge corner of the rail.
3.16
Coefficient of Adhesion (COA)

ratio of the tangential force at the wheel-rail interface and the force at this interface acting

perpendicular to the surface of the rail
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3.17
Coefficient of Traction (COT)

ratio of the tangential force at the wheel-rail interface and the force at this interface acting

perpendicular to the surface of the rail
4 Material requirements
The material shall be designed to meet at least one of the following:
— reduction in noise and vibration;
— reduction in the rate of wear;
— reduction of the rate of corrugation growth;
— reduction in the number of wheel and rail defects.

When applied within the specified limits to the active interface the material shall not compromise

the safety of the railway (i.e braking distances, signalling systems).
NOTE Specified limits are normally understood and agreed before use of material.
5 General requirements
5.1 Introduction

This section outlines the information required to gain approval on most railway networks. It does

not cover its performance on the railway.
5.2 Product specification

The product specification shall be fully documented and shall include the following information:

a) purpose of material;
b) conformity to the applicable type tests as set out in Tables A.1 to A.3;

c) conformance with other relevant local requirements (such as environmental, fire, toxicity,

etc…)
d) application data:
1) including equipment, it can be used with;
2) operating temperatures;

NOTE 1 The typical operating temperature range to take into account is from −25 °C to +80 °C.

e) additional validation tests (see Table A.4);
f) any previous relevant experience (i.e. use in other countries);
g) conditions for packaging, storage and labelling (see Clause 9);
h) environmental tests are defined in Tables A.1 to A.3.
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NOTE 2 Where legislation and regulations (European, national or local) concerning ecological and

environmental compatibility of lubricants (biodegrability, toxicity, etc.) are applicable, consideration will

need to be given to the relevant requirements.
5.3 Technical file

A file of technical data showing compliance with the requirements in the product specification

and the results of type tests and trials shall be provided. A technical datasheet shall also be

provided (see Clause 7).

A material safety data sheet (MSDS) for the product in the language of the interested customer or

country shall be included.
6 Control and monitoring of product
6.1 Manufacturing process

If the manufacturing process is changed in a way that may affect the chemical composition, it shall

be documented and the customer shall be notified.
NOTE In some cases, this leads to a new approval being required.
6.2 Composition of material

If the composition of the material is changed in any way, it shall be documented and the customer

shall be notified.
NOTE In some cases, this leads to a new approval being required.
6.3 Routine tests
Routine tests ensure product consistency from batch to batch.

The routine tests are listed in Tables A1 to A3. If additional tests are required (such as those not

included in the tables or a type test) this and the frequency can be agreed between the client and

supplier.

The sample of material assessed for quality testing shall have been manufactured in a regular

production batch. The entire sample of material used for the approval tests shall be taken from

the same production batch and delivered in a single consignment.
The results of the routine tests shall be recorded.
6.4 Additional measures

Retention of test records and samples, witnessing of tests, calibration of test equipment shall be

considered.
7 Technical datasheet
7.1 General

The technical datasheet shall include the individual identifying code or name of the material, a

description of the product’s field of use and typical means of application. For each material type,

the information in the following subclauses shall also be included.
7.2 Grease type material characteristics

The product shall be described by its consistency, its temperature range, the type of thickener

and type of base oil used. Where solid particulates are used, the type and content shall be

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reported. Further technical data shall be provided as listed under the ‘datasheet’ column in

Table A.1.
7.3 Liquid type material characteristics

The material, which includes, water based, oil based and hybrid based, shall be described by its

viscosity, its temperature range and by the type of oil used. Where solid particulates are used, the

type and content shall be reported. Further technical data shall be provided as listed under the

‘datasheet’ column in Table A.2.
7.4 Solid type material characteristics

The product shall be described by its melting point, hardness, dimensions and its temperature

range. Further technical data shall be provided as listed under the ‘datasheet’ column in Table A.3.

The product shall be designed to minimize stick debris on the ballast.

It is suggested that the mass of any piece of debris should be no greater than 5 g.

8 Tests
8.1 Explanation of Annex A: Tables A.1 to A.4
The tables have 2 purposes:
1. Tests to show the product can be used in the railway environment
NOTE Values may vary depending on where the material is used.
2. Product consistency

For each required property of the material, Tables A.1, A.2 and A.3 list the mandatory and optional

tests for grease, oil, water based and sticks respectively, and parameters for trainborne and

trackside applications.

Table A.4 lists additional tests to check the performance characteristics of the material and that

the material will operate correctly with the equipment it’s to be used with.
8.2 Key to Annex A table columns

The key to the columns ‘Type’, ‘Routine’ and ‘Technical Datasheet’ in Tables A.1 to A.4 is as

follows:

— ‘Type’ = This indicates the type tests required for the purpose of approval testing (see 6.1 and

6.2).

— ‘Routine’ = This indicates the routine tests required for testing from approved mass-

produced batches (see 6.3).

— ‘Technical Datasheet’ = This indicates the characteristics to be listed in the product

documentation.
In each column, a symbol is used to indicate the required test or information:
— ‘X’ indicates the test or piece of information is mandatory;
— ‘O’ indicates the test or piece of information is optional;
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8.3 Key to Annex A table column ‘Use’

Tables A.1 to A.4 include a column headed ‘Use’ and the letters used mean the following:

— A = Trainborne using liquid or grease type materials
— B = Trackside using liquid or grease type materials
— C = Trainborne using a solid material

This column identifies the most common systems in current use. Most trainborne equipment

sprays the material and most trackside equipment pumps the material. However, where

alternatives exist, careful consideration to the tests required is needed.
9 Packaging, labelling and storage
The packaging shall protect the contents from contamination and damage.
The labelling shall include at least the following:
— supplier’s name;
— brand name and/or code of the material;
— batch number and date of manufacture, uncoded or coded;
— net mass/quantity/volume;
NOTE Local regulatory requirements will apply.

The following additional information shall be included if specified in the product specification:

— customer stock number;
— an indication that the batch has been accepted by the customer.

The storage conditions and, if necessary, the date limit of use of the material shall be provided.

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Annex A
(normative)
Requirements for top of rail materials and testing
Table A.1 — Requirements for greases
Item Property Use Unit Test method Values Type Routine Datasheet Comments
A.1.1 Appearance A and - Visual Homogenous X X X Should be kept for TOR. This is
B useful to see if the product
looks as it should.
A.1.2 Colour A and - ISO 2049 Homogenous Should be kept for TOR
X O X

A.1.3 Consistency A - ISO 6743-99 To be provided for X X X Should be kept for TOR

information
B - ISO 6743-99 To be provided for
X X X
information
Item Property Use Unit Test method Values Type Routine Datasheet Comments
A.1.7 Flash point A and °C EN ISO 2592 ≥ 200 This test is required for safety
X X
B purposes and should be
retained
Need a standard for finished
grease product. Current ISO
quoted is for oils.
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Item Property Use Unit Test method Values Type Routine Datasheet Comments
A.1.12 Oil separation / Required for TOR, left in as it
...

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