Children's high chairs - Requirements and test methods

This European Standard specifies safety requirements for free standing children's high chairs that elevate  children to dining table height usually for the purposes of feeding or eating. Children's high chairs are for children up to 3 years of age who are capable of sitting unaided.
With the exception of special high chairs for medical purposes, this standard applies to children's high chairs for domestic and non-domestic use.
NOTE   If a children's high chair has to or can be converted into other functions, additional European Standards may apply.

Kinderhochstühle - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Diese Europäische Norm legt sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen an freistehende Kinderhochstühle fest, die ein Kind auf die Höhe eines Esstisches heben, üblicherweise zum Füttern oder Essen. Kinderhochstühle sind für Kinder bis zu einem Alter von 3 Jahren, die eigenständig sitzen können.
Diese Norm gilt für Kinderhochstühle für den Wohn- und Nicht-Wohnbereich, mit Ausnahme von Spezialhochstühlen für medizinische Zwecke.
ANMERKUNG   Falls ein Kinderhochstuhl für andere Funktionen umgebaut wurde oder umgebaut werden kann, können zusätzliche Europäische Normen gelten.

Chaises hautes pour enfants - Exigences et méthodes d'essai

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences de sécurité applicables aux chaises hautes autoportantes pour enfants qui permettent d’installer ces derniers à la hauteur d'une table à manger, généralement dans le but de les nourrir ou de leur permettre de manger. Les chaises hautes pour enfants sont destinées à des enfants âgés au maximum de trois ans et capables de se tenir seuls en position assise.
En dehors des chaises hautes spéciales utilisées à des fins médicales, la présente norme est applicable aux chaises hautes pour enfants à usage domestique ou non domestique.
NOTE   Si une chaise haute pour enfants doit ou peut être transformée en un système destiné à d’autres fonctions, d’autres Normes européennes peuvent s’appliquer.

Otroški visoki stoli - Zahteve in preskusne metode (vključno z dopolnilom A1)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Mar-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Mar-2020
Due Date
15-May-2020
Completion Date
13-Mar-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
01-april-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 14988:2017
Otroški visoki stoli - Zahteve in preskusne metode (vključno z dopolnilom A1)
Children's high chairs - Requirements and test methods
Kinderhochstühle - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren
Chaises hautes pour enfants - Exigences et méthodes d'essai
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
ICS:
97.140 Pohištvo Furniture
97.190 Otroška oprema Equipment for children
SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.140; 97.190 Supersedes EN 14988:2017
English Version
Children's high chairs - Requirements and test methods

Chaises hautes pour enfants - Exigences et méthodes Kinderhochstühle - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

d'essai

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 April 2017 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 18 November

2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.1 Test conditions ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Application of forces ...................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Tolerances ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Test sequence ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Determination of the junction line ........................................................................................................... 7

5 Test equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Test mass A ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3 Impact hammer ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Large loading pad ............................................................................................................................................ 9

5.5 Small loading pad ............................................................................................................................................ 9

5.6 Stops .................................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.7 Floor surface .................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.8 Beams ............................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.9 Probes for finger entrapment .................................................................................................................. 10

5.10 Test mass B ..................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.11 Small parts cylinder .................................................................................................................................... 10

5.12 Small torso probe ......................................................................................................................................... 11

5.13 Test mass C ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.14 Leg probe ......................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.15 Wedge block ................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.16 Large head probe ......................................................................................................................................... 13

5.17 Impactor .......................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.18 Wood block ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.19 Feeler gauge ................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.20 Test mass D ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

6 Chemical hazards - Migration of certain elements (see A.2) ........................................................ 14

7 Thermal hazards (see A.3) ........................................................................................................................ 15

8 Mechanical hazards (see A.4) .................................................................................................................. 15

8.1 Hazards caused by folding of the product ........................................................................................... 15

8.2 Hazards caused by height adjustment .................................................................................................. 16

8.3 Entrapment hazards (see A.4.1) ............................................................................................................. 17

8.4 Hazards caused by moving parts (see A.4.2) ...................................................................................... 18

8.5 Entanglement hazards (see A.4.3) ......................................................................................................... 18

8.6 Choking and ingestion hazards (see A.4.4) ......................................................................................... 19

8.7 Hazards caused by edges, corners and protruding parts (see A.4.6) ........................................ 21

8.8 Strength and durability hazards (Structural integrity, see A.4.7) .............................................. 21

8.9 Hazards from falls out of the high chair (see A.4.8) ......................................................................... 24

8.10 Suffocation hazards (see A.4.5) ............................................................................................................... 32

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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)

8.11 Castors and wheels (see A.4.9) ................................................................................................................ 32

8.12 Stability (see A.A.4.10) ................................................................................................................................ 34

9 Marking and product information .......................................................................................................... 38

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 38

9.2 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 38

9.3 Instructions for use ...................................................................................................................................... 39

9.4 Purchase information ................................................................................................................................. 39

Annex A (informative) Rationales ....................................................................................................................... 41

A.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 41

A.2 Chemical hazards (see Clause 6) ............................................................................................................. 41

A.3 Thermal hazards (see Clause 7) .............................................................................................................. 41

A.4 Mechanical hazards (see Clause 8) ......................................................................................................... 41

Annex B (informative) A- deviations .................................................................................................................. 44

Annex C (normative) Translations ...................................................................................................................... 46

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 56

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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 14988:2017+A1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 364

"High Chairs", the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by February 2023.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 2019-03-29.
This document supersedes !EN 14988-1:2017".

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !".

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

This document contains the following main modifications in comparison to the previous versions:

— EN 14988-1:2006+A1:2012 and EN 14988-2:2006+A1:2012 have been merged into one single

document;
— complete review of the standard in a hazard base format;
— modifications necessary to comply with European Decision 2013/121/EU;
— addition of a dynamic strength test;

— inclusion of specific requirements for high chair with more than two castors/wheels;

— improvement of restraint system requirements to require a passive crotch restraint for products

with a horizontal component in front of the baby.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies safety requirements for free standing children's high chairs that

elevate children to dining table height usually for the purposes of feeding or eating. Children's high

chairs are for children up to 3 years of age who are capable of sitting unaided.

With the exception of special high chairs for medical purposes, this standard applies to children's high

chairs for domestic and non-domestic use.

NOTE If a children's high chair has to or can be converted into other functions, additional European

Standards may apply.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 71-2:2011+A1:2014, Safety of toys - Part 2: Flammability
EN 71-3, Safety of toys - Part 3: Migration of certain elements

EN 13210, Child use and care articles - Children's harnesses, reins and similar type articles - Safety

requirements and test methods

ISO 7619-1, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic - Determination of indentation hardness - Part 1:

Durometer method (Shore hardness)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
active restraint system

system where the carer performs an action to ensure that the child is secured in the restraint system

3.2
passive restraint system

system where the carer does not perform an action to ensure that the child is secured in the restraint

system
3.3
crotch restraint

device passing between the legs of the child and preventing the child from slipping forwards out of the

high chair
3.4
waist restraint

rigid or flexible device(s), which when fastened, goes from one side of the high chair to the other

passing in front of the child’s waist or surrounding the child’s waist
3.5
shoulder restraint

device passing over the shoulders and connecting either to the crotch restraint or to the waist restraint

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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
3.6
locking device
component that maintains part(s) of the product in the position of use
EXAMPLE Latch, a hook, an over centre lock.
3.7
operating device

part of the locking mechanism(s) or parking device(s) designed to be activated by the carer by one or

several action(s)
3.8
parking device
device intended to prevent rolling of castors/wheels
3.9
locking mechanism

assembly consisting of one or more locking device(s) and one or more operating device(s)

3.10
junction line
intersection of the seat and the back rest
4 General
4.1 Test conditions

The high chair shall be tested as delivered. If the high chair is a knock-down type, it shall be assembled

according to the instructions supplied with it. If the instructions allow for different adjustments or

configurations of components (e.g. inclination of the backrest, height of the seat, position of the tray,

position of castors/wheels, etc.), the most onerous combination shall be used for each test, unless

otherwise specified in the test method.

Knock-down fittings shall be tightened before testing. Further re-tightening shall not take place.

4.2 Application of forces

The forces in the static load tests shall be applied sufficiently slowly to ensure that negligible dynamic

force is applied.

The tests are described in terms of the application of forces, however masses can be used. The

relationship 10 N = 1 kg shall be used for this purpose.
4.3 Tolerances
Unless otherwise stated, the following tolerances apply:
— Forces: ± 5 % of the nominal force;
— Masses: ± 0,5 % of the nominal mass;
— Dimensions: ± 1,0 mm of the nominal dimension;
— Angles: ± 2° of the nominal angle;
— Positioning of loading pads: ± 5 mm.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)

NOTE For the purposes of uncertainty in measurements, test results are not considered to be adversely

affected when the above tolerances are met.
4.4 Test sequence

The tests in Clause 8 shall be carried out on the same high chair and in the order of the clauses of this

standard.
4.5 Determination of the junction line
The junction line is shown in Figure 1 below.

Where the backrest and the seat do not meet, the junction line is the projection of the backrest onto the

seat (see Figure 1).
Key
LL junction line
1 backrest
2 seat
Figure 1 — Junction line

When the seat unit is in the form of a hammock, a theoretical junction line, “LL”, shall be determined as

shown in Figure 2. The junction line may vary when the backrest is adjusted in different positions.

Key
AA top edge of the backrest
BB front edge of the seat
LL junction line
CL vertical projection of C on the hammock
C mid-point between A and B
Figure 2 — Junction line for seat units in the form of a hammock
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
5 Test equipment
5.1 General

Unless otherwise specified, test forces may be applied by any suitable device as results are dependent

only upon correctly applied forces and not upon the apparatus.
5.2 Test mass A

A rigid cylinder 200 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height, having a mass of 15 kg with its centre of

gravity 150 mm above its base. The edges shall have a radius of 5 mm. Two anchorage points shall be

provided. These shall be positioned 150 mm from the base and at an angle of 180° to each other around

the circumference (see Figure 3).
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 edge radius: (5 ± 1) mm
2 anchorage points
Figure 3 — Test mass A
5.3 Impact hammer

A striker in the form of a cylindrical object having a total mass of 6,5 kg supported from a pivot by a

steel tube of 38 mm in diameter and with a wall thickness of 2 mm (see Figure 4). The distance between

the pivot and the centre of gravity of the striker shall be 1 000 mm. The pendulum arm shall be pivoted

by a low friction bearing.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 pendulum head, steel mass 6,4 kg
2 hardwood
3 rubber 50 ± 10 Shore A (ISO 7619-1)

4 pendulum arm, length 950 mm; high tensile steel tube ∅ 38 mm x 2 mm; mass (2 ± 0,2) kg

5 pivot point
Mass of assembly (Key numbers 1, 2 and 3): (6,5 ± 0,07) kg
Figure 4 — Impact hammer
5.4 Large loading pad

A rigid cylindrical object 100 mm in diameter having a smooth hard surface and edges rounded with

radius of 12 mm.
5.5 Small loading pad

A rigid cylindrical object 30 mm in diameter having a smooth hard surface and edges rounded with

radius of (0,8 ± 0,3) mm.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
5.6 Stops

Stops to prevent the high chair from sliding but not tilting, no higher than 12 mm except in cases where

the design of the item necessitates the use of higher stops, in which case the lowest stops that will

prevent the item from sliding shall be used.
5.7 Floor surface
A horizontal, flat and rigid plane with a smooth surface.

For the tests according to 8.8.6.4, a 2 mm thick rubber mat, with hardness (75 ± 10) Shore A according

to ISO 7619-1, shall be used on a concrete floor.
5.8 Beams

5.8.1 Beam for stability testing and for measuring the length of the lateral protection

A beam, not less than 900 mm long, with a square section of 25 mm x 25 mm and with a mass of

(0,5 ± 0,01) kg.
5.8.2 Beam for measuring the height for lateral protection test
A beam, 86 mm wide and with a mass of (0,5 ± 0,01) kg.
5.9 Probes for finger entrapment
0 +01,

Probes made of plastic or other hard, smooth material with diameters() mm and () mm

7 12
−01, 0

with a hemispherical end (see Figure 5) and which can be mounted on a force-measuring device.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 line around the probe showing the depth of penetration
Probe type 7 mm probe 12 mm probe
0 +0,1
7 12
Diameter A
-0,1 0
Figure 5 — Test probes with hemispherical ends
5.10 Test mass B
A cylinder with a mass of 5 kg and a diameter of 100 mm.
5.11 Small parts cylinder

A cylinder for assessment of small components, having dimensions in accordance with Figure 6.

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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Dimension in millimetres
Figure 6— Small parts cylinder
5.12 Small torso probe

A probe made from plastic or other hard, smooth material with dimensions as shown in Figure 7.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 handle
a 86 mm
b 40 mm
c 120 mm
Figure 7 — Small torso probe
5.13 Test mass C

An object made of steel with a total mass of (9 ± 0,1) kg and with dimensions as specified in Figure 8.

All edges shall be rounded or chamfered.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 seat part [mass: (4,495 ± 0,05) kg]
2 backrest part [mass: (4,501 ± 0,05) kg]
3 hinge pin made of steel [mass of hinge pin: (17 ± 0,5) g, length: 79,5 mm]
D Diameter: 6 mm
Dimension tolerances: ± 2 mm
Figure 8 — Test mass C
5.14 Leg probe
A cylindrical probe with a diameter of 38 mm and a length of at least 76 mm.
5.15 Wedge block

A block made of plastic or other hard, smooth material and with dimensions according to Figure 9.

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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Top view
Front view Side view
Figure 9 — Wedge block
5.16 Large head probe

A probe made of plastic or other hard smooth material, with dimensions according to Figure 10.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 handle
Figure 10 — Large head probe
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
5.17 Impactor

A cylindrical bag with a diameter of 150 mm filled with steel shot with a diameter of (4 ± 2) mm. The

total mass shall be 23 kg.
5.18 Wood block

A wood block, with dimensions of 150 mm by 150 mm with a thickness of 25 mm and with the edges

rounded with a radius of 8 mm.
5.19 Feeler gauge

A gauge with a thickness of (0,4 ± 0,02) mm and an insertion end radius of (3 ± 0,5) mm (see Figure 11).

Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 11 — Feeler gauge
5.20 Test mass D
A mass of 9 kg on a base area of 200 mm x 100 mm.
6 Chemical hazards - Migration of certain elements (see A.2)
Separate samples may be used for these tests.

The migration of elements from surface materials located on or above the plane defined by the seat

surface with the exception of the back of the backrest shall not exceed the limits listed in Table 1 when

tested in accordance with EN 71-3.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Table 1 — Limits for migration of certain elements
Element mg/kg
Aluminium 70 000
Antimony 560
Arsenic 47
Barium 18 750
Boron 15 000
Cadmium 17
Chromium (III) 460
Chromium (VI) 0,2
Cobalt 130
Copper 7 700
Lead 160
Manganese 15 000
Mercury 94
Nickel 930
Selenium 460
Strontium 56 000
Tin 180 000
Organic tin 12
Zinc 46 000
7 Thermal hazards (see A.3)
Separate samples may be used for these tests.

This clause applies only to textiles, coated textiles and plastic coverings. Hook and loop fasteners, cords

and alike are excluded.

When tested in accordance with EN 71-2:2011+A1:2014, 5.5, there shall be no surface flash.

8 Mechanical hazards (see A.4)
8.1 Hazards caused by folding of the product
8.1.1 Requirements
8.1.1.1 General

There shall be at least one locking mechanism which prevents a high chair from folding whilst in use

and also when a child is being placed into and removed from the high chair.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
8.1.1.2 Incomplete deployment

In order to prevent the hazards due to incomplete deployment, the high chair shall fulfil one of the

following:

a) the weight of the child in the high chair shall act to prevent the folding; or

b) at least one locking device shall engage automatically, when the product is ready for use.

8.1.1.3 Unintentional folding of the high chair

Unintentional folding of the high chair shall be prevented. This requirement is fulfilled if one of the

following conditions is met before and after testing in accordance with 8.1.2.1:

a) at least one operating device requires a minimum force of 50 N to activate, with and without test

mass A on the seat, or

b) folding is only possible if at least one locking mechanism requires the use of a tool, or

c) folding is only possible, when two independent operating devices are operated simultaneously, or

d) there are two or more automatically engaging locking devices that both cannot be released by one

single action, or

e) folding of the high chair requires two consecutive actions, the first of which shall be maintained

while the second is carried out.
8.1.1.4 Locking mechanism strength

When tested in accordance with 8.1.2.2, the high chair shall not fold and the locking mechanism shall

remain engaged.
8.1.2 Test methods
8.1.2.1 Durability of the locking mechanism
Operate all locking mechanisms 300 times.
8.1.2.2 Strength of the locking mechanism

Place the high chair on the floor with the test mass A (5.2) at the centre of the seat.

Apply a force of 200 N at the point and in the direction considered most likely for the high chair to fold.

If the high chair tends to tilt, secure it in a manner which prevents tilting but not folding.

8.2 Hazards caused by height adjustment
8.2.1 General

High chairs in which the seat height cannot be adjusted either due to the construction of the high chair

or when the child is inside the high chair are excluded from this requirement.

There shall be locking mechanism(s) to prevent the seat unit of a high chair from moving from a higher

to a lower position
8.2.2 Incomplete seat height adjustment

In order to prevent hazards due to incomplete seat height adjustment, at least one locking device shall

engage automatically when the seat is adjusted in height.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
8.2.3 Unintentional release of the seat height adjustment mechanism

In order to prevent unintentional release of the seat adjustment mechanism, one of the following

requirements shall be fulfilled before and after testing in accordance with 8.1.2.1:

a) at least one operating device requires a minimum force of 50 N to activate, with and without test

mass A on the seat, or
b) height adjustment requires the use of a tool, or

c) release is only possible when two independent operating devices are operated simultaneously, or

d) there are two or more automatically engaging locking devices that both cannot be released by one

single action, or
e) height adjustment requires two con
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
01-april-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 14988:2017
Otroški visoki stoli - Zahteve in preskusne metode (vključno z dopolnilom A1)
Children's high chairs - Requirements and test methods
Kinderhochstühle - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren
Chaises hautes pour enfants - Exigences et méthodes d'essai
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
ICS:
97.140 Pohištvo Furniture
97.190 Otroška oprema Equipment for children
SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.140; 97.190 Supersedes EN 14988:2017
English Version
Children's high chairs - Requirements and test methods

Chaises hautes pour enfants - Exigences et méthodes Kinderhochstühle - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

d'essai

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 April 2017 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 18 November

2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.1 Test conditions ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Application of forces ...................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Tolerances ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Test sequence ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Determination of the junction line ........................................................................................................... 7

5 Test equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Test mass A ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3 Impact hammer ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Large loading pad ............................................................................................................................................ 9

5.5 Small loading pad ............................................................................................................................................ 9

5.6 Stops .................................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.7 Floor surface .................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.8 Beams ............................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.9 Probes for finger entrapment .................................................................................................................. 10

5.10 Test mass B ..................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.11 Small parts cylinder .................................................................................................................................... 10

5.12 Small torso probe ......................................................................................................................................... 11

5.13 Test mass C ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.14 Leg probe ......................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.15 Wedge block ................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.16 Large head probe ......................................................................................................................................... 13

5.17 Impactor .......................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.18 Wood block ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.19 Feeler gauge ................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.20 Test mass D ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

6 Chemical hazards - Migration of certain elements (see A.2) ........................................................ 14

7 Thermal hazards (see A.3) ........................................................................................................................ 15

8 Mechanical hazards (see A.4) .................................................................................................................. 15

8.1 Hazards caused by folding of the product ........................................................................................... 15

8.2 Hazards caused by height adjustment .................................................................................................. 16

8.3 Entrapment hazards (see A.4.1) ............................................................................................................. 17

8.4 Hazards caused by moving parts (see A.4.2) ...................................................................................... 18

8.5 Entanglement hazards (see A.4.3) ......................................................................................................... 18

8.6 Choking and ingestion hazards (see A.4.4) ......................................................................................... 19

8.7 Hazards caused by edges, corners and protruding parts (see A.4.6) ........................................ 21

8.8 Strength and durability hazards (Structural integrity, see A.4.7) .............................................. 21

8.9 Hazards from falls out of the high chair (see A.4.8) ......................................................................... 24

8.10 Suffocation hazards (see A.4.5) ............................................................................................................... 32

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8.11 Castors and wheels (see A.4.9) ................................................................................................................ 32

8.12 Stability (see A.A.4.10) ................................................................................................................................ 34

9 Marking and product information .......................................................................................................... 38

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 38

9.2 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 38

9.3 Instructions for use ...................................................................................................................................... 39

9.4 Purchase information ................................................................................................................................. 39

Annex A (informative) Rationales ....................................................................................................................... 41

A.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 41

A.2 Chemical hazards (see Clause 6) ............................................................................................................. 41

A.3 Thermal hazards (see Clause 7) .............................................................................................................. 41

A.4 Mechanical hazards (see Clause 8) ......................................................................................................... 41

Annex B (informative) A- deviations .................................................................................................................. 44

Annex C (normative) Translations ...................................................................................................................... 46

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 56

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SIST EN 14988:2017+A1:2020
EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 14988:2017+A1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 364

"High Chairs", the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 2019-03-29.
This document supersedes !EN 14988-1:2017".

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !".

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

This document contains the following main modifications in comparison to the previous versions:

— EN 14988-1:2006+A1:2012 and EN 14988-2:2006+A1:2012 have been merged into one single

document;
— complete review of the standard in a hazard base format;
— modifications necessary to comply with European Decision 2013/121/EU;
— addition of a dynamic strength test;

— inclusion of specific requirements for high chair with more than two castors/wheels;

— improvement of restraint system requirements to require a passive crotch restraint for products

with a horizontal component in front of the baby.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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EN 14988:2017+A1:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies safety requirements for free standing children's high chairs that

elevate children to dining table height usually for the purposes of feeding or eating. Children's high

chairs are for children up to 3 years of age who are capable of sitting unaided.

With the exception of special high chairs for medical purposes, this standard applies to children's high

chairs for domestic and non-domestic use.

NOTE If a children's high chair has to or can be converted into other functions, additional European

Standards may apply.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 71-2:2011+A1:2014, Safety of toys - Part 2: Flammability
EN 71-3, Safety of toys - Part 3: Migration of certain elements

EN 13210, Child use and care articles - Children's harnesses, reins and similar type articles - Safety

requirements and test methods

ISO 7619-1, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic - Determination of indentation hardness - Part 1:

Durometer method (Shore hardness)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
active restraint system

system where the carer performs an action to ensure that the child is secured in the restraint system

3.2
passive restraint system

system where the carer does not perform an action to ensure that the child is secured in the restraint

system
3.3
crotch restraint

device passing between the legs of the child and preventing the child from slipping forwards out of the

high chair
3.4
waist restraint

rigid or flexible device(s), which when fastened, goes from one side of the high chair to the other

passing in front of the child’s waist or surrounding the child’s waist
3.5
shoulder restraint

device passing over the shoulders and connecting either to the crotch restraint or to the waist restraint

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3.6
locking device
component that maintains part(s) of the product in the position of use
EXAMPLE Latch, a hook, an over centre lock.
3.7
operating device

part of the locking mechanism(s) or parking device(s) designed to be activated by the carer by one or

several action(s)
3.8
parking device
device intended to prevent rolling of castors/wheels
3.9
locking mechanism

assembly consisting of one or more locking device(s) and one or more operating device(s)

3.10
junction line
intersection of the seat and the back rest
4 General
4.1 Test conditions

The high chair shall be tested as delivered. If the high chair is a knock-down type, it shall be assembled

according to the instructions supplied with it. If the instructions allow for different adjustments or

configurations of components (e.g. inclination of the backrest, height of the seat, position of the tray,

position of castors/wheels, etc.), the most onerous combination shall be used for each test, unless

otherwise specified in the test method.

Knock-down fittings shall be tightened before testing. Further re-tightening shall not take place.

4.2 Application of forces

The forces in the static load tests shall be applied sufficiently slowly to ensure that negligible dynamic

force is applied.

The tests are described in terms of the application of forces, however masses can be used. The

relationship 10 N = 1 kg shall be used for this purpose.
4.3 Tolerances
Unless otherwise stated, the following tolerances apply:
— Forces: ± 5 % of the nominal force;
— Masses: ± 0,5 % of the nominal mass;
— Dimensions: ± 1,0 mm of the nominal dimension;
— Angles: ± 2° of the nominal angle;
— Positioning of loading pads: ± 5 mm.
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NOTE For the purposes of uncertainty in measurements, test results are not considered to be adversely

affected when the above tolerances are met.
4.4 Test sequence

The tests in Clause 8 shall be carried out on the same high chair and in the order of the clauses of this

standard.
4.5 Determination of the junction line
The junction line is shown in Figure 1 below.

Where the backrest and the seat do not meet, the junction line is the projection of the backrest onto the

seat (see Figure 1).
Key
LL junction line
1 backrest
2 seat
Figure 1 — Junction line

When the seat unit is in the form of a hammock, a theoretical junction line, “LL”, shall be determined as

shown in Figure 2. The junction line may vary when the backrest is adjusted in different positions.

Key
AA top edge of the backrest
BB front edge of the seat
LL junction line
CL vertical projection of C on the hammock
C mid-point between A and B
Figure 2 — Junction line for seat units in the form of a hammock
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5 Test equipment
5.1 General

Unless otherwise specified, test forces may be applied by any suitable device as results are dependent

only upon correctly applied forces and not upon the apparatus.
5.2 Test mass A

A rigid cylinder 200 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height, having a mass of 15 kg with its centre of

gravity 150 mm above its base. The edges shall have a radius of 5 mm. Two anchorage points shall be

provided. These shall be positioned 150 mm from the base and at an angle of 180° to each other around

the circumference (see Figure 3).
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 edge radius: (5 ± 1) mm
2 anchorage points
Figure 3 — Test mass A
5.3 Impact hammer

A striker in the form of a cylindrical object having a total mass of 6,5 kg supported from a pivot by a

steel tube of 38 mm in diameter and with a wall thickness of 2 mm (see Figure 4). The distance between

the pivot and the centre of gravity of the striker shall be 1 000 mm. The pendulum arm shall be pivoted

by a low friction bearing.
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Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 pendulum head, steel mass 6,4 kg
2 hardwood
3 rubber 50 ± 10 Shore A (ISO 7619-1)

4 pendulum arm, length 950 mm; high tensile steel tube ∅ 38 mm x 2 mm; mass (2 ± 0,2) kg

5 pivot point
Mass of assembly (Key numbers 1, 2 and 3): (6,5 ± 0,07) kg
Figure 4 — Impact hammer
5.4 Large loading pad

A rigid cylindrical object 100 mm in diameter having a smooth hard surface and edges rounded with

radius of 12 mm.
5.5 Small loading pad

A rigid cylindrical object 30 mm in diameter having a smooth hard surface and edges rounded with

radius of (0,8 ± 0,3) mm.
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5.6 Stops

Stops to prevent the high chair from sliding but not tilting, no higher than 12 mm except in cases where

the design of the item necessitates the use of higher stops, in which case the lowest stops that will

prevent the item from sliding shall be used.
5.7 Floor surface
A horizontal, flat and rigid plane with a smooth surface.

For the tests according to 8.8.6.4, a 2 mm thick rubber mat, with hardness (75 ± 10) Shore A according

to ISO 7619-1, shall be used on a concrete floor.
5.8 Beams

5.8.1 Beam for stability testing and for measuring the length of the lateral protection

A beam, not less than 900 mm long, with a square section of 25 mm x 25 mm and with a mass of

(0,5 ± 0,01) kg.
5.8.2 Beam for measuring the height for lateral protection test
A beam, 86 mm wide and with a mass of (0,5 ± 0,01) kg.
5.9 Probes for finger entrapment
0 +01,

Probes made of plastic or other hard, smooth material with diameters() mm and () mm

7 12
−01, 0

with a hemispherical end (see Figure 5) and which can be mounted on a force-measuring device.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 line around the probe showing the depth of penetration
Probe type 7 mm probe 12 mm probe
0 +0,1
7 12
Diameter A
-0,1 0
Figure 5 — Test probes with hemispherical ends
5.10 Test mass B
A cylinder with a mass of 5 kg and a diameter of 100 mm.
5.11 Small parts cylinder

A cylinder for assessment of small components, having dimensions in accordance with Figure 6.

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Dimension in millimetres
Figure 6— Small parts cylinder
5.12 Small torso probe

A probe made from plastic or other hard, smooth material with dimensions as shown in Figure 7.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 handle
a 86 mm
b 40 mm
c 120 mm
Figure 7 — Small torso probe
5.13 Test mass C

An object made of steel with a total mass of (9 ± 0,1) kg and with dimensions as specified in Figure 8.

All edges shall be rounded or chamfered.
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Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 seat part [mass: (4,495 ± 0,05) kg]
2 backrest part [mass: (4,501 ± 0,05) kg]
3 hinge pin made of steel [mass of hinge pin: (17 ± 0,5) g, length: 79,5 mm]
D Diameter: 6 mm
Dimension tolerances: ± 2 mm
Figure 8 — Test mass C
5.14 Leg probe
A cylindrical probe with a diameter of 38 mm and a length of at least 76 mm.
5.15 Wedge block

A block made of plastic or other hard, smooth material and with dimensions according to Figure 9.

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Dimensions in millimetres
Top view
Front view Side view
Figure 9 — Wedge block
5.16 Large head probe

A probe made of plastic or other hard smooth material, with dimensions according to Figure 10.

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 handle
Figure 10 — Large head probe
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5.17 Impactor

A cylindrical bag with a diameter of 150 mm filled with steel shot with a diameter of (4 ± 2) mm. The

total mass shall be 23 kg.
5.18 Wood block

A wood block, with dimensions of 150 mm by 150 mm with a thickness of 25 mm and with the edges

rounded with a radius of 8 mm.
5.19 Feeler gauge

A gauge with a thickness of (0,4 ± 0,02) mm and an insertion end radius of (3 ± 0,5) mm (see Figure 11).

Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 11 — Feeler gauge
5.20 Test mass D
A mass of 9 kg on a base area of 200 mm x 100 mm.
6 Chemical hazards - Migration of certain elements (see A.2)
Separate samples may be used for these tests.

The migration of elements from surface materials located on or above the plane defined by the seat

surface with the exception of the back of the backrest shall not exceed the limits listed in Table 1 when

tested in accordance with EN 71-3.
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Table 1 — Limits for migration of certain elements
Element mg/kg
Aluminium 70 000
Antimony 560
Arsenic 47
Barium 18 750
Boron 15 000
Cadmium 17
Chromium (III) 460
Chromium (VI) 0,2
Cobalt 130
Copper 7 700
Lead 160
Manganese 15 000
Mercury 94
Nickel 930
Selenium 460
Strontium 56 000
Tin 180 000
Organic tin 12
Zinc 46 000
7 Thermal hazards (see A.3)
Separate samples may be used for these tests.

This clause applies only to textiles, coated textiles and plastic coverings. Hook and loop fasteners, cords

and alike are excluded.

When tested in accordance with EN 71-2:2011+A1:2014, 5.5, there shall be no surface flash.

8 Mechanical hazards (see A.4)
8.1 Hazards caused by folding of the product
8.1.1 Requirements
8.1.1.1 General

There shall be at least one locking mechanism which prevents a high chair from folding whilst in use

and also when a child is being placed into and removed from the high chair.
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8.1.1.2 Incomplete deployment

In order to prevent the hazards due to incomplete deployment, the high chair shall fulfil one of the

following:

a) the weight of the child in the high chair shall act to prevent the folding; or

b) at least one locking device shall engage automatically, when the product is ready for use.

8.1.1.3 Unintentional folding of the high chair

Unintentional folding of the high chair shall be prevented. This requirement is fulfilled if one of the

following conditions is met before and after testing in accordance with 8.1.2.1:

a) at least one operating device requires a minimum force of 50 N to activate, with and without test

mass A on the seat, or

b) folding is only possible if at least one locking mechanism requires the use of a tool, or

c) folding is only possible, when two independent operating devices are operated simultaneously, or

d) there are two or more automatically engaging locking devices that both cannot be released by one

single action, or

e) folding of the high chair requires two consecutive actions, the first of which shall be maintained

while the second is carried out.
8.1.1.4 Locking mechanism strength

When tested in accordance with 8.1.2.2, the high chair shall not fold and the locking mechanism shall

remain engaged.
8.1.2 Test methods
8.1.2.1 Durability of the locking mechanism
Operate all locking mechanisms 300 times.
8.1.2.2 Strength of the locking mechanism

Place the high chair on the floor with the test mass A (5.2) at the centre of the seat.

Apply a force of 200 N at the point and in the direction considered most likely for the high chair to fold.

If the high chair tends to tilt, secure it in a manner which prevents tilting but not folding.

8.2 Hazards caused by height adjustment
8.2.1 General

High chairs in which the seat height cannot be adjusted either due to the construction of the high chair

or when the child is inside the high chair are excluded from this requirement.

There shall be locking mechanism(s) to prevent the seat unit of a high chair from moving from a higher

to a lower position
8.2.2 Incomplete seat height adjustment

In order to prevent hazards due to incomplete seat height adjustment, at least one locking device shall

engage automatically when the seat is adjusted in height.
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8.2.3 Unintentional release of the seat height adjustment mechanism

In order to prevent unintentional release of the seat adjustment mechanism, one of the following

requirements shall be fulfilled before and after testing in accordance with 8.1.2.1:

a) at least one operating device requires a minimum force of 50 N to activate, with and without test

mass A on the seat, or
b) height adjustment requires the use of a tool, or

c) release is only possible when two independent operating devices are operated simultaneously, or

d) there are two or more automatically engaging locking devices that both cannot be released by one

single action, or
e) height adjustment requires two con
...

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