Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 2-10: Earthquake risk and impact analysis

This document provides requirements and recommendations for the type of risk assessment to be employed concerning seismic activity and earthquakes in relation to data centres. In addition, it describes design concepts that can be employed as mitigation actions within the construction, and other elements of design, of data centres.

Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von Rechenzentren - Teil 2-10: Analyse des Risikos und der Auswirkung von Erdbeben

Technologies de l’information - Installation et infrastructures des centres de traitement de données - Partie 2-10:

Le présent document fournit des exigences et des recommandations relatives au type d'appréciation du risque à appliquer concernant l’activité sismique et les tremblements de terre par rapport aux centres de traitement de données. Par ailleurs, il décrit les notions de conception qui peuvent être appliquées comme actions d’atténuation dans le domaine de la construction, ainsi que les autres éléments de conception des centres de traitement de données.

Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnih centrov - 2-10. del: Potresno tveganje in ocena vpliva

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Apr-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Apr-2021
Due Date
11-Jun-2021
Completion Date
20-Apr-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021
01-maj-2021

Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnih centrov - 2-10.

del: Potresno tveganje in ocena vpliva

Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 2-10: Earthquake

risk and impact analysis

Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von Rechenzentren - Teil 2-10:

Analyse des Risikos und der Auswirkung von Erdbeben

Technologies de linformation - Installation et infrastructures des centres de traitement de

données - Partie 2-10:
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021
ICS:
35.110 Omreževanje Networking
91.120.25 Zaščita pred potresi in Seismic and vibration
vibracijami protection
SIST-TS CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021
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SIST-TS CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION CLC/TS 50600-2-10
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
March 2021
ICS 35.110; 35.020; 35.160
English Version
Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures
- Part 2-10: Earthquake risk and impact analysis

Technologie de l'information - Installation et infrastructures Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von

de centres de traitement de données - Partie 2-10 : Risque Rechenzentren - Teil 2-10: Analyse des Risikos und der

sismique et analyse d'impact Auswirkung von Erdbeben
This Technical Specification was approved by CENELEC on 2021-01-25.

CENELEC members are required to announce the existence of this TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the TS available promptly

at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021 E
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CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword .................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................ 8

3.1 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................... 8

3.2 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 9

4 Availability Class of EN 50600-1 ....................................................................................... 9

5 Overview of risk associated with seismic activity ............................................................ 10

5.1 Direct risk of seismic motion ............................................................................. 10

5.1.1 Ground motion ................................................................................ 10

5.1.2 Long-period ground motion ............................................................. 10

5.1.3 Ground liquefaction ......................................................................... 10

5.2 Indirect risk initiated by seismic motion ............................................................. 10

5.2.1 Fire and toxic or damaging effluent ................................................. 10

5.2.2 Explosion ........................................................................................ 10

5.2.3 Flooding.......................................................................................... 10

5.2.4 Utilities ........................................................................................... 10

5.2.5 Access ............................................................................................ 11

5.2.6 Transport ........................................................................................ 11

5.2.7 Security systems ............................................................................. 12

6 Seismic activity risk assessment .................................................................................... 12

6.1 General ............................................................................................................ 12

6.2 Ground motion ................................................................................................. 12

6.3 Ground stability ................................................................................................ 13

6.4 Evaluation by Probable Maximum Loss (PML)................................................... 14

6.4.1 General .......................................................................................... 14

6.4.2 Advantages and disadvantages ....................................................... 15

7 Seismic activity risk mitigation ........................................................................................ 15

7.1 Direct risk of seismic motion ............................................................................. 15

7.1.1 General .......................................................................................... 15

7.1.2 Structural mitigation using isolation base techniques ....................... 15

7.1.3 Localized mitigation ........................................................................ 18

7.1.4 Roofs and ceiling supports .............................................................. 19

7.2 Indirect risk initiated by seismic motion ............................................................. 20

7.2.1 Fire and toxic or damaging effluent ................................................. 20

7.2.2 Explosion ........................................................................................ 21

7.2.3 Flooding.......................................................................................... 21

7.2.4 Utilities ........................................................................................... 21

7.2.5 Access ............................................................................................ 22

7.2.6 Transport ........................................................................................ 22

8 Disaster planning and recovery ...................................................................................... 22

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Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 23

Tables

Table 1 — PGA and Seismic Intensity Scales ........................................................................ 12

Table 2 — PGA and typical damage ...................................................................................... 12

Table 3 — P value and risk of liquefaction ............................................................................ 14

Table 4 — Example of evaluation criteria of PML ................................................................... 14

Figures

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the EN 50600 series of documents ....................... 6

Figure 2 — The effect of soil liquefaction ............................................................................... 14

Figure 3 — Structure with an isolation base ........................................................................... 16

Figure 4 — Oil damper .......................................................................................................... 16

Figure 5 — Lead damper ....................................................................................................... 16

Figure 6 — Steel damper ...................................................................................................... 17

Figure 7 — Laminated rubber isolator .................................................................................... 17

Figure 8 — Laminated rubber isolator with lead plug .............................................................. 17

Figure 9 — Sliding bearing .................................................................................................... 18

Figure 10 — Rack isolator ..................................................................................................... 18

Figure 11 — Equipment suspended from roof/ceiling slab ...................................................... 19

Figure 12 — Example of duct or cable management systems suspended from

roof/ceiling slab ............................................................................................................. 20

Figure 13 — Anti-drop measures of lightning equipment for suspended ceiling systems ......... 20

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CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (CLC/TS 50600-2-10:2021) has been prepared by CLC/TC 215 “Electrotechnical

aspects of telecommunication equipment”.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.
This document is based on the text of ISO/IEC TR 22237-30:— .
Regarding the structure of the EN 50600 series, see the Introduction.
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: ISO/IEC DTS 22237 30:2020.
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Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to

an exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres are

housing and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment for

data processing, data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators

(delivering those services to customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres usually provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption of

data centres has become critical both from an environmental point of view (reduction of environmental

footprint) and with respect to economic considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:

a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting, or network operator facilities);

b) security level;
c) physical size;
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and the

objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in

terms of building construction, power distribution, environmental control and physical security as well

as the operation of the data centre. Effective management and operational information is crucial for

monitoring achievement of the defined needs and objectives.

This series specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties involved in the

design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of facilities and

infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:
1) owners, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) architects, consultants, building designers and builders, system and installation designers;

3) facility and infrastructure integrators, suppliers of equipment;
4) installers, maintainers.

At the time of publication of this document, the EN 50600 series will comprise the following standards

and documents:

EN 50600-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1: General

concepts

EN 50600-2-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-1: Building

construction

CLC/TS 50600-2-10, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-10:

Earthquake risk and impact analysis

EN 50600-2-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-2: Power

supply and distribution

EN 50600-2-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-3:

Environmental control

EN 50600-2-4, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-4:

Telecommunications cabling infrastructure
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EN 50600-2-5, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-5: Security

systems

EN 50600-3-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3-1:

Management and operational information

EN 50600-4-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-1:

Overview of and general requirements for key performance indicators

EN 50600-4-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-2: Power

Usage Effectiveness

EN 50600-4-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-3:

Renewable Energy Factor

EN 50600-4-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-6: Energy

Reuse Factor

EN 50600-4-7, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-7: Cooling

Efficiency Ratio

CLC/TR 50600-99-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-1:

Recommended practices for energy management

CLC/TR 50600-99-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-2:

Recommended practices for environmental sustainability

CLC/TR 50600-99-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-3:

Guidance to the application of EN 50600 series.

The inter-relationship of the documents within the EN 50600 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the EN 50600 series of documents

EN 50600-2-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for particular facilities and

infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security” and “energy

efficiency enablement” selected from EN 50600-1.

EN 50600-3-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for data centre operations,

processes and management.

EN 50600-4-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for key performance indicators

(KPIs) used to assess and improve the resource usage efficiency and effectiveness, respectively, of a

data centre.

CLC/TS 50600-5-X documents provide a maturity model addressing the facilities, infrastructures and

the information and communication technology equipment of the data centre.
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Determination of the risk and scale of seismic activity should be included as part of the overall risk

assessment approach according to EN 50600-1.

In addition, EN 50600-2-1 requires a geographical risk analysis which includes seismic activity and

requires mitigation actions to be undertaken as necessary but does not identify the specific actions to

be applied. EN 50600-2-5 addresses external environmental events but does not explicitly list

earthquakes or seismic activity within that group of events (other than general vibration) or indicate the

specific measures required.

As a result, this document, CLC/TS 50600-2-10, provides requirements and recommendations for the

type of risk assessment to be employed concerning seismic activity and earthquakes in relation to data

centres.
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1 Scope

This document provides requirements and recommendations for the type of risk assessment to be

employed concerning seismic activity and earthquakes in relation to data centres. In addition, it

describes design concepts that can be employed as mitigation actions within the construction, and

other elements of design, of data centres.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 50600 (series), Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in the EN 50600 series and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
aseismic performance
resistance to seismic activity of a specified scale
3.1.2
base isolation building

structure that absorbs the energy of earthquakes by installing a base isolation layer composed of

isolators and dampers between the ground and the building
3.1.3
information and communication technology equipment
ICT equipment

information technology (IT) and network telecommunications (NT) equipment providing data storage,

processing and transport services
Note 1 to entry: Representing the “critical load” of the data centre.
[SOURCE: CLC/TR 50600-99-1:2020, 3.1.16]
3.1.4
passive damper

structure that absorbs the energy of earthquakes with dampers, etc., by installing energy absorption

members such as dampers in main structures
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3.1.5
Peak Ground Acceleration
PGA

maximum ground acceleration that occurred during earthquake shaking at a location

Note 1 to entry: PGA is equal to the amplitude of the largest absolute acceleration recorded on an

accelerogram at a site during a particular earthquake.

Note 2 to entry: Earthquake shaking generally occurs in all three directions. Therefore, PGA is often split into

the horizontal and vertical components. Horizontal PGAs are generally larger than those in the vertical direction

but this is not always true, especially close to large earthquakes.

Note 3 to entry: The design basis earthquake ground motion (DBEGM) is often defined in terms of PGA.

3.1.6
Probable Maximum Loss
PML

ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the restoration cost to the re-procurement cost taking into account

the degree of earthquake risks, the stability of ground, the earthquake resistance of the building, and

the earthquake resistance of the facilities
3.1.7
re-procurement cost
total cost required to reconstruct the assets damaged at the time of evaluation
3.1.8
restoration cost
cost required to recover the damage caused by seismic activity (earthquake)
3.2 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply in addition to those of the

EN 50600 series.
ffs for further study
PGA Peak Ground Acceleration
PML Probable Maximum Loss
SIS Seismic Intensity Scale
4 Availability Class of EN 50600-1

EN 50600-1 defines four Classes of overall availability of the set of facilities and infrastructures of the

data centre, described as Class 1 to 4, which are intended to provide increasing levels of availability.

The desired Availability Class is supported by design solutions for
a) power supply and distribution systems (EN 50600-2-2),
b) environmental control systems (EN 50600-2-3),
c) telecommunications cabling infrastructure (EN 50600-2-4).

If the data centre is to be located in a region of seismic activity then mitigation actions are necessary in

order to maintain the desired Availability Class (but not further define it).

The intention of these actions is to provide the data centre of a desired Availability Class with aseismic

performance.
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5 Overview of risk associated with seismic activity
5.1 Direct risk of seismic motion
5.1.1 Short-period ground motion

Ground motion denotes the positional change of an area of ground relative to objects or other areas of

ground nearby in both horizontal and vertical directions.

Short-period (high frequency) ground motion can cause the structural damage generally associated

with earthquakes.

A number of mitigation techniques can be employed including rack isolators within computer room

spaces and the more application of base isolation techniques for structure accommodating the facilities

and infrastructures of the data centre.
5.1.2 Long-period ground motion

Long-period (low frequency) ground motion is typically motion with a period typically between 1 and 5 s.

This type of ground motion can occur at significant distances from an earthquake epicentre.

Long-period ground motion can cause the structural damage generally associated with earthquakes

and mitigation techniques should be employed to support the facilities of the data centre by using base

isolation techniques

In addition, long-period ground motion and can have unexpected consequences which are not directly

constructional. For example, fuel storage tanks subject to long-period ground motion are at risk of fire

due to “sloshing” of the fuel contained within them.
5.1.3 Ground liquefaction

Ground liquefaction resulting from ground motion results in the significant reduction in the load bearing

capacity of the ground which could result in uneven settlement or unequal settlement could occur of

buildings comprising the facilities of the data centre.
5.2 Indirect risk initiated by seismic motion
5.2.1 Fire and toxic or damaging effluent

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by fire in the local areas. These fires could produce

effluent which is toxic or damaging to the equipment within the data centre.
5.2.2 Explosion

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by explosions of other facilities in the local area.

5.2.3 Flooding

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by flooding from damaged water supplies or from surges

in natural water sources.
5.2.4 Utilities
5.2.4.1 General

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by failures of utility supply including electricity, gas, water

and sewerage.
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5.2.4.2 Electricity

For electrical power, data centres of Availability Class 2 and above feature design solutions to provide

an additional supply to support the primary supply (see EN 50600-2-2). Following an earthquake the

primary supply can be subject to multiple outages and ongoing restrictions. Where the additional

supply is fuel-based then the continued supply of the fuel is critical.
5.2.4.3 Gas

Following an earthquake, damage to gas supply piping infrastructure at or in the vicinity of the data

centres (typically installed underground and subject to ground instability as described in 6.3), and also

to the gas supply facilities, can result in disruption to supply.

In addition, even if damage has not occurred, if a seismograph installed at a supply facility detects a

certain level of earthquake motion, the supply may be automatically shut down.

In both cases, the supply will not be provided until safety has been confirmed. The length of disruption

can extend from days to weeks, depending on the scale of damage and repair actions found to be

necessary.
5.2.4.4 Water

Following an earthquake, damage to water supply piping infrastructure at or in the vicinity of the data

centres (typically installed underground and subject to ground instability as described in 6.3), and also

to the supply facilities (for water intake, water purification and water distribution) can result in disruption

to supply.

In addition, even if damage has not occurred, the primary power supply to the facilities can be

disrupted. Where a data centre relies on the continual provision of water, the alternative provision of

power to supply facilities should be assessed.

The length of disruption can extend from days to weeks, depending on the scale of damage and repair

actions found to be necessary. Extreme situations have been known to extend this period to months.

5.2.4.5 Sewerage

Following an earthquake, the impact of damage to sewerage piping infrastructure and facilities serving

the data centre should be considered to be similar to that of the water supply.
5.2.5 Access

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the roads surrounding and to the data centre can be damaged and even destroyed.

This can restrict access for

a) emergency services to address events, e.g. fires, in the local area which can increase associated

for the operation of the data centre,
b) the ongoing provision of consumables to the data centre.
5.2.6 Transport

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the road and rail infrastructure surrounding and to the data centre can be damaged and

even destroyed. In addition, local regulations could restrict the type of vehicles allowed to use that

infrastructure to emergency and authorized vehicles.

This not only affects supply of consumables to the data centre but can restrict the availability of

personnel to operate the data centre.

Even if access to the data centre is unaffected, the earthquake can reduce the availability of

appropriate vehicles e.g. a lack of fuel tankers can limit the provision of fuel for additional power

supplies.
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5.2.7 Security systems

Measures intended to prevent unauthorised access and intrusion across the Protection Class

boundaries of the data centre (see EN 50600-2-5) can be damaged.
6 Seismic activity risk assessment
6.1 General

Determination of the risk and scale of seismic activity should be included as part of the overall risk

assessment approach, that assess the risks and events that potentially impact the data centre. Further

guidance in relation to the risk assessment approach can be found in EN 50600-1.

Following the determination of the risk and scale of seismic activity, appropriate mitigation actions

should be employed.
Clause 6.2 addresses ground motion.
Clause 6.3 address ground stability (liquefaction).
6.2 Ground motion

The basis of risk assessment can be the various national and regional seismic hazard maps which

typically show the probability of an earthquake in a given geographic area, within a given time period,

and with ground motion intensity exceeding a given threshold.

The time periods and thresholds do vary from country to country but are typically in the region 30 to 50

2 2

years with Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in the range 0,3 g (3 m/s ) to 0,5g (5 m/s ) respectively.

For a given earthquake, the PGA will differ for the locations affected dependent on a number of

parameters - the most obvious of which is distance. Table 1 shows the range of PGA values

associated with recognized Seismic Intensity Scales (SIS).
Table 1 — PGA and Seismic Intensity Scales
PGA 0,25 to 0,80 0,80 to 1,40 to 2,50 to 3,15 to > 4 m/s
1,40 2,50 3,15 4,00
Mercalli V to VII V to VIII VI to IX VIII to X IX to X X to XII
SIS
4 5 6 7
Japanese
SIS
5 lower 5 upper 6 lower 6 upper
shindo
3,5 to 3,9 4,0 to 4,4 4,5 to 4,9 5,0 to 5,4 5,5 to 5,9
...

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