Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 4: Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure (ISO 22476-4:2021)

This document specifies equipment requirements, the execution of and reporting on the Ménard pressuremeter test.
This document describes the procedure for conducting a Ménard pressuremeter test in natural grounds, treated or untreated fills, either on land or off-shore.
The pressuremeter tests results of this document are suited to a quantitative determination of ground strength and deformation parameters. They can yield lithological information in conjunction with measuring while drilling performed when creating the borehole (according to ISO 22476-15). They can also be combined with direct investigation (e.g. sampling according to ISO 22475-1) or compared with other in situ tests (see EN 1997-2).

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Felduntersuchungen - Teil 4: Vorgebohrter Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard (ISO 22476-4:2021)

Dieses Dokument behandelt Anforderungen an die Ausrüstung, die Durchführung und die Berichte in Zusammenhang mit dem Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard.
ANMERKUNG Dieser Teil von ISO 22476 erfüllt die Anforderung an den Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard als Teil der geotechnischen Erkundung und Untersuchung nach EN 1997-1 und EN 1997-2.
Das vorliegende Dokument beschreibt das Verfahren zur Durchführung eines Pressiometerversuchs nach Ménard in natürlichen Böden, behandelten oder unbehandelten Aufschüttungen sowie Gestein, zur Anwendung entweder an Land oder vor der Küste.
Die Ergebnisse der Pressiometerversuche nach diesem Dokument sind für eine quantitative Bestimmung der Festigkeits- und Verformungsparameter von Boden geeignet. In Verbindung mit der Messung während des Bohrens eines Bohrloches können sie lithologische Angaben liefern (nach EN ISO 22476-15). Sie können auch mit der direkten Erkundung (z. B. Probenahme nach EN ISO 22475-1) kombiniert oder mit weiteren In-situ-Versuchen verglichen werden (siehe EN 1997-2, 2.4.1.4 (2)P, 4.1 (1)P und 4.2.3 (2)P).
Der Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard erfolgt durch radiale Ausdehnung einer in den Baugrund eingebrachten zylindrischen Messsonde mit einer Schlankheit von mindestens 6 (siehe Bild 1). Während des Einpressens des Flüssigkeitsvolumens in die Messsonde bewirkt das Aufdehnen der Messzelle zunächst, dass der Außenmantel der Messsonde die Vorbohrungswandung berührt, und übt dann einen Druck auf diese aus, was schließlich zu einer Verdrängung des Bodens führt. Der ausgeübte Druck und die zugehörige radiale Ausdehnung der Messsonde werden entweder durch Volumen- oder Radial-Messwertaufnehmer gemessen und aufgezeichnet, um das Verhältnis von Belastung und Verformung des Bodens im Untersuchungszustand zu ermitteln.
Gemeinsam mit den verfügbaren Ergebnissen der Untersuchungen nach EN ISO 22475-1 oder zumindest mit der während der Durchführung des Pressiometerversuchs ermittelten Identifizierung und Beschreibung des Baugrunds nach ISO 14688-1 und ISO 14689-1 sind die nach diesem Dokument erzielten Prüfergebnisse geeignet für die quantitative Bestimmung eines Bodenprofils, einschließlich des
 Ménard-Pressiometer-Moduls EM,
 Ménard-Pressiometer-Grenzdruckes pLM und
 Ménard-Pressiometer-Kriechdruckes pf.
Diese Norm bezieht sich auf eine Sonde, die traditionell als 60-mm-Messsonde (auch BX bezeichnet) der Bauart G mit einer Druckbegrenzung von 5 MPa beschrieben wird. Sofern von der zuständigen Behörde festgelegt oder für ein bestimmtes Projekt von den maßgeblichen Parteien vereinbart, kann eine höhere Druckbegrenzung erforderlich sein.
ANMERKUNG 1 Eine Messsonde der Bauart G steht für Messsonden, deren äußerer Mantel von Schutzzellen gebildet wird (siehe 4.2).
ANMERKUNG 2 Der Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard kann auch mit Messsonden anderer Durchmesser, wie 32 mm, 44 mm und 76 mm, durchgeführt werden.
ANMERKUNG 3 Beispiele für andere Abmessungen der Messsonde oder Vorbohrung sind nachfolgend angegeben:[...]

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais en place - Partie 4: Essai pressiomètrique dans un forage préalable selon la procédure Ménard (ISO 22476-4:2021)

Le présent document spécifie des exigences relatives à l’appareillage, à l’exécution et aux rapports pour un essai pressiométrique Ménard.
Le présent document décrit le mode opératoire pour conduire un essai au pressiomètre Ménard dans des terrains naturels, dans des couches traitées ou non traitées, sur terre ou en milieu maritime.
Les résultats des essais pressiométriques du présent document permettent une détermination quantitative de la résistance du terrain et des paramètres de déformation. Ils peuvent fournir des informations lithologiques en conjonction avec les mesures effectuées au cours du forage (selon l'ISO 22476-15). Ils peuvent aussi être combinés avec des investigations directes (par exemple des essais conformes à l’ISO 22475-1) ou comparés à d’autres essais in situ (voir l’EN 1997-2).

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Preskušanje na terenu - 4. del: Preskus z Ménardovim presiometrom (ISO 22476-4:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Sep-2020
Publication Date
14-Nov-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Oct-2021
Due Date
11-Dec-2021
Completion Date
15-Nov-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
01-december-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2013

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Preskušanje na terenu - 4. del: Preskus

z Ménardovim presiometrom (ISO 22476-4:2021)

Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 4: Prebored pressuremeter

test by Ménard procedure (ISO 22476-4:2021)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Felduntersuchungen - Teil 4:
Vorgebohrter Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard (ISO 22476-4:2021)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais en place - Partie 4: Essai
pressiomètrique dans un forage préalable selon la procédure Ménard (ISO 22476-
4:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
EN ISO 22476-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.020 Supersedes EN ISO 22476-4:2012
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part
4: Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure (ISO
22476-4:2021)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais en Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

place - Partie 4: Essai pressiomètrique dans un forage Felduntersuchungen - Teil 4: Vorgebohrter

préalable selon la procédure Ménard (ISO 22476- Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard (ISO 22476-

4:2021) 4:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 August 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22476-4:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
EN ISO 22476-4:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
EN ISO 22476-4:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 22476-4:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

"Geotechnics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 22476-4:2012.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN websites.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22476-4:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22476-4:2021 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
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SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22476-4
Second edition
2021-09
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Field testing —
Part 4:
Prebored pressuremeter test by
Ménard procedure
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais en place —
Partie 4: Essai pressiomètrique dans un forage préalable selon la
procédure Ménard
Reference number
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 General description ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Pressuremeter probe ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.2 Probe with flexible cover .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.3 Probe with flexible cover and an additional more rigid protection ..................................... 8

4.2.4 Probe with flexible cover and slotted tube................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Connecting lines and injected fluid ....................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Pressure and volume control unit .......................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.2 Measurement and control .....................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Data logger .........................................................................................................................................................................12

5 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 Assembling the parts ......................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Calibration and corrections ......................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Pressuremeter test pocket and probe placing ..........................................................................................................13

5.4 Preparation for testing ..................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Establishing the loading programme ...............................................................................................................................14

5.6 Establishing the pressure of the guard cells for tri-cell probes .................................................................15

5.7 Expansion .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.2 Readings and recordings ........................................................................................................................................15

5.7.3 End of test ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

5.8 Back-filling of the pockets ..........................................................................................................................................................16

5.9 Safety requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 Data sheet and field print-out or display ......................................................................................................................16

6.1.1 Data sheet for type A control unit ..................................................................................................................16

6.1.2 Site print-out for type B and C control units .........................................................................................17

6.1.3 Raw pressuremeter curve .....................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Corrected pressuremeter curve ............................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Calculated results...............................................................................................................................................................................18

7 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2 Field report .............................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.2 Ménard pressuremeter test report ...............................................................................................................19

7.3.3 Pressuremeter tests log ..........................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (normative) Geometrical features of pressuremeter probes ..........................................................................22

Annex B (normative) Calibration and corrections ..............................................................................................................................24

Annex C (normative) Placing the pressuremeter probe in the ground .........................................................................33

Annex D (normative) Obtaining pressuremeter parameters ..................................................................................................41

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)

Annex E (normative) Uncertainties ....................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex F (informative) Pressuremeter test records ...........................................................................................................................53

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical

Investigation and Testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 22476-4:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— types of probes;
— correction procedures;
— probe placing techniques in Annex C;
— clarification of D;
— harmonization of terms and symbols.
A list of all parts in the ISO 22476 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Introduction

The Ménard pressuremeter test is performed by the radial expansion of a cylindrical probe of a

minimum slenderness of 6, placed in the ground (see Figure 1). During the injection of the fluid volume

in the probe, the inflation of the measuring cell first brings the outer cover of the probe into contact

with the pocket wall and then producing ground displacement. Pressure applied to and the associated

radial expansion of the probe are measured either by volume or radial transducers and recorded so as

to obtain the stress-strain relationship of ground as tested.
Key
1 ground surface p applied pressure
2 ground A-A axial section
3 pressuremeter test pocket B-B cross section
4 expanding pressuremeter probe
Figure 1 — Principle of a Ménard pressuremeter test

Together with results of investigations with ISO 22475-1 being available or at least with identification and

description of the ground according to ISO 14688-1 and ISO 14689 obtained during the pressuremeter

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)

test operations, the tests are performed in order to obtain the quantitative determination of a ground

profile, including
— the Ménard pressuremeter modulus E ,
— the Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure p , and
— the Ménard creep pressure p .

NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirement for the Ménard pressuremeter test, as part of geotechnical

investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

NOTE 2 This document refers to a probe historically described as the “60 mm (also called BX) G type probe”,

that corresponds to a 58 mm diameter probe with a drilling diameter between 60 mm and 66 mm with a pressure

limitation of 5 MPa. If specified by the relevant authority or agreed for a specific project by the relevant parties, a

different pressure, not higher than 8 MPa, can be set.

NOTE 3 G type probe refers to probes with an external cover creating guard cells (see 4.2).

NOTE 4 Ménard pressuremeter tests can be carried out with other diameter probes such as 32 mm, 44 mm and

76 mm probes.

NOTE 5 Examples of other probe and pocket drilling dimensions are indicated in Table 1.

Table 1 — Probe and pocket drilling dimensions
Probe Probe Drilling diameter
(mm)
Designation Diameter Min Max
AX 44 46 52
NX 70/74 74 80
NOTE 6 Tests with maximum pressures higher than 8 MPa are dealt by ISO 22476-5.

NOTE 7 For the scope of this document (and the associated measuring device and maximum uncertainties

given in Table E.1), E values up to 500 MPa (that can be determined by calculation) can be commonly obtained.

Enhancement of equipment to reduce uncertainties can be implemented to increase the range of measurements.

For example, use of GA type equipment and of a shunt for volume measurement can allow measuring E values

up to 10 000 MPa. Uncertainty calculation can be used to confirm the relevance of these pressuremeter moduli.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing —
Part 4:
Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure
1 Scope

This document specifies equipment requirements, the execution of and reporting on the Ménard

pressuremeter test.

This document describes the procedure for conducting a Ménard pressuremeter test in natural grounds,

treated or untreated fills, either on land or off-shore.

The pressuremeter tests results of this document are suited to a quantitative determination of ground

strength and deformation parameters. They can yield lithological information in conjunction with

measuring while drilling performed when creating the borehole (according to ISO 22476-15). They can

also be combined with direct investigation (e.g. sampling according to ISO 22475-1) or compared with

other in situ tests (see EN 1997-2).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock

ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing – Sampling by drilling and excavation and ground

water measurements – Part 1: Technical principles for execution

ISO 22476-15, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing — Part 15: Measuring while drilling

3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
pressuremeter probe

cylindrical flexible probe which can be expanded by the application of hydraulic pressure and/or

pressurised gas
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
3.1.2
pressuremeter control unit

set of suitable devices capable of supplying fluid and/or gas pressure to the probe, to adjust pressure

steps and take readings of the probe’s pressure and the volume or radius of the measuring cell

3.1.3
connecting line

cable that connects the control unit to the probe, delivers fluid and/or gas pressure in the measuring

and guard cells
3.1.4
pressuremeter test pocket

circular cylindrical cavity formed in the ground to receive a pressuremeter probe (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: See Annex C.
3.1.5
pressuremeter borehole

borehole in which pressuremeter test pockets (3.1.4) with circular cross sections are made in the ground,

and into which the pressuremeter probe (3.1.1) is to be placed
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.6
Ménard pressuremeter test

process during which a pressuremeter probe (3.1.1) is inflated in the pressuremeter test pocket (3.1.4) and

the resulting pocket expansion is measured as a function of time and pressure increments according to

a defined programme
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
3.1.7
pressuremeter sounding

sequence of Ménard pressuremeter tests (3.1.6) executed from the same station in the pressuremeter

borehole (3.1.5)
3.1.8
pressure reading

pressure as read at the control unit (CU) elevation in the fluid and/or gas circuit supplying the

measuring cell
3.1.9
pressure loss

difference between the pressure inside the probe and the pressure applied to the pressuremeter test

pocket (3.1.4) wall
3.1.10
volume loss

volume readings on the control unit while probe is kept at constant external diameter

Note 1 to entry: They are due to system compressibility (including membrane, probe, tubing, fluid and control

unit).
3.1.11
raw pressuremeter curve

graphical plot of the injected volumes recorded at time 60 s, noted V , versus the applied pressure at

each pressure step, p
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
3.1.12
corrected pressuremeter curve

graphical plot of the corrected volumes V or radial displacements versus the corrected pressure p

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
3.1.13
pressuremeter creep

difference in volumes recorded at 60 s and at 30 s at each pressure step: V – V = V

60 30 60/30
3.1.14
corrected pressuremeter creep curve

graphical plot of the corrected pressuremeter creep versus the corrected applied pressure at each

pressure step
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
3.1.15
pressuremeter log

graphical report of the results of the pressuremeter sounding (3.1.7), together with all the information

gathered during the drilling
Note 1 to entry: See F.3.
3.1.16
Ménard pressuremeter modulus

modulus obtained from the section between (p V ) and (p V ) of the pressuremeter curve

1, 1 2, 2
Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.6.
3.1.17
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure

pressure at which the volume of the pressuremeter test pocket (3.1.4) at the depth of the measuring cell

has doubled its original volume
Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.5.
3.1.18
pressuremeter creep pressure

pressure defined as the intersection of two straight lines fitted on the creep curve

Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.4.
3.1.19
operator
person who carries out the test
3.1.20
casing

lengths of tubing inserted into a borehole to prevent the hole caving in or to prevent the loss of flushing

medium to the surrounding formation, above pocket location
3.2 Symbols
For the purposes of this document, the symbols in Table 2 apply:
Table 2 — Symbols
Symbol Description Unit
3 3
A, B Parameters for reciprocal curve fitting method cm , cm /MPa
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 22476-4:2021
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
A to A Parameters for hyperbolic curve fitting methods variable
1 6
a Apparatus volume loss coefficient cm /MPa
Parameters of power law type interpolation for the probe pressure loss correc-
b, c variable
tion

d, e Parameters of linear type interpolation for the probe volume loss correction variable

Outside diameter of the central measuring cell, including any additional protec-
d mm
tion such as a slotted tube
d Outside diameter of the inner part of the probe with slotted tube mm
d Outside diameter of the guard cells mm

d Inside diameter of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm

Outside diameter of the central measuring cell during expansion as read on the
d cm
CU, before data correction
d Dr
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
01-september-2020

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Preskušanje na terenu - 4. del: Preskus

z Ménardovim presiometrom (ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020)

Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 4: Prebored pressuremeter

test by Ménard procedure (ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Felduntersuchungen - Teil 4:
Vorgebohrter Pressiometerversuch nach Ménard (ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais en place - Partie 4: Essai au
pressiomètre Ménard (ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 22476-4
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 22476-4
ISO/TC 182 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-07-06 2020-09-28
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing —
Part 4:
Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais en place —
Partie 4: Essai au pressiomètre Ménard
ICS: 93.020
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
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BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
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STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General Description ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.2 Pressuremeter probe ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.1 Probe with flexible cover .......................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2 Probe with flexible cover and an additional more rigid protection ..................................... 9

4.2.3 Probe with flexible cover and slotted tube................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Connecting lines and injected fluid ....................................................................................................................................11

4.4 Pressure and volume control unit (CU) ..........................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 Measurement and control .....................................................................................................................................12

4.4.2 Data logger .........................................................................................................................................................................12

5 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 Assembling the parts ......................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Calibration and corrections ......................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Pressuremeter pocket and probe placing .....................................................................................................................13

5.4 Preparation for testing ..................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Establishing the loading programme ...............................................................................................................................14

5.6 Establishing the differential pressure ..............................................................................................................................15

5.7 Expansion .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.1 Readings and recordings ........................................................................................................................................16

5.7.2 End of test ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

5.8 Back-filling of the pockets ..........................................................................................................................................................16

5.9 Safety requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 Data sheet and field print-out or display ......................................................................................................................17

6.1.1 Data sheet for CU type A .........................................................................................................................................17

6.1.2 Site print-out for CU type B and C ..................................................................................................................17

6.1.3 Raw pressuremeter curve .....................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Corrected pressuremeter curve ............................................................................................................................................18

6.3 Calculated results...............................................................................................................................................................................19

7 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 Field report .............................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.1 Ménard pressuremeter test report ...............................................................................................................20

7.3.2 Pressuremeter tests log ..........................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (normative) Geometrical features of pressuremeter probes ..........................................................................22

Annex B (normative) Calibration and corrections ..............................................................................................................................24

Annex C (normative) Placing the pressuremeter probe in the ground .........................................................................32

Annex D (informative) Obtaining pressuremeter parameters ...............................................................................................41

Annex E (normative) Resolution and uncertainties ..........................................................................................................................49

Annex F (normative) Pressuremeter test records ...............................................................................................................................51

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................54

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

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ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

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expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

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iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee [or Project Committee] ISO/TC [or ISO/PC] ###,

[name of committee], Subcommittee SC ##, [name of subcommittee].

This second/third/… edition cancels and replaces the first/second/… edition (ISO #####:####), which

has been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxx
A list of all parts in the ISO ##### series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing —
Part 4:
Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure
1 Scope

This document deals with equipment requirements, the execution of and reporting on the Ménard

pressuremeter test.

NOTE This part of ISO 22476 fulfils the requirement for the Ménard pressuremeter test, as part of

geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

The present document describes the procedure for conducting a Ménard pressuremeter test in natural

soils, treated or untreated fills and in rocks, either on land or off-shore.

The pressuremeter tests results of this document are suited to a quantitative determination of ground

strength and deformation parameters. They may yield lithological information in conjunction with

measuring while drilling performed when creating the hole (according to EN ISO 22476-15). They can

also be combined with direct investigation (e;g; sampling according to EN ISO 22475-1) or compared

with other in situ tests (see EN 1997-2, 2.4.1.4(2) P, 4.1 (1) P and 4.2.3(2) P).

The Ménard pressuremeter test is performed by the radial expansion of a cylindrical probe of a

minimum slenderness of 6, placed in the ground (see Figure 1). During the injection of the liquid volume

in the probe, the inflation of the measuring cell first brings the outer cover of the probe into contact

with the pocket wall and then presses on them resulting in a soil displacement. Pressure applied to, and

the associated radial expansion of the probe are measured either by volume or radial transducers and

recorded so as to obtain the stress-strain relationship of the soil as tested.

Together with results of investigations with EN ISO 22475-1 being available or at least with

identification and description of the ground according to ISO 14688-1 and ISO 14689-1 obtained during

the pressuremeter test operations, the tests results of this document are suited for the quantitative

determination of a ground profile, including
— the Ménard pressuremeter modulus E ,
— the Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure p and
— the Ménard creep pressure p .

This Standard refers to a probe historically described as the 60 mm (also called BX) G type probe with a

pressure limitation of 5 MPa. If specified by the relevant authority or agreed for a specific project by the

relevant parties, a higher pressure limitation may be required.

NOTE 1 G type probe refers to probes with an external cover creating guard cells (see 4.2).

NOTE 2 Ménard pressuremeter tests can be carried out with other diameter probes such as 32, 44 and

76 mm probes.

NOTE 3 Example of other probe and pocket drilling dimensions are indicated below:

Probe Probe Drilling Diameter (mm)
Designation Diameter Min Max
AX 44 46 52
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
Probe Probe Drilling Diameter (mm)
Designation Diameter Min Max
NX 70/74 74 80
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ENV 13005:1999, Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock

EN ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing – Sampling by drilling and excavation and ground

water measurements – Part 1: Technical principles for execution

EN ISO 24283-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Qualification criteria —Part 1: Qualified

technician

EN ISO 24283-2, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Qualification criteria —Part 2: Responsible expert

EN ISO 24283-3, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Qualification criteria – Part 3: Qualified

enterprises

EN ISO 22476-5, Geotechnical investigation and testing – Field testing — Part 5: Prebored

pressuremeter tests.

EN ISO 22476-8, Geotechnical investigation and testing – Field testing — Part 8: Full displacement

pressuremeter test

EN ISO 22476-15, Geotechnical investigation and testing – Field testing — Part 15: Measuring while drilling

EN ISO 10012, Measurement management systems – Requirements for measurement processes and

measuring equipment.
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:
3.1.1
pressuremeter probe

cylindrical flexible probe which can be expanded by the application of hydraulic pressure and

pressurised gas
3.1.2
pressuremeter control unit
set of suitable devices capable of supplying fluid and gas pressure to the probe
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
3.1.3
connecting lines

cable that connects the control unit to the probe, delivers fluid and gas pressure in the measuring and

guard cells
3.1.4
pressuremeter test pocket

a circular cylindrical cavity formed in the ground to receive a pressuremeter probe

3.1.5
pressuremeter borehole

a borehole in which pressuremeter pockets with circular cross sections are made in the ground, and

into which the pressuremeter probe is to be placed.
Key
1 Ground surface p applied pressure
2 Ground A-A axial section
3 Pocket B-B cross section
4 Expanding pressuremeter probe
Figure 1 — Principle of a Ménard pressuremeter test
3.1.6
Ménard pressuremeter test

the process during which a pressuremeter probe is inflated in the pressuremeter test pocket and the

resulting pocket expansion is measured as a function of time and pressure increments according to a

defined programme (see Figure 4)
3.1.7
pressuremeter sounding

sequence of Ménard pressuremeter tests executed from the same station in the pressuremeter borehole

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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
3.1.8
pressuremeter pressure reading

the pressure p as read at the CU elevation in the liquid circuit supplying the central measuring cell

3.1.9
pressure loss

the pressure loss is the difference between the pressure inside the probe and the pressure applied to

the pocket wall
3.1.10
volume loss

the volume loss is the difference between the volume actually injected into the probe and the volume

read on the measuring device
3.1.11
raw pressuremeter curve

the raw pressuremeter curve is the graphical plot of the injected volumes recorded at time 60 s, V ,

versus the applied pressure at each pressure hold, p
3.1.12
corrected pressuremeter curve

the corrected pressuremeter curve is the graphical plot of the corrected volumes V or radial

displacements versus the corrected pressure p (see Figure 5)
3.1.13
pressuremeter creep

pressuremeter creep is defined as the difference in volumes recorded at 60 s and at 30 s at each pressure

hold: V – V = V
60 30 60/30
3.1.14
corrected pressuremeter creep curve

a graphical plot of the corrected Ménard creep versus the corrected applied pressure at each pressure

hold (see Figure 5)
3.1.15
pressuremeter log

a graphical report of the results of the pressuremeter sounding, together with all the information

gathered during the drilling (see F.2)
3.1.16
Ménard pressuremeter modulus

modulus E obtained from the section between (p V ) and (p V ) of the pressuremeter curve

M 1, 1 2, 2
(see Figure 5 and Annex D)
3.1.17
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure

the pressure p at which the volume of the test pocket at the depth of the measuring cell has doubled

its original volume (see Annex D)
3.1.18
pressuremeter creep pressure

a pressure p defined as the intersection of two straight lines fitted on the creep curve (see Annex D)

3.1.19
operator
the person who carries out the test, qualified according to EN ISO TS 24283-1
3.1.20
casing

lengths of tubing inserted into a borehole to prevent the hole caving in or to prevent the loss of flushing

medium to the surrounding formation, above pocket location
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3.2 Symbols
For the purposes of this standard, the following symbols apply:
Table 1 — Symbols
Symbol Description Unit
a Apparatus volume loss coefficient cm /MPa

d Outside diameter of the central measuring cell, including any additional protection mm

such as a slotted tube
d Outside diameter of the inner part of the probe with slotted tube mm

d Inside diameter of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm

d Outside diameter of the central measuring cell during expansion as read on the CU, cm

before data correction
d Drilling tool diameter mm

e Wall thickness of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm

l Length of the central measuring cell of the probe, measured after fitting the mem- mm

brane or the cover
l Length of each guard cell mm
l Length along the tube axis of the slotted section of the slotted tube mm
l Length of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm
l Length of the cover mm
m Minimum value, strictly positive, of the m slopes cm /MPa
E i

m Slope of the corrected pressuremeter curve between the two points with coordi- cm /MPa

nates (p , V ) and (p , V ).
i-1 i-1 i i
p Pressure applied to the ground after correction MPa
p Liquid pressure in the central measuring cell of the pressuremeter probe MPa

p Correction for membrane stiffness usually called pressure loss of the probe MPa

p Pressure at the origin of the segment exhibiting the slope m MPa
E E
p Ultimate pressure loss of the probe MPa
p Pressuremeter creep pressure MPa

p Gas pressure applied by the control unit indicator to the guard cells of the pres- MPa

suremeter probe

p Hydrostatic pressure between the control unit indicator and the central measuring MPa

cell of the pressuremeter probe
p Pressuremeter corrected pressure MPa
p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure of the ground MPa

p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the double hyperbolic MPa

LMDH
method

p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the hyperbolic best fit MPa

LMH
method

p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the reciprocal curve MPa

LMR
method

p Pressure loss of the central measuring cell membrane for a specific expansion. MPa

p Pressure reading at the CU transducer elevation in the central measuring cell MPa

liquid circuit
p Target pressure for each pressure hold according to loading program MPa
p Pressuremeter horizontal at rest pressure MPa

p Corrected pressure at the origin of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range MPa

p Corrected pressure at the end of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range MPa
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
t Time s
t Time required for incrementing to the next pressure hold s
t Time the loading pressure level is held s
u Pore water pressure in the ground at the depth of the test MPa
z Elevation, positively counted above datum m

z Elevation of the pressure measuring device for the liquid injected in the measur- m

ing cell

z Elevation of the pressure measuring device for the gas injected in the guard cells of m

the pressuremeter probe

z Elevation of the ground surface at the location of the pressuremeter sounding m

z Elevation of the measuring cell centre during testing m

z Elevation of the ground water table (or free water surface in a marine or river m

environment)
CU Pressure and volume control unit ---
E Type of pressuremeter probe where the three cells are formed by three mem- ---
branes in line
E Ménard pressuremeter modulus MPa

G Type of pressuremeter probe where only the central measuring cell is formed by a ---

dedicated membrane (see Figure 2)

V Value, after zeroing and data correction, of the volume injected in the central cm

measuring cell and measured 60 s after starting a pressure hold

V Original volume of the central measuring cell, including the slotted tube, if applicable cm

V Corrected volume cm
V The average corrected volume between V and V cm
m 1 2
V Volume obtained in the volume loss calibration test (see Figure B.2) cm

V value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell for cm

pressure p .

V Value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell cm

when the original volume of the pressuremeter cavity has doubled
V Volume injected in the probe as read on the CU, before data correction cm
V Volume of the central measuring cell including the slotted tube cm

V Corrected volume at the origin of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range (see cm

Figure 5)
V Corrected volume at the end of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range cm

V Volume injected in the central measuring cell as read 30 s after the beginning of cm

the pressure hold

V Volume injected in the central measuring cell as read 60 s after the beginning of cm

the pressure hold
β Coefficient used to determine the pressuremeter modulus pressure range. ---
γ Unit weight of soil at the time of testing. KN/m
γ Unit weight of the liquid injected in the central measuring cell KN/m
γ Unit weight of water KN/m
λ Rate of change of pressure head of gas at p per metre depth m
g k
ν Poisson’s ratio ---
σ Total vertical stress in the ground at test depth kPa
σ Total horizontal stress in the ground at test elevation kPa
Δp Loading pressure increment MPa
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oSIST prEN ISO 22476-4:2020
ISO/DIS 22476-4:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
Δp Initial pressure increment MPa

V Injected volume change from 30 s to 60 s after reaching the pressure hold - the cm

60/30
pressuremeter creep
V 60 second injected volume change between successive pressure hold cm
60/60
4 Equipment
4.1 General Description
The pressuremeter shown schematically in Figure 2 shall include:
— pressuremeter probe;
— string of rods to handle the probe;
— control unit (CU);
— lines connecting the control
...

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